Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

自動翻譯
  • Hi again, everybody.

    大家好,又見面了。

  • Welcome to www.engvid.com.

    歡迎來到www.engvid.com。

  • I'm Adam.

    我是亞當。

  • In today's video we're going to look at transitions.

    在今天的視頻中,我們要看一下過渡的問題。

  • Now, you may have seen some other videos on engVid about transitions, especially for writing.

    現在,你可能已經在engVid上看到其他一些關於過渡的視頻,特別是關於寫作的視頻。

  • What we're going to look at today are a few more specific transitions, but this time we're

    我們今天要看的是一些更具體的過渡,但這次我們是

  • not looking at transitions between paragraphs or even transitions between sentences.

    不看段落之間的過渡,甚至不看句子之間的過渡。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • We're looking at transitions that we are generally using in a sentence to shift from one idea

    我們正在研究在一個句子中通常使用的過渡詞,以便從一個想法轉向另一個想法。

  • to another idea in a sentence.

    在一個句子中與另一個想法相聯繫。

  • So they're very similar to, like, adverb...

    所以它們非常類似於,比如,副詞...

  • Adverb clauses, for example, but they're used in different ways.

    例如,副詞句,但它們的使用方式不同。

  • But, again, they do have their specific purposes.

    但是,同樣,它們確實有其特定的目的。

  • Now, you'll also notice that all of them or most of them start with: "there" plus a preposition,

    現在,你還會注意到,所有的或大多數的都是以:"那裡 "加上一個介詞。

  • or "where" plus a preposition, and we have the one special one: "hereby".

    或 "哪裡 "加一個介詞,我們有一個特殊的。"特此"。

  • So: "Thereby", "Thereof", "Thereafter", "Therein", "Therefore", "Wherein", "Whereby", "Hereby",

    所以。"Thereby", "Thereof", "Thereafter", "Therein", "Issue", "Wherein", "Hereby",

  • these are the words we're going to look at and how they're used within sentences.

    這些是我們要看的詞,以及它們在句子中的使用方式。

  • Now, before I explain these to you and show them...

    現在,在我向你解釋這些並展示它們之前...

  • Show you samples of how they're used, I want you to understand that these are generally

    向你展示他們如何使用的樣本,我想讓你明白,這些通常是

  • very formal, very high-end.

    非常正式,非常高端。

  • They're not very commonly used.

    它們不是很常用。

  • There are other ways you can say these things without being too serious, I guess you could say.

    我想你可以說,還有其他方式可以說這些事情,而不會太嚴肅。

  • But if you're going to university, if you're going to take a test, IELTS, TOEFL, SAT, all

    但如果你要上大學,如果你要參加考試,雅思、託福、SAT,所有的

  • these tests - you will see these and you should be able to use them as well.

    這些測試 - 你會看到這些,你也應該能夠使用它們。

  • And if you can actually use them properly in your essays, and like, again, nicely, appropriately,

    如果你真的能在你的文章中適當地使用它們,而且像,再次,很好地,適當地使用。

  • good timing, your score...

    好時機,你的分數...

  • That'll help your score.

    這將有助於你的分數。

  • It should go up quite a bit because these are not very easy to use.

    它應該上升不少,因為這些東西不是很容易使用。

  • So, we're going to start with "thereby".

    是以,我們要從 "從而 "開始。

  • "Thereby" basically means by which, or through which, or like through this action something happened.

    "由此 "基本上是指通過它,或通過它,或像通過這個行動發生的事情。

  • It's a little bit similar to: "due to".

    這有點類似於。"由於"。

  • The only problem is you can't use it in the same structure as "due to".

    唯一的問題是你不能在同一結構中使用它,因為 "由於"。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • So let's look at the first sentence.

    是以,讓我們看看第一句話。

  • "The team lost the final game of the season, thereby missing the playoffs."

    "球隊輸掉了本賽季的最後一場比賽,從而錯過了季後賽。"

  • So, basically by doing this, by losing the last game, the result...

    所以,基本上通過這樣做,通過輸掉最後一場比賽,結果...

  • What happened?

    發生了什麼事?

  • They missed the playoffs.

    他們錯過了季後賽。

  • But notice that we are using an "ing" here: "...thereby missing the playoffs", right?

    但請注意,我們在這裡使用了一個 "ing"。"......從而錯過了季後賽",對嗎?

  • This is basically a gerund expression, a gerund phrase, but we can't use this with a clause.

    這基本上是一個動名詞表達式,一個動名詞短語,但我們不能將其用於一個子句。

  • We're using it with an "ing".

    我們在使用時有一個 "ing"。

  • So that's one thing you have to keep in mind.

    所以這是你必須牢記的一件事。

  • If I wanted to use "due to", I would have to change the whole structure.

    如果我想使用 "由於",我就必須改變整個結構。

  • "Due to their loss in the final game of the season, the team missed the playoffs."

    "由於他們在本賽季最後一場比賽中的失利,球隊錯過了季後賽。"

  • A completely different structure.

    一個完全不同的結構。

  • I'm using the independent clause, here, the "due to" with the cause, etc.

    我使用的是獨立分句,在這裡,"由於 "與原因,等等。

  • This one gives you another option, basically, on how to link the ideas.

    這個給了你另一個選擇,基本上是關於如何把想法聯繫起來。

  • Cause, effect.

    原因,結果。

  • But we don't have to use the "ing", we can use another way.

    但我們不一定要用 "ing",我們可以用另一種方式。

  • "Lisa studied for three straight weeks and was thereby able to pass her test."

    "麗莎連續學習了三個星期,從而能夠通過考試。"

  • So she studied, studied, studied, and through this action she was able to pass her test.

    於是她學習、學習、學習,通過這一行動,她得以通過考試。

  • And: "...and was thereby", "...and she was thereby able".

    還有。"......並是以","......她是以能夠"。

  • Notice that I'm not using this to start the clause; I'm using it within the clause, between

    請注意,我不是用這個來啟動子句;我是在子句內使用,在

  • the verbs to show through this action, this was the result that she was looking for.

    通過這個動作來顯示,這是她所尋找的結果。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • So: "by which", "through which action".

    所以。"通過它","通過它的行動"。

  • Let's look at "therein".

    讓我們來看看 "其中"。

  • "The new contract does not allow for extended maternity leave;" here I'm using the semi-colon,

    "新合同不允許延長產假;"這裡我用的是分號。

  • I'm going to give you the next idea, so this is like a conjunction.

    我將給你下一個想法,所以這就像一個連詞。

  • "...therein lies the problem for the union, 60% of whose membership is young women".

    "......這就是工會的問題所在,其會員中有60%是年輕女性。

  • So, "therein" basically means in that, or into that situation, problem, position, state, etc.

    所以,"其中 "基本上是指在那個,或進入那個情況、問題、位置、狀態等。

  • So, "therein".

    是以,"其中"。

  • "Therein" means: In what?

    "其中 "是指。在什麼地方?

  • In this situation, in this new contract there's a problem.

    在這種情況下,在這個新合同中,有一個問題。

  • So: "...therein in this new contract lies a problem", and this is a very common follow-up

    所以。"......在這個新合同中存在著一個問題",這是一個非常常見的後續問題。

  • to the transition "therein".

    到 "其中 "的過渡。

  • "...therein lies the problem".

    "......這就是問題所在"。

  • A very famous expression: "...therein lies the rub" from Shakespeare.

    一個非常著名的說法。"......這就是問題所在",來自莎士比亞。

  • "Aye, there's the rub."

    "是啊,這就是問題所在。"

  • I'm not sure if you know that expression, I think from Hamlet, dream to...

    我不知道你是否知道這個說法,我想是來自《哈姆雷特》,夢到...

  • If you dream and you can die, it's all good, but then: Oh, there's a problem - you don't

    如果你做夢,你可以死,這一切都很好,但後來。哦,有一個問題--你不

  • wake up.

    醒來。

  • So: "...therein lies the rub".

    所以。"......這就是問題所在"。

  • A very common expression to use with "lies".

    與 "謊言 "一起使用的一個非常常見的表達方式。

  • But: "The tomb and all the contents therein"-means all the contents in the tomb-"were photographed

    但是。"墳墓和裡面所有的東西"--指墳墓裡所有的東西--"被拍了下來

  • before analysis could begin".

    在分析開始之前"。

  • Again, much...

    再次,多...

  • There are much easier ways to say this.

    有更多簡單的方法來表達這一點。

  • "The tomb and all its contents were photographed", so why should I use "therein"?

    "墳墓和裡面所有的東西都被拍了下來",那麼我為什麼要用 "其中"?

  • To sound pretty, to sound sophisticated, to sound academic.

    要聽起來漂亮,要聽起來複雜,要聽起來學術。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • This is the thing about academic writing when you get to universities, it's all about how

    這就是進入大學後學術寫作的問題,這都是關於如何

  • many words and how nice the words are.

    許多字,而且這些字有多好。

  • Of course there's...

    當然也有...

  • Content is very important and what you had to say, but they also want you to write very

    內容是非常重要的,你不得不說什麼,但他們也希望你寫得非常

  • academically.

    在學術上。

  • And this is a very academic word.

    而這是一個非常學術性的詞。

  • You're not going to see this in newspapers, you're not going to see this in everyday writing.

    你不會在報紙上看到這個,你不會在日常寫作中看到這個。

  • You will see it a lot when you get to university or college, and start reading academic textbooks,

    當你進入大學或學院,開始閱讀學術教科書時,你會經常看到這種情況。

  • and papers, etc.

    和文件等。

  • So, the same basically applies to most of these.

    是以,這些基本上也適用於大多數情況。

  • The preposition definitely gives you a hint of how the word is used, but we're going to

    介詞肯定會給你一個提示,說明這個詞是如何使用的,但我們要

  • look at some more examples and go through each one, and make sure we understand it.

    再看一些例子,並逐一檢查,確保我們理解它。

  • Okay, so we're going to look at four more now: "thereof", "therefore", "thereafter",

    好的,那麼我們現在再看四個。"其"、"是以"、"此後"。

  • "wherein".

    "其中"。

  • Now, the first thing you're going to start noticing is that basically use the preposition

    現在,你要開始注意的第一件事是,基本上使用介詞

  • in the word and just think about replacing the word "there" with "that".

    在這個詞中,只需考慮用 "那個 "替換 "那裡 "這個詞。

  • So: "thereof" means "of that".

    所以。"其 "是指 "那"。

  • Let's look at an example.

    我們來看看一個例子。

  • "Both parties had their sights focused on the northern regions, especially the demographics

    "兩黨的目光都集中在北部地區,特別是人口統計學方面

  • thereof", so the demographics...

    其中",所以人口統計學...

  • Oh, sorry.

    哦,對不起。

  • "...and were preparing for an ad war".

    "......並且正在準備一場廣告戰"。

  • The demographics, this means the statistics, the information about what type of people

    人口統計學,這意味著統計數據,關於什麼類型的人的資訊

  • live there, like their ages, their ethnicity.

    住在那裡的人,比如他們的年齡,他們的種族。

  • Are they...?

    他們是......?

  • Which party do they lean to?

    他們傾向於哪個黨?

  • So all the information about the people.

    是以,所有關於人民的資訊。

  • So we're talking about the demographics of the people in the northern regions.

    是以,我們正在談論北部地區人民的人口統計學。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • "They had their sights focused on the northern regions, especially the demographics of the

    "他們的目光集中在北部地區,特別是人口統計學上的問題。

  • northern regions".

    北部地區"。

  • So we have the "that", "of that", now the key is to realize what "that" is.

    所以我們有 "那個","那個",現在的關鍵是要意識到 "那個 "是什麼。

  • Remember that when we use "that" as a demonstrative pronoun, we're always pointing to something

    請記住,當我們使用 "那 "作為示範代詞時,我們總是指向某個東西。

  • that has already been mentioned, and it's very important that it should be very clear

    這一點已經提到了,而且非常重要的是,它應該是非常清楚的。

  • what has been mentioned.

    已經提到的。

  • The demographics of the northern regions, as I already mentioned, and were preparing

    正如我已經提到的,北部地區的人口統計學,並正在準備

  • for an ad war.

    為一場廣告戰。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • "Fine wines, and a knowledge thereof, are a luxury few can afford."

    "高品質的葡萄酒,以及這方面的知識,是少數人能夠負擔得起的奢侈品"。

  • So: "fine wines" and "a knowledge thereof", knowledge of fine wines.

    所以。"優質葡萄酒 "和 "其中的知識",對優質葡萄酒的瞭解。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • So this is what we're doing, we're just linking things together using more formal language.

    所以這就是我們要做的,我們只是用更正式的語言把事情聯繫起來。

  • Do you need to practice this a lot?

    你需要經常練習這個嗎?

  • No.

    沒有。

  • You need to recognize it, and if you can, throw in one or two every once in a while.

    你需要認識到這一點,如果可以的話,每隔一段時間就扔進一兩個。

  • I personally like "whereby" and "thereby", I use those pretty often in my writing, but

    我個人喜歡 "由此 "和 "從而",我在寫作中經常使用這些詞,但

  • I don't need to.

    我不需要。

  • I just like to have a little bit of variety when I write, so you can keep that in mind

    我只是喜歡在寫作時有一點變化,所以你可以牢記這一點。

  • as well.

    也是如此。

  • "Therefore", again, this is the most commonly used one.

    "是以",同樣,這是最常用的一個。

  • Everybody has been taught this as a transition to reach a conclusion, or basically it means

    每個人都被教導說這是得出結論的一個過渡,或者說基本上意味著

  • "because of that", and again, "that", something that's already mentioned.

    "因為那個",又是 "那個",已經提到的東西。

  • So: "I think, therefore I am."

    所以。"我想,所以我是"。

  • So, because I think, because of that, I am.

    所以,因為我認為,因為這一點,我是。

  • Notice we're using...

    請注意,我們正在使用...

  • This is followed by a clause, subject, verb.

    這後面是一個分句,主語,動詞。

  • Here we don't have to follow it by a clause.

    在這裡,我們不需要在它後面加上一個句子。

  • We can just use it by itself as an adverb.

    我們可以只把它本身作為副詞來使用。

  • Here it could be used as a conjunction, introducing an idea in a clause, subject, verb, about

    在這裡,它可以作為連詞使用,在分句、主語、動詞中引入一個概念,關於

  • the independent clause.

    獨立條款。

  • "I am well-prepared", now, here, again I'm using this, I'm starting a new idea, but I'm

    "我準備充分",現在,在這裡,我再次使用這個,我開始一個新的想法,但我

  • still linking.

    仍在連接。

  • "...there is no reason, therefore, that I should stumble".

    "......是以,我沒有理由跌倒"。

  • So, because of that, because I am well-prepared, there is no reason I should stumble.

    所以,正因為如此,因為我有充分的準備,我沒有理由跌倒。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • Reaching a conclusion, saying because, and again, this is the one that you're going to

    得出一個結論,說因為,再一次,這是你要的一個

  • use the most in your writing and even in your spoken English.

    在你的寫作中,甚至在你的英語口語中,使用最多的就是這個。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • "Thereafter", this is very straightforward, it means "after that", a very specific situation

    "此後",這是非常直接的,它意味著 "此後",一個非常具體的情況

  • or event.

    或事件。

  • "He worked at the university until he retired;" and again I'm starting a new sentence, but

    "他在大學工作,直到退休;"我又一次開始了一個新的句子,但是

  • I'm using it like a conjunction, a semi-colon.

    我把它當作一個連詞,一個分號來使用。

  • "...thereafter" means after he retired, "he took on sporadic work as a consultant".

    "......此後 "是指在他退休後,"他作為顧問承擔了零星的工作"。

  • It means sometimes here and there he worked.

    這意味著有時他在這裡和那裡工作。

  • So, after that, after he retired.

    所以,在那之後,在他退休之後。

  • Now, one thing I also want to mention: "therefore" and "thereafter", and before we had "therein",

    現在,我還想提到一件事。"是以 "和 "此後",而之前我們有 "其中"。

  • these are...

    這些是...

  • These can be commonly used to begin a sentence.

    這些可以常用來作為句子的開頭。

  • All the rest of them are always within a sentence; they're not commonly used to begin a sentence,

    其餘的都是在一個句子中,它們不常用來開始一個句子。

  • they're always part of the structure.

    他們始終是結構的一部分。

  • Now we're getting to the "wheres", okay?

    現在我們開始討論 "哪裡 "了,好嗎?

  • Where...

    在哪裡...

  • "Wherein" basically also means "in that" or: In what way?

    "其中 "基本上也意味著 "在那 "或:以何種方式?

  • Or: In which way?

    或者:以何種方式?

  • That's another use.

    這是另一個用途。

  • Another, basically meaning...

    另一個,基本上是指...

  • Sorry, another use basically is: How?

    對不起,另一個用途基本上是:如何?

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • "The affidavit did not implicitly outline", oh, this is a "t".

    "宣誓書沒有暗中概述",哦,這是一個 "T"。

  • "...did not implicitly outline wherein Mr. Smith had broken any laws".

    "......沒有含蓄地概述史密斯先生在哪裡違反了任何法律"。

  • So, the affidavit, this is like a paper that you take...

    所以,宣誓書,這就像一張紙,你採取...

  • That is given in the court that lists all the problems, all the charges the person is

    這是在法庭上給出的,列出了所有的問題,該人的所有指控

  • going to face, and what brings a person to court.

    將要面對的問題,以及是什麼讓一個人來到法庭。

  • And this, it did not show in this how he had broken any laws.

    而這一點,在這裡面並沒有顯示出他是如何違反法律的。

  • So we have no reason to think he's guilty, we have no reason to even arrest him.

    所以我們沒有理由認為他有罪,我們甚至沒有理由逮捕他。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • "Wherein".

    "其中"。

  • Now, the thing about "wherein", this is the least commonly used one of all of the ones

    現在,關於 "其中 "的事情,這是最不常使用的一個。

  • I wrote on before.

    我以前寫過。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • Recognize it, don't try to use it.

    認清它,不要試圖使用它。

  • It's very...

    這是非常...

  • It's a little bit old-fashioned, a little bit too formal, not very commonly used.

    它有點老套,有點太正式,不是很常用。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • Just a few more and we're done, and you can start writing your thesis.

    只要再來幾次,我們就完成了,你就可以開始寫你的論文了。

  • Okay, here's our last two.

    好了,這是我們的最後兩個。

  • And like I said, this is my favourite one; I use it regularly.

    正如我所說,這是我最喜歡的一款;我經常使用它。

  • "Whereby" means by which or through which, or in accordance with which.

    "據此 "是指通過它,或通過它,或按照它。

  • "The company introduced a new incentive program whereby all employees were given an equal

    "公司推出了一個新的激勵計劃,所有員工都獲得了平等的

  • shot at the bonuses."

    射中了獎金。"

  • So, basically, this is referring to the program.

    所以,基本上,這是指的程序。

  • So, the new incentive program...

    是以,新的激勵計劃...

  • So, according to this program, all employees were given an equal shot at the bonuses.

    是以,根據這個計劃,所有員工都有平等的機會獲得獎金。

  • Again: "whereby" followed by a full clause, subject, and verb clause.

    再一次。"據此 "後面是一個完整的分句、主語和動詞句。

  • But again it's related back to the last situation: A new program by which, or through which,

    但這又與上次的情況有關。一個新的方案,通過它,或通過它。

  • or in accordance with which, this is what will happen from now on or from that time

    或根據它,這就是從現在開始或從那個時候開始將發生的事情

  • on.

    上。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • And "hereby".

    還有 "特此"。

  • Now, "hereby" you will hear more than you will read.

    現在,"在此 "你會聽到比你讀到的更多。

  • It has very specific situations where you will read it, but you will hear it actually

    它有非常具體的情況,你會讀它,但你會聽到它實際上

  • quite often, and I'll give you some examples.

    很常見,我給你舉幾個例子。

  • The most common place you'll read it is when somebody resigns or gives up a position.

    你最常讀到的地方是當某人辭職或放棄一個職位時。

  • "Given the present circumstances, I hereby resign my post as CEO."

    "鑑於目前的情況,我在此辭去首席執行官的職務。"

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • There's a company, there was a scandal, and because of this scandal, the CEO says: "Okay,

    有一家公司,有一個醜聞,因為這個醜聞,首席執行官說:"好吧。

  • I need to retire.

    我需要退休。

  • I need to be accountable, take responsibility."

    我需要負責任,承擔起責任"。

  • So: "With this letter I resign", so by means of this declaration, by means of this statement,

    所以。"通過這封信,我辭職了",所以通過這個聲明,通過這個陳述。

  • that's what "hereby" means.

    這就是 "特此 "的意思。

  • It means with this letter, with this declaration, with this speech, this is what I am doing.

    這意味著通過這封信,通過這個聲明,通過這個演講,這是我正在做的事情。

  • "I hereby resign" within the clause.

    "我特此辭職 "的條款內。

  • Now, if you watch the Olympics, you go to the opening ceremonies, there's like a...

    現在,如果你看奧運會,你去看開幕式,有像一個...

  • All the athletes come in and then the torch finally comes in, and then after the torch

    所有運動員都進來了,然後火炬終於進來了,然後在火炬之後

  • the President or whoever of the country or of the IOC, of the Olympic Committee, says:

    國家或國際奧委會的總統或什麼人說,奧委會。

  • "I hereby declare the Olympic Games open", so by saying it, it is true.

    "我在此宣佈奧運會開幕",所以只要說出來,就是真的。

  • That's what "hereby" means, and that's why it's very commonly used when expressing a

    這就是 "hereby "的意思,這也是為什麼它在表達一個人時非常常用的原因。

  • situation, or in written letters when you're...

    情況下,或在書面信函中,當你...

  • Especially when you're resigning.

    特別是在你辭職的時候。

  • "I hereby resign", "I hereby declare", "I hereby hand over the company to my son", etc.

    "我在此辭職","我在此聲明","我在此將公司交給我兒子",等等。

  • With this letter, this is what I am doing.

    通過這封信,這就是我正在做的事情。

  • Again, all of these words are commonly used in academic and more formal writing.

    同樣,所有這些詞都常用於學術和更正式的寫作中。

  • I urge you, those of you who are a bit more advanced levels who are going to be taking

    我敦促你們,那些水準稍高的人,如果你們要參加

  • a test, who are going to be going to an English-speaking university where you will have to do some

    檢驗,誰將會去一個講英語的大學,你將不得不做一些

  • writing, academic writing, pick two, three of these transitions and try to use them,

    寫作,學術寫作,從這些過渡語中挑選兩到三個,並嘗試使用它們。

  • try to implement them in your writing to give it a little bit more style, a little bit more

    試著在你的寫作中實施它們,讓它多一點風格,多一點

  • flare, a little bit more formality.

    炫耀,多一點正式性。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • I hope this lesson was clear enough.

    我希望這一課足夠清楚。

  • Oh, one more thing.

    哦,還有一件事。

  • I know that I used somewhat difficult sentences, maybe lots of new vocabulary for you, but

    我知道我用了一些困難的句子,也許對你來說有很多新詞彙,但

  • again, the reason I did that is because all of these words: "there/wherebys", all of these

    再次,我這樣做的原因是所有這些詞。"那裡/哪裡",所有這些

  • transitions are generally used with higher-end sentences, with higher-end vocabulary; they're

    過渡語一般用於高端的句子和高端的詞彙;它們是

  • not used with simple English, which is why the sentences were not very simple either.

    不使用簡單的英語,這就是為什麼這些句子也不是很簡單。