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  • In a wooded valley on the outskirts of Gateshead sits an

    在蓋茨黑德郊區的一個樹木茂盛的山谷中,坐落著一個

  • unassuming building. But this building had a remarkable

    這座不起眼的建築。但這座建築有一個顯著的特點

  • impact on England's industrial history.

    對英國工業史的影響。

  • Originally built in the 1720s, Derwentcote Steel Furnace

    德溫特考特鋼爐最初建於1720年代。

  • played an important role in the creation of steel

    在創造鋼鐵方面發揮了重要作用

  • allowing for a huge step forwards in engineering and production.

    允許在工程和生產方面取得巨大進步。

  • I'm Rob Bell, engineer and adventurer

    我是羅伯-貝爾,工程師和冒險家

  • and I'm travelling around England, seeking out some of the key sites in

    我正在英格蘭各地旅行,尋找英國的一些重要景點。

  • this country's shift towards a more modern way of manufacturing and living

    這個國家正在向更現代的製造和生活方式轉變

  • This steel furnace employed an

    這種鋼爐採用了一種

  • early method of turning wrought iron into steel

    早期的鍛鐵成鋼法

  • and was active for over a hundred years up until the late 1800s.

    並活躍了一百多年,直到19世紀末。

  • To find out more about the part Derwentcote played

    瞭解更多關於德溫特科特所扮演的角色的資訊

  • I'm meeting Mark Douglas, Senior Properties Curator

    我正在會見馬克-道格拉斯,高級地產策展人

  • from English Heritage

    來自英國遺產組織

  • - Mark, nice to meet you - You too

    - 馬克,很高興見到你 - 你也是

  • There's so much more to this building once you step inside

    一旦你踏入這棟建築,就會有很多東西。

  • - Yeah, it's good isn't it - It's fantastic

    - 是的,這很好,不是嗎?

  • So, tell me when was this steel furnace operational? When was it active?

    那麼,告訴我這個鋼爐是什麼時候運行的?它是什麼時候活動的?

  • It was active from the early part of the 18th century

    它從18世紀初就開始活躍起來。

  • We know probably from around about 1720.

    我們知道大概從1720年左右開始。

  • This is the earliest surviving example of a cementation furnace in the country.

    這是該國現存最早的水泥化爐的例子。

  • That's what makes it incredibly important

    這就是它令人難以置信的重要之處

  • Can you tell me a bit about the process

    你能告訴我一些關於這個過程的情況嗎?

  • of what went on in the furnace here - how you turn iron into steel?

    在這裡的爐子裡發生了什麼--你如何把鐵變成鋼?

  • The main principle is you must not let air get to the iron because it oxidizes it

    主要原則是不能讓空氣接觸到鐵,因為空氣會氧化鐵。

  • So inside this massive masonry that you can see in front of you here, there's two chests

    是以,在你面前的這塊巨大的磚石裡,有兩個箱子

  • In those two chests they would pack bars of iron between layers of charcoal

    在這兩個箱子裡,他們會把鐵條裝在幾層木炭之間。

  • and then top the whole thing off with sand to make it airtight

    然後用沙子把整個東西頂起來,使其不透氣。

  • and light a fire. There's flumes going around the outside

    並點燃了火。外面有水槽環繞

  • up to a dome ceiling and flumes going underneath these two stone chests

    在這兩個石箱下面有一個圓頂和水槽。

  • And basically heat them up to about 1100 degrees

    基本上將它們加熱到約1100度

  • and keep it at that temperature for between seven and ten days

    並在該溫度下保持七至十天。

  • Then allow the whole thing to slowly cool down, probably another two weeks

    然後讓整個事情慢慢冷卻下來,大概再過兩個星期

  • During that process the iron inside there

    在這個過程中,裡面的鐵

  • will absorb the carbon out of the surrounding charcoal and that would then

    將吸收周圍木炭中的碳,然後就會

  • create what we call blister steel. The whole surface would look like a

    形成我們所說的水泡鋼。整個表面會看起來像一個

  • pancake or blistered up like a pancake when it came out of these furnaces

    當它從這些爐子裡出來的時候,就像煎餅一樣起泡了

  • and that would be then used to forge

    而這將被用來偽造

  • sheer steel and used to make the tools down in the forge

    峭壁上的鋼,用來在鍛造廠製造工具。

  • What kinds of tools, what kind of implements

    什麼類型的工具,什麼類型的器具

  • might have been manufactured from the steel from this furnace?

    可能是由這個爐子的鋼製造出來的?

  • Anything with edges. Anything with cutting edges

    任何有稜角的東西。任何有切割邊緣的東西

  • because it would hold an edge and it could be made a lot thinner

    因為它可以保持一個邊緣,而且可以做得更薄。

  • Scythes, shears and also swords

    鐮刀、剪子,還有劍

  • And was this part of England then intrinsically linked to steel production

    而當時英國的這一地區是否與鋼鐵生產有著內在的聯繫?

  • and if so why was that?

    如果是這樣,為什麼會這樣?

  • Steel production in itself isn't really intrinsically linked to any particular place

    鋼鐵生產本身其實與任何特定的地方都沒有內在的聯繫。

  • It can be done anywhere, all you need is raw materials

    它可以在任何地方進行,你所需要的只是原材料

  • What made this place important is geology and geography

    使這個地方變得重要的是地質學和地理學

  • Geology in the sense that we have access to raw materials such as iron

    地質學的意義在於,我們可以獲得鐵等原材料。

  • But the main thing that made this

    但主要的是,使這個

  • different was the route between here and the continent

    這裡和大陸之間的路線是不同的

  • Between here and Sweden - the access to Swedish bar iron which is

    在這裡和瑞典之間--獲得瑞典的棒狀鐵,這是

  • an incredibly pure form of iron

    一種非常純淨的鐵質形式

  • So it was Swedish iron that was used

    是以,所使用的是瑞典的鐵。

  • and turned into steel here, not English iron?

    並在這裡變成了鋼,而不是英國的鐵?

  • No, the British iron from around here was high in phosphorus

    不,這附近的英國鐵器含磷量很高

  • Swedish iron was incredibly pure

    瑞典的鐵是令人難以置信的純淨

  • How important was Derwentcote then within the steel production of the

    德溫特科特在當時的鋼鐵生產中是多麼重要。

  • greater area of the North East?

    東北部的更大區域?

  • Derwentcote was one of many many manufacturers around here

    德文特是這裡眾多眾多製造商中的一個

  • but it was the development of this

    但正是這種發展

  • sort of process that lasted a long time at Derwentcote

    在德溫特持續了很長時間的那種過程

  • But the valley itself, the Derwent valley, at one point was the biggest iron works in Europe

    但山谷本身,即德溫特山谷,曾一度是歐洲最大的鋼鐵廠。

  • Over 50 percent of all the iron produced in the country in the 18th century

    在18世紀,全國生產的所有鐵器中,有50%以上都是鐵。

  • was produced in this valley. It was just a hotbed of furnaces

    是在這個山谷裡生產的。它只是一個熔爐的溫床

  • and steam and iron and smoke

    和蒸汽、鐵和煙

  • It would have been an incredible place to be

    這將是一個令人難以置信的地方

  • Absolutely yeah it's very hard to

    絕對是的,這很難

  • imagine that when you're walking around here now

    想象一下,當你現在在這裡走動時

  • Were there other furnaces similar to this in other parts of the country?

    在該國的其他地區是否還有類似的爐子?

  • Sheffield is the main protagonist but somebody - probably a disgruntled employee

    謝菲爾德是主角,但有人--可能是一個不滿的僱員

  • snuck off down to Sheffield and took the ideas

    偷偷溜到謝菲爾德,並採取了一些想法

  • It wasn't the process itself, it was the technical bits in between that made the difference

    這不是過程本身,而是中間的技術部分造成的差異。

  • The people move to where the opportunities lay.

    人們向機會所在的地方移動。

  • It's an evolutionary process in a way

    這在某種程度上是一個進化的過程

  • The process of producing steel by this method

    用這種方法生產鋼鐵的過程

  • had been practiced for hundreds of years, but not on this scale.

    已經實行了數百年,但沒有達到如此規模。

  • How big an employer was this steel furnace? Who was working here?

    這個鍊鋼爐是多大的一個僱主?誰在這裡工作?

  • To run this, it would take you and that'll be it.

    要運行這個,它將需要你,這將是它。

  • So it's a one-man job or possibly a two man job

    所以這是一個人的工作,也可能是兩個人的工作。

  • And that was it then?

    就這樣了?

  • The whole process from start to finish would be a vast employer

    從開始到結束的整個過程將是一個巨大的僱主

  • Making chains, making anchors - here they were making billets of steel

    製造鏈條,製造錨--在這裡他們正在製造鋼坯。

  • They're not taking this and finishing stuff off.

    他們不是在拿這個東西,而是在完成東西。

  • They're producing a product, then giving to somebody else.

    他們正在生產一種產品,然後給別人。

  • It was the bigger plants where they're doing everything

    這是更大的工廠,他們正在做所有的事情。

  • They took it from raw materials to finished product and it was this hive of activity

    他們把它從原材料帶到成品,它是這個活動的巢穴。

  • But of course unfortunately by 1890 this place has gone, finished.

    但當然不幸的是,到了1890年,這個地方已經消失了,完蛋了。

  • The furnace had gone out, quite literally

    爐子已經熄滅了,很明顯地

  • The next evolution of the whole place was a road was driven through the forge

    整個地方的下一個演變是,一條道路被開到了鍛造廠。

  • to furnish a drift mine, a coal mine

    提供一個漂流礦,一個煤礦

  • That's all gone. Now we've got a valley

    這一切都過去了。現在我們有了一個山谷

  • When did English Heritage take guardianship of the Derwentcote Steel Furnace?

    英國遺產局何時開始監護德溫特克特鋼爐?

  • And what condition was it in at the time?

    當時的情況又是怎樣的?

  • It was taken into guardianship in 1985

    它於1985年被納入監護範圍

  • and it was in pretty poor condition. But it was also the rest of the

    而且它的狀況相當糟糕。但這也是其餘的

  • landscape that's also a scheduled monument

    景觀,也是一個預定的紀念物

  • It's been afforded a level of protection by the state as well

    它也被國家賦予了一定程度的保護。

  • And so what about the work that's required here at Derwentcote in order to

    那麼德文特這裡需要的工作是什麼,以便

  • preserve this for future generations to come and enjoy and to learn about our industrial past?

    為後代保留這一點,讓他們來享受並瞭解我們的工業歷史?

  • It's not a sort of building that's going to fade away quite quickly.

    這不是一種會很快消逝的建築。

  • It's a huge substantial piece of masonry

    這是一塊巨大的實質性磚石

  • The main thing you've got to do with this place is keep the water out

    在這個地方,你要做的主要事情是不讓水進入。

  • Keep it dry and it'll last forever.

    保持乾燥,它將永遠持續下去。

  • Well I hope so because it's a really exciting part of our history and it's great to come

    我希望如此,因為這是我們歷史上一個非常激動人心的部分,能來這裡很好。

  • and learn more about it from you today, Mark.

    並在今天向你瞭解更多情況,馬克。

  • - Thank you so much - My pleasure

    - 非常感謝你 - 我的榮幸

  • From a distance this site may seem barely worthy of note

    從遠處看,這個網站可能幾乎不值得注意

  • But as we've learned today, it's a hidden gem

    但正如我們今天所瞭解的,它是一個隱藏的寶石

  • in the local, the national and the international story of steel production

    在地方、國家和國際的鋼鐵生產故事中的作用

  • It's also early proof that the north of England would play a

    這也提前證明了英格蘭北部將發揮的作用。

  • key role in the Industrial Revolution and that England

    在工業革命中發揮了關鍵作用,英國

  • as a whole would be swept up in a pioneering period of manufacturing and industrialisation

    整個國家將被捲入一個製造業和工業化的開拓時期

  • The area around Derwentcote Steel Furnace

    德溫科特鋼爐周圍地區

  • is open all year round and the furnace itself is open on special days

    全年開放,爐子本身也在特殊的日子裡開放。

  • To find out more, check the English Heritage website

    要了解更多資訊,請查看英國遺產網站

In a wooded valley on the outskirts of Gateshead sits an

在蓋茨黑德郊區的一個樹木茂盛的山谷中,坐落著一個

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英國是怎樣煉成的|第3集:德溫科特鋼爐 (How England Was Made | Episode 3: Derwentcote Steel Furnace)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 06 月 03 日
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