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  • This video was made possible by SkillShare, home to over 28,000 classes

    這部影片是利用SkillShare贊助

  • that'll teach you just about anything.

    SkillShare有超過2萬8千部影片讓你學習幾乎任何東西

  • In 1969, Britain set out to build a train unlike any other.

    英國在1969年製造了一列前所未有的列車

  • A high speed train that wouldn't need to run on a high speed railway.

    那是一列不需要蓋新的高速專用軌道, 就能高速行駛的列車

  • When everyone else was pouring billions into constructing new smooth and straight high-speed

    當其他國家都在豪擲千金 興建全新且筆直又平緩的高速鐵路時

  • rail lines, the British would instead design a train that could reach incredible speeds

    英國則設計了這款可在 既有任何軌道上就能高速行駛的列車

  • on any kind of track.

    即使是在英國那些已經超過百年歷史, 且彎道多又起伏不平的鐵路上,也能恣意奔馳

  • Even twisting and winding railways built a hundred years earlier.

    因為這款列車在彎道行駛時,可以像騎機車過彎道一樣向重心傾斜

  • Because this train would lean into corners, like a motorcycle.

    普遍認為這款列車可引領英國老舊的鐵路系統脫胎換骨至20世紀

  • And it promised to bring Britain's antiquated railways into the 20st century.

    「我覺得很平穩,安靜,整體而言是很棒的體驗」

  • It's smooth, quiet, and an altogether delightful experience.

    「設計及發展者告訴我這款列車可以做到的事」

  • Everything that the developers and designers told me that the train should do, it does

    「它都做到了,而且還出乎意料的好」

  • appear to do, and does it exceptionally well.

    這款列車就是"先進旅客列車"(APT)

  • This was going to be the Advanced Passenger Train, and in an era of automobiles and jet

    在大眾流行坐小汽車及搭飛機旅行的那個年代,英國鐵路業界期待能藉APT起死回生

  • travel, it was going to save Britain's railways.

    英國鐵路在1960年代陷入了困境

  • In the 1960's, Britain's railways were in trouble.

    經歷數十年的衰退之後,英國鐵路在1965年所載運的旅客量

  • After declining for decades, there were fewer people riding trains in 1965

    甚至比1890年還要少

  • than there were back in 1890.

    當時英國各地的鐵路紛紛關門大吉

  • And rail lines around the country were shutting down.

    問題就在於英國鐵路實在又慢又老舊

  • The problem was, Britain's railways were slow and antiquated.

    1960年代的英國鐵路卻還在大量使用蒸汽火車

  • Steam locomotives were still in use well into the1960's.

    與汽車的機動性及便利性, 以及噴射機的高速性形成了強烈的對比

  • And that stood in contrast against the exciting freedom of automobiles and the speed and glamor

    英國鐵路若想在新時代與其他運具競爭, 就需要更高速的列車

  • of jet powered air travel.

    因為在世界其他國家已經證實, 高速鐵路可以獲得旅客支持

  • If British Rail was going to compete in this new era, they'd need much faster trains.

    日本新幹線列車在通車營運後3年, 就成功的載運了超過1億人次

  • Because elsewhere in the world, high speed rail was proving that it could win back passengers.

    但是高速列車需要特製的軌道

  • Japan's new Bullet Trains were an instant success, carrying over 100 million passengers

    而且路線必須既長直又平緩還不能太彎曲

  • in just the first three years of service.

    日本為了讓新幹線能順暢營運因而建造了全新的高速鐵路路線

  • But high speed trains need special tracks.

    並興建了數千座橋梁及隧道

  • Long, straight sections of rail and gentle curves.

    法國的TGV也採取了差不多的策略,建造了數百公里的高速鐵路軌道

  • And to get their bullet trains to work, the Japanese built an entirely new high-speed

    但在英國卻不可能新建任何新的鐵路

  • rail line, constructing thousands of bridges and tunneling right through mountains.

    原因之一是英國已經有相當密集且龐大的鐵路網

  • For their TGV, the French would end up doing much the same, building hundreds of kilometers

    而且因為載客量不斷衰退,很多鐵路的利用率已經相當低落

  • of high speed track.

    所以英國打算製造一種可以在其既有的鐵路上行駛的全新高速列車

  • But in Britain, there wasn't going to be any new railway.

    但那可不是一件容易的事

  • For one, the country already had a vast rail network.

    因為百年歷史的英國鐵路網充斥著許多急彎道

  • And with ridership declining, much of it was underutilized.

    如果列車過彎速度太快就會造成旅客不適

  • So the British set out to engineer a new kind of high speed train, one that would run on

    因為列車過彎道的離心力會讓桌上的東西飛出去或使旅客摔倒

  • Britain's existing railways.

    日本及法國為了盡量降低離心力的影響

  • But it wasn't going to be easy.

    建造了平直少彎道且在彎道路段具有軌道超高的全新高速鐵路

  • Britain's 100 year old rail network was full of twists and turns, and a train can only

    但英國想出了一個絕妙的替代方案

  • round a bend so fast before the ride becomes uncomfortable.

    與其建造具側傾彎道的軌道,他們設計傾斜式列車

  • Because lateral forces can send items flying off tables, or even knock passengers off their feet.

    傾斜式列車行駛於彎道時,就像騎機車一樣會往重心傾斜

  • The Japanese and French built their new high speed railways with gentle, banked curves

    可以降低或甚至完全抵銷離心力對乘客造成的不適

  • to minimize these lateral forces.

    英國至此成為世界上第一個開發傾斜式列車的國家

  • But the British, would come up with a brilliant alternative.

    不像早期的傾斜懸吊系統,英國開發的傾斜式列車是在每節車廂安裝電腦及感應器偵測離心力

  • Instead of building tilted tracks, they'd engineer a tilting train.

    再透過液壓棒抵銷離心力,形成所謂的主動式傾斜機制

  • By leaning the rail cars into curves, like a motorcycle, lateral forces on passengers

    英國國鐵花了近20年研發這項技術

  • could be minimized, or even eliminated altogether.

    但在1979年英國鐵路建造了前所未有的列車

  • And British Rail would pioneer the world's first active tilting system.

    即所謂的"先進旅客列車"(APT)

  • Unlike earlier tilting suspensions, it would use computers and sensors to read forces,

    APT在集中動力車上安裝8個牽引馬達,具有8000匹馬力

  • and hydraulic rams to actively tilt each rail car.

    使APT成為英國當時動力輸出最大的列車

  • It took British Rail nearly two decades to develop the technologies, but by 1979, they

    APT並裝設有先進的剎車系統

  • had built train unlike any in British history.

    使其在行駛途中可配合英國老舊的號誌系統限制而能迅速的減速至速限以內

  • It would be called the Advanced Passenger Train.

    而APT的主動式傾斜系統能讓其過彎的速度比英國其他列車快將近2倍

  • Driven by eight traction motors housed in central power cars, the APT produced a total

    APT在1979年的測試時曾創下了時速261公里的英國高速紀錄

  • of 8000 horsepower, making it the most powerful domestic train to ever operate in Britain.

    這項紀錄保持了23年

  • With its advanced braking system, the APT could quickly decelerate from high speeds

    各界期待這款新車將革新英國鐵路

  • allowing it to work with Britain's outdated signaling system.

    因此規劃的編組數超過50列

  • And with active tilting, it could round a bend nearly twice as fast as any British train.

    但是當APT原型車在1981年12月7日投入營運時

  • And during testing in 1979, the APT hit 261 km/h, setting a new British speed record.

    APT在一夕之間從英國鐵路的明日之星變成媒體的笑柄

  • One that would hold for another 23 years.

    APT被一堆技術問題困擾

  • Britain's new train, was going to revolutionize its railways, and there were plans to build

    從無法鬆軔到傾斜機制失效

  • a fleet of over 50.

    甚至在營運的第三天,一列APT在格拉斯哥往倫敦的路上因發生故障而停駛

  • But when the APT entered service as a prototype on December 7th 1981, almost overnight it

    但最困窘的是,其主動式傾斜機制導致近三分之一的乘客暈車

  • went from being heralded as the train of the future, to the subject of intense media ridicule.

    這一連串糟糕的問題迫使英國國鐵在APT營運了數週之後決定將其停駛

  • The train was plagued by technical problems.

    之後花了3年測試並改善在之前營運時所發生的各種問題

  • Everything from frozen breaks to failed tilting mechanisms.

    英國國鐵同時亦在力抗APT造成的負面輿論

  • And on the third day of service, one even broke down on the way from Glasgow to London.

    例如這支充滿著杯盤碰撞的聲音及一杯搖晃到快撒出來的咖啡的宣傳影片

  • But most embarrassing, the tilt caused nearly a third of passengers to become motion sick.

    「從格拉斯哥到英國小鎮休士頓的服務還不錯」

  • So bad were the problems, that after just a couple weeks, British Rail was forced to

    「沒什麼可挑剔的」

  • pull the APT from service.

    「我覺得很平穩、安靜,整體而言是很棒的體驗」

  • It would take another three years of development and testing just sort out all of the issues.

    「設計及發展者告訴我這款列車可以做到的事」

  • In the meantime, British Rail tried to fight back against the negative press.

    「APT都做到了,而且還出乎意料的好」

  • Like in this promotional video featuring rattling dishes and a cup of coffee on the verge spilling.

    但媒體認為APT已是日薄西山

  • The conventional service from Glasgow to Houston is good.

    APT並沒有完全準備好就上線營運

  • There's not a patch on this.

    即使已研發超過15年且投入了5千萬英鎊的經費

  • It's smooth, quiet, and an altogether delightful experience.

    但要設計出一種能行駛在英國老舊的鐵路路線上且時速高達250公里的列車

  • Everything that the developers and designers told me that the train should do, it does

    對英國國鐵來說實在太好高騖遠了

  • appear to do, and does it exceptionally well.

    原本期望APT能提早在1976年投入營運,但有太多新構想要同時研發

  • But the press had already written the APT's obituary.

    導致整個專案失控

  • The train had been put into service before it was ready.

    APT還被技術問題及延遲困擾,甚至有時候還必須將設計砍掉重練

  • Over 15 years and 50 million pounds had gone into development.

    而且APT並未經過充分且完整的測試

  • But designing a 250 km/h train to run on an antiquated rail network

    在測試了3萬7千公里之後就將試驗階段提升到製造原型車階段

  • proved too ambitious for British Rail.

    在此同時,法國人對TGV則進行了將近50萬公里的測試

  • The APT was supposed to enter service as early as 1976, but with so many novel features needing

    儘管APT在試驗階段已經逐漸證明其優點

  • development all at once, the program was difficult to manage.

    英國國鐵內部對如此先進的專案還是意見分歧

  • And it was plagued by technical hurdles, delays, and in some cases, complete redesigns.

    寧願使用現有技術而不願發展劃時代的新科技

  • And the APT wasn't adequately tested, moving from the experimental stage to a fully functional

    因此英國國鐵分散了部份研發資源

  • prototype after having run just 37 thousand kilometers.

    發展出一款既沒有主動式傾斜機制,車速也沒那麼快的傳統柴油動力列車

  • Meanwhile, in testing their TGV, the French racked up nearly a half a million kilometers.

    此外還有各種勞資爭議,品質控制問題,搖擺不定的政策

  • And even as the experimental APT was beginning to prove itself, many within British Rail

    整個APT專案可能從一開始就注定失敗

  • were hostile towards the program, preferring conventional rail technologies over such a

    到了1980年代,英國經歷了經濟大蕭條

  • revolutionary leap.

    考量APT專案可能會被中止的風險

  • So British Rail split its resources and began developing a more conventional, and not quite

    這些APT原型車就倉促上線營運

  • as fast diesel train without active tilting.

    當APT在3年後的1984年重新上線營運時

  • Throw in labor disputes, quality control issues, and wavering political support, and the entire

    雖然已經改善了主動式傾斜機制,大幅減輕過彎時乘客的不適感,並提升營運可靠度

  • program might've been doomed from the start.

    但為時已晚

  • By 1980, Britain was in an economic recession.

    因為在必須與其他慢車共用軌道的情況下,APT永遠無法大顯身手

  • And with the APT program at risk of being cancelled altogether, the prototype trains

    而且架空電車線系統並不是設計適用於高速列車

  • were rushed into service.

    APT終究無法凌駕英國老舊的鐵路系統而被迫屈服

  • When it was reintroduced again three years later in 1984, the active tilt had been modified

    也因為再也沒有進行改善的意願,APT就在1986年悄悄地結束營運了

  • to reduce motion sickness and the trains proved reliable in service.

    但APT發展歷程的最後還有一個有點諷刺的轉折

  • But none of that mattered.

    英國國鐵在1982年將其研發的列車傾斜技術賣給了義大利飛雅特公司

  • Because the APT could never operate to its full potential, having to share tracks with

    而這間公司當時正研發自己的主動式傾斜列車

  • slower trains and overhead electrical lines….that weren't designed for higher speeds.

    結果義大利在2002年替英國鐵路設計了傾斜式列車Pendolino

  • The APT was held back by the very same outdated rail network that it was supposed to overcome.

    時至今日,義大利設計的Pendolino傾斜式列車仍然持續奔馳在倫敦到格拉斯哥的西海岸幹線鐵路上

  • With little will to develop it any further, the APT was quietly removed from service in 1986.

    而這條幹線鐵路原本可是APT要服務的運輸走廊呢

  • But there's a final twist of irony in the APT's story.

    開設個人的YouTube頻道是我做過最有價值的事情之一

  • Because in 1982, British Rail sold patents for its tilting technology to Italy's Fiat,

    每天我都期待製作新的YouTube影片

  • who were developing an active tilting train of their own.

    因為我想不出有什麼比完成創作並與大家分享來得更有意義的事情

  • In 2002, Italian designed tilting trains were reintroduced to Britain's railways.

    如果你從沒想過成為YouTuber,別想太多,就做吧

  • Today, they operate along the London to Glasgow route, which is the exact same route the APT

    因為每天YouTube對於高品質影片的需求都不斷在成長

  • was once supposed to serve.

    但其實要花非常多的時間才能做出大家看完都說讚的影片

  • Starting this YouTube channel has been one of the most rewarding things I've ever done.

    所以我是直接從頂級的YouTuber那裏開始學習

  • Not a day goes by where I don't look forward to working on the next mustard video.

    而SkillShare提供了眾多有趣課程教你如何完成一部吸引目光的影片

  • Because I can't think of anything more rewarding than doing something creative and sharing

    從如何選擇對的主題到研究主題、如何將主題衍生出一個故事、製作配音及動畫等等

  • it with the world.

    SkillShare提供超過2萬8千個課程足可讓你獲得製作影片的一切技巧

  • If you've been thinking about starting your own channel, do it.

    你大可隨心所欲的選擇你想學的

  • Because the demand for high quality YouTube content is growing every day.

    最棒的是

  • But a lot goes into a making videos that people actually want to watch.

    每月只花不到10美元就能成為SkillShare的高級會員

  • So I'd start by learning directly from YouTube's top creators.

    但如果你是前500位通過影片敘述連結登錄的人

  • And SkillShare offers fantastic classes that will teach you everything you need to know

    你就能獲得兩個月的免費使用資格

  • from how to pick the right topics, to research, storytelling, audio and animation.

  • With over 28 thousand SkillShare classes on offer.covering just about anything you think

  • of, you can jump right in and learn whatever is you want to learn.

  • And the best part?

  • A premium subscription to SkillShare is less than $10 a month.

  • But if you're one of the first 500 people to sign up using the link in the description

  • below, you get 2 months for absolutely free.

This video was made possible by SkillShare, home to over 28,000 classes

這部影片是利用SkillShare贊助

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讓乘客感到不適的火車:APT傾斜式火車的故事(This Train Made Passengers Sick: The APT Tilting Train Story)

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    joey joey 發佈於 2021 年 05 月 28 日
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