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  • This is the new smart logistics center of China's largest retailer, JD.

    這是中國最大的零售商JD的新智能物流中心。

  • The 500,000 square meter facility is packed with the latest supply chain technology.

    這座佔地50萬平方米的設施充滿了最新的供應鏈技術。

  • But it wasn't too long ago that tasks such as

    但就在不久前,諸如以下的任務還在進行中

  • shelving and packing were done manually by employees.

    貨架和包裝是由員工手動完成的。

  • Jiahao's situation highlights a bigger trend in Chinathe push toward automation.

    賈昊的情況突出了中國的一個更大的趨勢--推動自動化。

  • The chinese labor market faces some big challenges,

    中國的勞動力市場面臨著一些巨大的挑戰。

  • including an aging population and rising wages -

    包括人口老齡化和工資上漲 -

  • issues that automation could help relief.

    自動化可以幫助緩解這些問題。

  • It's still rapidly evolving that aging population is a reality.

    它仍在迅速發展,人口老化是一個現實。

  • China's now facing the challenge of potentially getting old before it gets rich.

    中國現在面臨的挑戰是有可能在發財之前就變老。

  • JD.com's massive logistics park in Dongguan, south China

    JD.com在中國南部東莞的大型物流園

  • can handle 1.6 million orders a day.

    每天可以處理160萬份訂單。

  • Let's take a look inside.

    讓我們來看看裡面的情況。

  • After an order is placed, packages are transported to a sorting facility, which is fully automated.

    下訂單後,包裹被運送到一個分揀設施,該設施是完全自動化的。

  • There are 800 of these sorting chutes, which help divide up packages

    有800個這樣的分揀槽,幫助分割包裹。

  • destined for China's many different regions.

    目的地是中國的許多不同地區。

  • China's working age population shrunk by more than 5 million people in the last decade,

    中國的勞動年齡人口在過去十年中縮減了500多萬人。

  • as births dropped.

    隨著出生率的下降。

  • That makes automation at places like JD logistics park,

    這使得在像JD物流園這樣的地方實現了自動化。

  • even more necessary.

    甚至更有必要。

  • Qin Jiahao has been working at JD for around six years.

    秦家浩在JD工作了大約6年。

  • A large part of his job has become automated too.

    他的工作有很大一部分也已經自動化了。

  • What tasks do you do different now versus before?

    你現在做的哪些工作與以前不同?

  • So how did the Chinese labor force get here?

    那麼,中國的勞動力是如何來到這裡的?

  • It all started in the late 70s when China enacted its one-child policy

    這一切始於70年代末,當時中國頒佈了獨生子女政策

  • to control its rapidly growing population.

    以控制其迅速增長的人口。

  • Between the 1940s and the 1980s, the country's population doubled in size,

    在20世紀40年代和80年代之間,該國的人口規模翻了一番。

  • from over 500 million people to more than 1 billion.

    從5億多人到超過10億人。

  • Over the next 40 years, that growth slowed to 40%.

    在接下來的40年裡,這種增長放緩到40%。

  • Today, the country's population is a whopping 1.4 billion

    今天,該國的人口高達14億---。

  • more than four times the size of the U.S.

    是美國面積的四倍多。

  • However, the proportion of China's working age population is falling,

    然而,中國勞動年齡人口的比例正在下降。

  • dropping 6.8 percentage points from 2010 to 2020.

    從2010年到2020年下降了6.8個百分點。

  • Despite efforts to reverse the trend, births fell in 2020.

    儘管努力扭轉這一趨勢,但2020年的出生率仍在下降。

  • That was the fourth-straight year of decline.

    這是連續第四年的下降。

  • Automation, of course, is one of those big opportunities

    當然,自動化是其中的一個大機會

  • and by that we include digitization, both to the customer, and more importantly,

    而這一點我們包括數字化,既是對客戶,更重要的是。

  • up the chain back to suppliers.

    鏈條的上端回到供應商。

  • That is really going to be the driver of increasing all of that productivity.

    這確實將是提高所有這些生產力的驅動力。

  • In the financial sector, about 10 years ago, if you looked at the average productivity

    在金融部門,大約10年前,如果你看一下平均生產力

  • of a financial worker in China, compared to say Europe, it was maybe 20%.

    與歐洲相比,中國的金融工作者可能只有20%。

  • Now it's closer to 40, or 50%.

    現在則接近40%,或50%。

  • So still lagging, but to have that degree of change, in the course of almost five years

    是以,仍然滯後,但有這種程度的變化,在將近五年的時間裡

  • is almost unheard of.

    幾乎是聞所未聞的。

  • It's not just the factories and warehoues that are seeing more automation.

    不僅僅是工廠和倉庫正在看到更多的自動化。

  • China's focus on areas like artificial intelligence is spurring rapid advancement

    中國對人工智能等領域的關注正在刺激快速發展。

  • in areas like driverless transportation.

    在無人駕駛運輸等領域。

  • The southern Chinese city of Guangzhou is a hub for some of China's tech companies

    中國南部城市廣州是中國一些科技公司的中心。

  • to test their driverless cars.

    來測試他們的無人駕駛汽車。

  • One such start-up is WeRide.

    WeRide就是這樣一家初創公司。

  • Users can hail one of the company's robotaxis or ride on its driverless bus.

    用戶可以叫到該公司的一輛機器人計程車,或乘坐其無人駕駛巴士。

  • Driverless cars could make jobs such as taxi drivers redundant

    無人駕駛汽車可能使計程車司機等工作變得多餘

  • and may even be applied in long-haul transportation modes eventually.

    甚至最終可能被應用於長途運輸模式。

  • I caught up with WeRide's CEO Tony Han

    我採訪了WeRide的首席執行官Tony Han。

  • to talk about the issues autonomous driving could solve.

    來談一談自動駕駛可以解決的問題。

  • One is the shortage of labor, especially in the concept of aging society.

    一個是勞動力的短缺,特別是在老齡化社會的概念下。

  • In China, and also in U.S., in most of the developed countries,

    在中國,也在美國,在大多數發達國家。

  • human labor are getting more and more expensive.

    人工的成本越來越高。

  • People need better pay, need more welfare.

    人們需要更好的報酬,需要更多的福利。

  • Think about if you want to get a chauffeur, you want to get a driver,

    想想看,如果你想找一個司機,你想找一個司機。

  • it's entirely expensive.

    這是完全昂貴的。

  • To call a taxi sometimes in a more metropolis city and in some big cities,

    在一個比較大都市的城市和一些大城市,有時要叫計程車。

  • is also very expensive.

    也是非常昂貴的。

  • Can we find a cost-effective way to supply this kind of transportation service to everybody?

    我們能否找到一種具有成本效益的方式來為每個人提供這種運輸服務?

  • Through autonomous driving with development of artificial intelligence,

    通過自主駕駛與人工智能的發展。

  • we are able to make the car drive all by itself with the input of all kinds of sensor.

    我們能夠通過各種傳感器的輸入使汽車自行駕駛。

  • The other problem is things like we can make the city greener.

    另一個問題是像我們可以讓城市變得更綠的事情。

  • Do we really need that hundreds of thousands of cars in the city?

    我們真的需要城市裡的那幾十萬輛汽車嗎?

  • And all over the city, you probably need one-tenth of the autonomous driving cars

    而在整個城市,你可能需要十分之一的自動駕駛汽車

  • to finish all these kind of transportation requests

    完成所有這些運輸要求

  • and we can reduce the carbon dioxide emission to a big extent.

    而且我們可以在很大程度上減少二氧化碳的排放。

  • But of course, increasing automation could also lead to jobs disappearing altogether.

    但當然,自動化程度的提高也可能導致工作崗位的完全消失。

  • With that brings challenges on how to reskill the population for the new age.

    由此帶來的挑戰是如何為新時代的人口重新培養技能。

  • One study estimates that up to 220 million workers may need to transition between jobs

    一項研究估計,多達2.2億的工人可能需要在工作之間轉換

  • by 2030, in part due to automation.

    到2030年,部分原因是自動化。

  • The good news about automation is that it actually works,

    關於自動化的好消息是,它實際上是有效的。

  • that it intends to improve quality, reduce cost, reduce time required

    它打算提高質量,降低成本,減少所需時間。

  • all these good things.

    所有這些好東西。

  • The bad news about automation is that it actually works.

    關於自動化的壞消息是,它實際上是有效的。

  • As in, it takes out the human resources.

    就像,它取出了人力資源。

  • And China's going to get it just like everywhere else to us,

    而中國會像其他地方對我們一樣得到它。

  • except bigger, because China is bigger.

    除了更大,因為中國更大。

  • So, 226 million Chinese people will probably have to find a new job

    是以,2.26億中國人可能將不得不找到一份新的工作。

  • in over the next 10 or 15 years because of automation.

    在未來的10年或15年裡,由於自動化的緣故。

  • That, of course, is a massive challenge for the employer, but the employee,

    當然,這對僱主來說是一個巨大的挑戰,但對僱員來說。

  • but also for government and for society as a whole.

    但對政府和整個社會來說也是如此。

  • And companies will have a key role to play.

    而公司將發揮關鍵作用。

This is the new smart logistics center of China's largest retailer, JD.

這是中國最大的零售商JD的新智能物流中心。

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B1 中級 中文 自動化 中國 駕駛 人口 勞動力 城市

中國如何利用自動化來重塑經濟 | CNBC報道 (How China is using automation to reshape its economy | CNBC Reports)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 05 月 24 日
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