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  • This video was made possible by CuriosityStream. Watch thousands of

    這部影片是由 CuriosityStreamy 贊助製作

  • high-quality documentaries and get access to Nebula by using the link in

    您可以觀看數千部高品質的紀錄片

  • the description. This is a Rotodyne. And it might look like a helicopter and

    並可由下方影片說明中獲得 Nebula 的使用連結

  • an airplane mashed together, but it's neither. It's a lot more revolutionary.

    這是 Rotodyne

  • Because when it debuted over 60 years ago, the Rotodyne was going to be a new

    看起來像是直升機和飛機結合在一起

  • form of mass transport. The quickest way to move from one city center to the next.

    但其實都不是,而且更具革命性

  • Landing on downtown rooftops and heliports, but flying much faster, further

    因為當 60 多年前問世的時候

  • and more economically than any helicopter. And airlines were interested.

    Rododyne 被認為將會是新的大眾運輸形式

  • But then, as the Rotodyne looked set to revolutionize intercity transport, it just disappeared.

    從一個城市中心轉移到另一個城市最快的方法

  • To understand why this machine was so revolutionary, consider that it doesn't

    降落在市中心屋頂的直升機場

  • work like a helicopter. A helicopter uses engine power to spin a rotor blade, which

    但飛行速度更快、航程更遠,比任何直升機都更經濟

  • forces air down to create lift.Tilting the rotor is what allows the helicopter

    航空公司對此感興趣

  • to move in a given direction. That's the basic idea. But that's not how Rotodyne

    但是就在 Rotodyne 看起來即將徹底改變城際交通之際

  • works. On a Rotodyne, the large rotor isn't powered. It isn't even connected to

    就突然消失了

  • a motor. Instead, as air passes naturally through the rotor blades, it causes the

    要了解為什麼這台機器是如此革命性

  • rotor to spin around like a pinwheel. And this creates lift. The Rotodyne still has

    要先知道這架飛機和直升機的工作原理不相同

  • wings and a pair of turboprops, much like an airplane. But in forward flight, the

    直升機利用發動機轉動旋翼葉片

  • un-powered spinning rotor lifts more than half the aircraft's weight. With this

    迫使空氣向下以產生升力

  • unique design, the Rotodyne flew faster than any helicopter of the era. And it

    改變旋翼角度可以讓直升機向特定方向移動

  • was far more efficient. And even though the rotor wasn't driven by a motor, the

    這是基本原理

  • Rotodyne could still hover and take off and land vertically just like any helicopter.

    但這不是 Rotodyne 的工作原理

  • That's because at the end of each rotor blade were small tip jets. During

    Rotodyne 上的大型旋翼沒有動力

  • takeoff and landing, fuel and compressed air supplied by the turboprops would

    甚至都沒有連接到引擎

  • ignite to spin up the rotor. Once in forward flight, the tip jets were shut

    相反,隨著空氣自然通過旋翼葉片

  • off and the rotor would once again spin freely. By 1959 the Rotodyne was

    從而可讓旋翼像風車一樣旋轉

  • attracting worldwide interest. Because for one thing, it promised to

    進而產生升力

  • revolutionize the way we traveled between cities. In the 1950's and 60's,

    Rotodyne 仍然有機翼和一對渦輪螺旋槳發動機

  • intercity air travel was on the rise. But while a trip from New York to Boston by

    非常像一般飛機

  • airplane might only take about an hour, you'd also need to get to and from the

    但是在向前飛行中

  • airport. And in many congested cities, that was beginning to take longer than

    無動力旋翼可以提供的舉升能力超過飛機重量的一半

  • the flight itself. One solution was to use helicopters.

    有了這個獨特的設計

  • In April, the new helicopter service is due to open from the top of the Pan-Am building.

    Rododyne 比那個時代的任何直升機飛得更快

  • If the service does come about, you'll be taking off from the fourth highest building in New York.

    而且效率更高

  • 59 storeys up. it's hoped that eventually the service will carry 5,000 passengers a day.

    即使旋翼不是由發動機驅動

  • 5,000 passengers who would otherwise be condemned to this.

    Rotodyne 仍然可以懸停並像任何直升機一樣垂直起降

  • By the 1960's helicopter airlines had cropped up in major American cities.

    那是因為在每個旋翼葉片最尾端有個小噴嘴

  • Letting passengers and skip the traffic by flying right over it. The problem was,

    起飛和降落時,渦輪引擎提供的燃料和壓縮空氣

  • none of them were actually making money. Because helicopters were simply too

    會點燃使旋翼轉動

  • inefficient, operating anywhere from 20 to 30 cents per seat mile. And the only

    當進入向前飛行裝態時,噴嘴關閉

  • way helicopter Airlines like New York Airways could even exist was through

    旋翼將再次進入無動力自由旋轉狀態

  • government subsidies to offset operational costs. But the Rotodyne was

    在 1959 年時 Rotodyne 曾引起全世界的關注

  • going to change all that, bringing costs down to as little as 4 cents per seat

    因為一方面,它承諾會改變我們在城市間移動的方式

  • mile, which would make helicopter airlines profitable. And the Rotodyne

    在 1950 和 60 年代

  • wasn't just a better helicopter. With vastly improved speed and range, it would

    城際航空旅行正在增加

  • be a new way to travel between cities, linking one city center to the next.

    雖然搭機從紐約到波士頓的行程可能只需要一個小時

  • The concept behind the Rotodyne dates all the way back to the early 1920's, when

    您還需要往返於飛機場

  • a pioneering Spanish inventor set out to build a safer plane. By adding an

    而在許多擁擠的城市,這段時間的花費比飛行時間還長

  • un-powered freely spinning rotor, his planes could fly slowly without stalling,

    一種解決方案是使用直升機

  • making them inherently safer than airplanes. In fact, without any forward

    從 4 月開始,新的直升機服務

  • motion, the planes would simply glide back to earth, slower than a parachute.

    將從曼哈頓島中央的 Pan-Am 大樓的頂部開放

  • They were called autogyros. Over the years, they were used in military reconnaissance and

    如果這項服務能夠實現 您將從紐約第四高的建築物起飛

  • even to deliver mail. But by the 1940's, helicopter technology improved and autogyros

    樓高 59 層的頂層 希望最終該服務每天能運載5,000名乘客

  • largely fell out of favor. But decades later, British aircraft

    除非有 5,000 名乘客,否則將無法獲利

  • manufacturer Fairey aviation still saw enormous potential in the autogyro

    到1960年代,直升機航空公司 在美國主要城市如雨後春筍般出現

  • concept. If the vertical takeoff and landing capability of a helicopter could

    讓乘客飛過上空來避免交通阻塞

  • be combined with the speed and efficiency of an airplane, Fairey would

    但問題是沒有一家能夠真正賺錢

  • have something truly special on their hands. With the help of funding from the

    因為直升機的效率太差

  • British government, the first Rotodyne prototype took to the skies in 1957.

    每個座位一英里的操作費用需要20到30美分

  • It could carry 40 passengers 700 kilometers and reach speeds of over 300 kilometers per hour.

    紐約航空這樣的直升飛機航空公司 之所以可以生存的唯一原因

  • All while being able to land and take off on a space not much larger than

    是因為政府提供補貼抵消運營成本

  • the aircraft itself. And after 350 successful test flights, the Rotodyne

    但是 Rotodyne 即將改變一切

  • proved to be safe and capable. But of course, it all went to [expletive].

    將每個座位一英里的操作費用降低至4美分

  • For one, the Rotodyne's tip jets made a lot of noise.

    這將使直升機航空公司有利可圖

  • And that was going to be a problem right in the middle of a city. From the start,

    而且 Rotodyne 不僅僅是一架更好的直升機

  • there were doubts about whether the public would tolerate it. And noise is

    由於速度和航程都大大提高

  • often believed to be the reason why the Rotodyne failed. But that's not the whole

    將會成為在城市之間旅行的新方式

  • story. After proving their prototype, fairy moved on to develop a production

    可將城市中心連接到下一個城市中心

  • version. A larger more capable Rotodyne that could carry up to 75 passengers. And

    Rotodyne 背後的概念可以追溯到 1920 年代初

  • it promised to be quieter. Ferry spent years developing noise suppressor

    西班牙的一位開創性發明家建造出更安全的飛機

  • technology for the Rotodyne's tip jets. And while progress was slow, by 1960

    藉由加裝無動力自由旋翼葉片

  • the engineering team had reduced noise by over 15%. And airlines were interested,

    他的飛機可以緩慢飛行而不會失速

  • with small orders coming in from around the world. Not bad for an entirely new

    使它們本質上比一般飛機安全

  • kind of transport. But to get the production version built, Fairey still

    實際上,在沒有向前推力時

  • needed about £10 million more in funding from the British government. And it was

    飛機會慢慢的滑降到地面,比降落傘慢

  • money they'd never get. Because at the start of the 1960's, Britain's aviation

    他們被稱為旋翼機

  • industry was a mess. Too many aircraft builders were building too few planes

    多年來,它們被用於軍事偵察和傳遞郵件

  • and relying heavily on government sponsored projects. The solution was to

    但是到了1940年代,直升機技術得到改進

  • force these companies, including Fairey Aviation to merge. And the Rotodyne got

    旋翼機在很大程度上失寵了

  • caught in the shuffle, competing with a number of other helicopter projects.

    但幾十年後,英國飛機製造商 Fairey Aviation

  • progress was also slowed by difficulties sourcing more powerful engines. And the

    仍然看到旋翼機概念的巨大潛力

  • need to reduce tip jet noise even further. When it became clear that the

    如果垂直起飛和直升機的著陸能力

  • Rotodyne wouldn't be delivered to Airlines on time, and the eventual cost

    可以結合速度和飛機的效率

  • of each Rotodyne would have been too high,

    Fairey 手上的東西真的很特別

  • one by one orders were cancelled. In 1962, the British government, facing economic

    藉由英國政府的資金協助

  • pressures, suddenly pulled funding for Rotodyne. And the half

    第一個 Rotodyne 原型於1957年升空

  • helicopter, half plane, once promising to revolutionize intercity travel... just

    可載 40 名乘客飛行 700 公里 並達到每小時300多公里的速度

  • disappeared. The working prototype and technical research were quickly

    同時能在不大於飛機本身空間多少的地方降落

  • destroyed. Leaving only a few small pieces for museum display

    經過 350 次成功試飛之後

  • The Rotodyne failed to change air travel and only a single prototype was ever

    Rotodyne 被證明是安全和達到設計目標

  • built. But not all ambitious leaps forward in engineering lead to such

    但是當然,這一切都遇到了 [消音]

  • failure. Take the DC-3. A machine that in its time, revolutionized air travel and

    其中之一是 Rotodyne 的翼端噴嘴會產生很大噪音

  • earned a legendary status in wartime. Over 16,000 DC-3 variants were built.

    要在城市中間起降那將是一個問題

  • This remarkable plane took the skies just three decades after the Wright

    一開始就有人懷疑公眾會容忍這噪音

  • brothers first flight. And yet, hundreds of DC-3's are still flying today. Learn

    噪音問題是通常被認為是 Rotodyne 失敗的原因

  • about this plane's incredible story on CuriosityStream. A streaming service

    但這還不是故事的全貌

  • with thousands of full-length documentaries by some of the best film

    在證明了他們的原型之後,Fairey 繼續研發量產版本

  • makers in the world. From history and nature, to engineering and design. You can

    一架更大性能更好的 Rotodyne 最多可容納 75 位乘客

  • get an entire year of CuriosityStream for just $19.99. But if you sign up using

    並承諾會更安靜

  • the link in the description, you'll also get a subscription to Nebula, an exciting

    Fairey 花了數年時間開發噪聲抑制器

  • new platform built by some of YouTube's top educational creators. Nebula is where

    替 Rotodyne 噴嘴噴射技術降低噪音

  • creators make content for their audience without worrying about YouTube's

    儘管進展緩慢

  • recommendation algorithm and annoying ads. Get a year of CuriosityStream and

    到 1960 年工程團隊降低了超過15%的噪音

  • access to Nebula by going to

    航空公司很感興趣

  • curiositystream.com/mustard and using the 'mustard' when you sign up.

    來自世界各地的小量訂單

This video was made possible by CuriosityStream. Watch thousands of

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 直升機 飛機 航空 葉片 噪音 乘客

垂直起飞客机为何失败:罗迪尼故事(Why The Vertical Takeoff Airliner Failed: The Rotodyne Story)

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    joey joey 發佈於 2021 年 05 月 28 日
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