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  • Soil is the literal foundation for much of life, yet we treat soil like... well, like

    土壤是大多數生命的基石,但我們卻視土壤為......

  • dirt.

    塵埃。

  • Maybe that's because, most of the time, soil takes care of itself; decomposing plants and

    可能是因為大多數時候土壤都會自我修復:分解的

  • animals and degrading bedrock produce new soil at roughly the same pace that wind and

    動植物和降解的岩床,製造土壤的速度大致等於

  • water erode it away

    風和水的侵蝕速度。

  • But this balance between soil formation and erosion is easily tipped.

    但這種平衡很容易被破壞,

  • For millennia, the tiny Pacific island of Mangaia was covered in a thin layer of fertile

    例如數千年來,太平洋上的Mangaia島上覆蓋著一層

  • soil, but after humans arrived around 2000 years ago, their slash-and-burn agriculture

    肥沃土壤,但在約兩千年前人類抵達後,火耕農業

  • exposed the soil to the elements.

    把土壤暴露在光天化日下。

  • Over several centuries, rain and wind swept virtually all the nutrient-rich topsoil from

    數世紀後,風雨把營養豐富的表土

  • Mangaia's hillsides and concentrated it in just a few arable valleys, which people

    集中沖刷到少數可耕種的山谷,

  • viciously fought over.

    人們為此大打出手。

  • With less land to grow crops, people resorted to alternative food sources like ratsand

    能耕田的地少了,人們開始尋找替代的食物,如老鼠、

  • even each other.

    甚至吃人。

  • We're doing the same thing throughout the world today - not the part where we eat each

    我們現在正對整個世界做一樣的事─不是指人吃人,

  • other, but the part where we farm the soil away.

    而是我們讓土壤流失。

  • That's because we make for agriculture by clearing away deep-rooted native vegetation

    我們為了農業把深根的自然植物砍掉,

  • and use hoes, plows, and tractors to loosen the soil, making it easier for wind and rain

    用鋤頭、犁和牽引機翻鬆土壤,讓風雨更易將其帶走。

  • to sweep away.

    用鋤頭、犁和牽引機翻鬆土壤,讓風雨更易將其帶走。

  • And we grow mostly shallow-rooted crops that are no good at holding onto soil, and that

    我們種的農作物根大多較淺,不易固定土壤,

  • get stripped away during harvest, leaving fields bare for much of the year and at the

    收成後還會被剷掉,讓裸露土壤長年裸露在

  • mercy of the elements

    風霜雨雪之下。

  • As a result, the world's farmlands lose soil 50 times faster than new soil can form.

    結果全球農地流失土壤的速度比生成快50倍,

  • That extra erosion adds up to about 8 billion pickup trucks of soil moved annually from

    額外被侵蝕的泥土,每年都可填滿80億台敞篷卡車,

  • fields to places like the bottoms of rivers and behind dams - which are less convenient

    從農地被送往河底或水庫─顯然不適合務農之處。

  • for farming.

    從農地被送往河底或水庫─顯然不適合務農之處。

  • That soil loss reduces global crop yields by as much as if we took a California-sized

    土壤流失減少了全球農作物產量,相當於每十年

  • swath of farmland out of production every decade.

    荒廢一塊加州大小的農地。

  • Fortunately, we know how to bring erosion back into balance with the rate at which soil

    好在我們知道如何讓侵蝕率降回與生成速度平衡:

  • forms: plow less often, and after harvest, leave plant parts behind or plant so-called

    少犁田,在收成後把植物覆蓋在地上,或種植所謂

  • cover crops to, well, cover the soil as protection against water and wind.

    覆土作物,以覆蓋土壤,保護其免受水與風侵蝕。

  • We can also incorporate trees or native plants that keep soil in place year-round.

    我們也可以加入樹木或自然植被,常年穩固土壤。

  • Putting strategies like these in place can cut erosion by as much as 95 percent, helping

    這些策略最多可減少95%的侵蝕,

  • keep crop yields high in the long run.

    幫助產量常保穩定。

  • But in the present, they can hurt yields, because adding other vegetation to farm fields

    但短期上這會降低產量,因為在農地上種其他植物

  • means less room for crops.

    意味著較少空間種植作物,

  • As a result, we've been slow to make these soil-saving strategies the norm.

    於是我們把這些策略寫入法規的速度十分緩慢。

  • If we can't keep the farmable soil on our farms, human civilization won't immediately

    如果我們不把土壤留在農場,人類文明不會即刻崩毀,

  • implode, but we might end up fighting over the patches of land where that soil ends up,

    但可能最後會因爭奪僅存的土壤而爭戰,

  • like the Mangaians, but on much, much bigger islands.

    如同Mangaians島,但規模遠超乎於此。

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  • Their newest product, Coffiest, reimagines breakfast as a coffee-flavored, algae-fueled

  • meal in a bottle to help kickstart your day.

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  • Go to soylent dot com slash earth, that's s-o-y-l-e-n-t dot com slash E-A-R-T-H or click

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  • Thanks, Soylent!

Soil is the literal foundation for much of life, yet we treat soil like... well, like

土壤是大多數生命的基石,但我們卻視土壤為......

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 土壤 風雨 速度 產量 收成 植物

如何(从字面上)拯救地球(How To (Literally) Save Earth)

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    joey joey 發佈於 2021 年 04 月 30 日
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