Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

自動翻譯
  • Thanks to Google for sponsoring a portion of  this video, for supporting small businesses,  

    感謝谷歌贊助本視頻的部分內容,以支持小企業。

  • and for helping people find  jobs. More about that at the end.

    並幫助人們找到工作。最後會有更多關於這方面的內容。

  • Atomic orbitals have long been a source of  frustration for me. On the one hand, you  

    長期以來,原子軌道一直是讓我感到沮喪的根源。一方面,你

  • have simple cartoon diagrams that make them feel  friendly... but which are so varied and vague they  

    有簡單的卡通圖,使他們感到友好......但這些圖是如此多樣和模糊,他們

  • don't really convey much beyond the basic idea  that atoms have a nucleus and some electrons. Some  

    除了原子有一個原子核和一些電子這一基本概念外,並沒有真正傳達多少東西。一些

  • people try to take the cartoony diagrams and make  them feel more random, orquantum” – which is an  

    人們試圖利用卡通式的圖表,使其感覺更加隨機,或 "量子"--這是一種

  • improvementbut they're still very much just  cartoon stand-ins for the vague idea ofatom”.

    改進--但他們在很大程度上仍然只是 "原子 "這一模糊概念的卡通替身。

  • On the other hand, you have atomic orbitals  depicted as fuzzy clouds or balloons or  

    另一方面,你的原子軌道被描繪成模糊的雲朵或氣球或

  • rainbow donuts, which are definitely more  technically accurate (or technically inspired),  

    彩虹甜甜圈,這在技術上肯定更準確(或技術上的靈感)。

  • but none of which feel like they give me a sense  of what's actually going on - like, what does this  

    但這些都沒有讓我感覺到實際發生了什麼--比如說,這到底是什麼?

  • blobby thing have to do with orbiting particlesIs the electron inside it? Or on the surface? Why  

    圓球狀的東西與軌道上的粒子有什麼關係? 電子是在它裡面嗎?還是在表面?為什麼

  • do some of them have more blobs and others donutsAnd why are some of the donuts rainbow-colored?

    是否有些人有更多的布盧姆,有些人有甜甜圈? 還有,為什麼有些甜甜圈是彩虹色的?

  • I want to know what an atom looks like! Andwant that picture to actually have something  

    我想知道原子是什麼樣子的!而且我希望那張照片真的有東西

  • to do with the nitty gritty reality of atoms  (since they are, indeed, real things). You know,  

    與原子的細微現實有關(因為它們確實是真實的東西)。你知道的。

  • like how a diagram of the solar system is both  a totally-not-to-scale caricature and yet also  

    就像太陽系的圖表既是完全不按比例的漫畫,又是

  • represents the very real idea that the planets  all orbit the sun in roughly the same plane,  

    代表了一個非常真實的想法,即行星都在大致相同的平面內圍繞太陽運行。

  • and that some are farther out and some  are closer in; and if it's animated we  

    有的地方比較遠,有的地方比較近;如果它是動畫,我們

  • get to see that the closer planets complete  their orbits more often. It's a nice picture!

    可以看到,較近的行星更頻繁地完成它們的軌道。這是一幅很好的圖畫!

  • And that's what I want for atoms: a good picture. There are a few things I'd like that picture to  

    而這就是我對原子的要求:一張好的照片。我希望這幅畫有以下幾點

  • get across, some of them because  they're important for the physics  

    其中一些是因為它們對物理學很重要。

  • of atoms, and some of them because they're  questions my brain wants answers to. Like

    的原子,而其中一些是因為它們是我的大腦想要回答的問題。比如說。

  • Where is the electron? How fast is it orbiting

    電子在哪裡?它的軌道運行速度有多快?

  • How much energy does it have? How big is the picture relative to other pictures?

    它的能量有多大?相對於其他圖片,該圖片有多大?

  • Of course, the wave-particle nature of quantum  mechanics means some of these ideas (like the  

    當然,量子力學的波粒性質意味著其中一些觀點(如

  • electron's position) don't translate exactly from  our everyday intuition to the atomic scale...  

    電子的位置)並不能完全從我們的日常直覺轉化為原子尺度......

  • BUT, there is a way of thinking about  wave-particle duality where you picture  

    但是,有一種思考波粒二象性的方式,你可以想象一下

  • the wavefunction as a bunch of water, and the  particle as a speck of dust in that water;  

    波函數是一束水,而粒子是水中的一粒灰塵。

  • the particle is mostly guided by where the water  goes (and the water is guided by the equations  

    粒子主要是由水的去向引導的(而水是由方程式引導的)。

  • that determine how water behaves depending  on its circumstances). And, if you apply the  

    這決定了水的行為方式取決於其環境)。)而且,如果你應用

  • mathematics of that idea to atomic orbitalsand then render it in 3D, here's what you get.

    將這一想法數學化到原子軌道上,然後用三維渲染,這就是你得到的結果。

  • Isn't it beautiful? Here's another

    這不是很美嗎?這是另一個。

  • And another.

    還有一個。

  • In fact, I made a bunch of these. And  they're all mesmerizing, and beautiful,  

    事實上,我做了一大堆這樣的東西。它們都是令人著迷的,而且很美。

  • and isn't the ground state of the hydrogen atom  just so cute?? And aren't the excited states so  

    氫原子的基態不是很可愛嗎?而激發態不也是如此

  • majestic? There's so much structure and detail in  them, I love it. You can see the patterns in the  

    雄偉?它們有那麼多的結構和細節,我喜歡。你可以看到這些圖案在

  • orbitals, you can get a sense that they actually  ARE orbitals (I mean, something is orbiting!).

    軌道,你可以感覺到它們實際上就是軌道(我的意思是,有東西在軌道上運行!)。

  • Ok, so I do have to be clear: the dots don't  each represent a separate electron - the whole  

    好的,所以我必須明確:這些點並不代表一個單獨的電子--整個

  • collection represents the wavefunction of a single  electron, and the individual dots represent all  

    集合代表單個電子的波函數,單個點代表所有的

  • the places that electron could be (a higher  density of dots means a higher probability of  

    電子可能出現的地方(點的密度越高,意味著出現的概率越大)。

  • the electron being there). Electrons with more  energy are more likely to be far away from the  

    電子在那裡)。)能量更大的電子更有可能遠離

  • nucleus, so higher energy orbitals are biggerThe motion of the dots is showing theflowof  

    核,所以高能量的軌道會更大。 點的運動顯示了 "流動 "的

  • the wavefunction, and DOES correspond to an extent  with its actual angular momentum, though they're  

    波函數,並在一定程度上與它的實際角動量相對應,儘管它們是

  • NOT electron trajectories. Unless you think  Bohmian trajectories are real (in which case,  

    不是電子軌跡。除非你認為波赫米亞軌跡是真實的(在這種情況下。

  • they really are electron trajectories!). I'll let  the philosophers of physics fight that one out.

    它們真的是電子軌跡!)。)我會讓物理學的哲學家們去爭論這個問題的。

  • But the point is these visuals are created by  representing actual electron wavefunctions in a  

    但問題是這些視覺效果是通過代表實際的電子波函數在一個

  • visual language that our brains can understandthat of objects and light and shadows and motion  

    我們的大腦能夠理解的視覺語言--物體、光影和運動的語言

  • in 3D space. There's actually stuff orbiting!!  And they're pretty! I hope you like them too.

    在三維空間中。真的有東西在軌道上運行!? 而且它們很好看!我希望你也喜歡它們。

  • Oh, one final thing - I 100% get that these  are not easy to draw. So if you want a cartoon  

    哦,最後一件事--我100%明白,這些東西不容易畫。是以,如果你想要一個卡通片

  • representation of an atom that's simple  but more closely based in atomic physics,  

    原子的表示方法很簡單,但更緊密地基於原子物理學。

  • here's my proposal: it's based on the three  “P” orbitals (the ones from the “P” block of  

    這是我的建議:它基於三個 "P "軌道(來自 "P "區的軌道)。

  • the periodic table): one of them has the electron  orbiting one way, one in the opposite way, and in  

    週期表):其中一個電子以一種方式運行,一個以相反的方式運行,而在

  • the third one the electron is orbiting the same  amount but around some perpendicular direction,  

    第三種情況下,電子在相同的軌道上運行,但在一些垂直方向上運行。

  • and we can't know which, which is why the points  aren't moving in the middle orbital, and why I've  

    而我們無法知道是哪一個,這就是為什麼這些點在中間軌道上沒有移動,以及為什麼我已經

  • drawn a dotted line and question mark for the  sideways circle. And if you want you can add  

    為側面的圓圈畫了一條虛線和問號。如果你願意,你可以添加

  • an electron to each orbital - or two electronsif one is oriented spin up and one spin down.  

    每個軌道上有一個電子--或者兩個電子,如果一個是自旋向上的,一個是自旋向下的。

  • THIS is a MinutePhysics-approved  cartoon representation of an atom.

    這是經MinutePhysics認可的原子的卡通表現。

  • Thanks to Google for sponsoring this portion  of my video. When Google reached out to  

    感謝谷歌贊助我視頻的這一部分。當谷歌聯繫到

  • sponsor MinutePhysics, I immediately  said yes, because I use Google search  

    贊助MinutePhysics,我立即說好,因為我用谷歌搜索

  • literally every day for everything from 3D  software tutorials, to physics equations,  

    從3D軟件教程到物理學方程式,每天都有很多人在使用。

  • the weather, recipes, and of course coronavirus  vaccine information. And Google has been focusing  

    天氣、菜單,當然還有冠狀病毒疫苗資訊。而谷歌一直在關注

  • a lot on supporting individuals and small  businesses over the last year - Google can  

    在過去一年中,谷歌在支持個人和小企業方面做了很多工作--谷歌可以

  • even help *you* or your family and friends  discover opportunities and find jobs where  

    甚至幫助*你*或你的家人和朋友發現機會並找到工作,在那裡

  • you live! Just search "jobs for physics  majors" or "jobs for veterans in Montana"  

    你住的地方!只要搜索 "物理學專業的工作 "或 "蒙大拿州退伍軍人的工作"

  • or "jobs for" whatever it is you do, and Google  will help you find opportunities tailored to you!  

    或 "工作機會",不管你是做什麼的,谷歌都會幫你找到適合你的機會。

  • Thanks again to Google for sponsoring  this part of my video, for making it  

    再次感謝谷歌贊助我視頻的這部分內容,使其成為

  • easy to convert centimeters to inches, and for  helping us all find the information we need.

    解釋瞭如何將釐米轉換為英寸,並幫助我們找到我們需要的資訊。

  • Ok, the sponsored segment is  over and you're still here!  

    好了,贊助的部分結束了,你還在這裡!

  • You probably want to know about the  rainbow donuts. The color there represents  

    你可能想知道彩虹甜甜圈的情況。那裡的顏色代表

  • the "phase" of the wavefunction, which informs  how different wavefunctions interfere with  

    波函數的 "相位",它告訴人們不同的波函數是如何相互影響的。

  • each other, and it's essentially being  represented by motion in my 3D visuals.

    彼此之間的關係,而且它基本上被我的3D視覺中的運動所代表。

Thanks to Google for sponsoring a portion of  this video, for supporting small businesses,  

感謝谷歌贊助本視頻的部分內容,以支持小企業。

字幕與單字
自動翻譯

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 原子 軌道 電子 谷歌 物理學 甜甜圈

描繪原子的更好方法 (A Better Way To Picture Atoms)

  • 3 0
    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 05 月 19 日
影片單字