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  • - [Host] Thanks to Skillshare for sponsoring this episode.

    - [主持人]感謝Skillshare對本期節目的贊助。

  • This was humanity's first introduction

    這是人類第一次引入

  • to nuclear power, the atomic bomb.

    到核電,原子彈。

  • - And this is a nuclear power plant,

    - 而這是一個核電站。

  • which you may know from all the times

    歷歷在目

  • that they've broken down in history

    罄竹難書

  • and scared the crap out of people.

    並把人嚇得屁滾尿流。

  • Hello, HBO's Chernobyl.

    你好,HBO的切爾諾貝利。

  • - But you've actually been lied to about nuclear energy.

    - 但其實你在核能方面被騙了。

  • And in order to understand those lies,

    而為了瞭解這些謊言。

  • we first have to talk about where the energy comes from.

    我們首先要談談能量從哪裡來。

  • - In 1938, scientists discovered nuclear fission.

    - 1938年,科學家發現了核裂變。

  • They did this by slamming an atom of uranium with a neutron.

    他們是通過用中子撞擊鈾原子來實現的。

  • It would divide into two

    它將分為兩個

  • and release a large amount of energy.

    並釋放出大量的能量。

  • Not only this, but during the nuclear fission reaction

    不僅如此,在核裂變反應過程中。

  • up to three neutrons are ejected,

    最多有三個中子被射出。

  • which can trigger further fission reactions of more atoms,

    可以引發更多原子的進一步裂變反應。

  • meaning more energy is released.

    意味著更多的能量被釋放出來。

  • This is known as a chain reaction.

    這就是所謂的連鎖反應。

  • - During World War II,

    - 二戰期間。

  • America would use the same technology

    美國也會使用同樣的技術

  • to create the first atomic bomb.

    來製造第一顆原子彈。

  • But it wasn't until 1955 that the same scientific principles

    但是,直到1955年,同樣的科學原理

  • were used to create the first nuclear power plant

    用來建造第一座核電站

  • that generated electricity.

    發電的。

  • - In the 1970s, psychologists started to map

    - 在20世紀70年代,心理學家開始繪製

  • people's anxieties about nuclear destruction

    人們對核毀滅的憂慮。

  • and the past cold war, onto nuclear power plants,

    和過去的冷戰,到核電站。

  • which were now cropping up around the world.

    現在在世界各地出現的。

  • Then came the 1979 thriller, The China Syndrome,

    然後是1979年的驚悚片《中國綜合症》。

  • a movie about a fictional nuclear reactor meltdown.

    一部關於虛構的核反應堆熔燬的電影。

  • Which was released on March 6th, 1979.

    這是在1979年3月6日發佈的。

  • And just 22 days later,

    而就在22天后。

  • a real partial nuclear reactor meltdown

    真正的部分核反應堆熔燬

  • happened at Three Mile Island.

    發生在三裡島。

  • Talk about free advertisement for your movie.

    談談你的電影的免費廣告。

  • The coincidence of a Hollywood film

    好萊塢電影的巧合

  • and this cultural nuclear reactor breakdown

    和這個文化核反應堆的故障

  • coming together really shot into the mainstream

    一拍即合

  • this negative connotation with nuclear energy.

    核能的這種負面內涵。

  • From the release of this movie to 1988,

    從這部電影上映到1988年。

  • 67 planned nuclear power plants were canceled.

    67座計劃中的核電站被取消。

  • In 1986 Chernobyl happened, which was caused by human error.

    1986年發生了切爾諾貝利事件,這是人為錯誤造成的。

  • As the temperature of the reactor core became too high

    由於反應堆堆芯的溫度過高。

  • and an explosion created a nuclear cloud across Europe.

    和爆炸造成了整個歐洲的核雲。

  • I scream cried while watching Chernobyl.

    看切爾諾貝利時,我尖叫著哭了。

  • I remember thinking to myself, okay,

    我記得我在想,好吧。

  • is nuclear energy a truly invisible horror?

    核能是一種真正看不見的恐怖嗎?

  • Right after that, in 1989, we got The Simpsons

    在那之後,1989年,我們有了《辛普森一家》。

  • where we see people diving into nuclear waste.

    在那裡我們看到人們潛入核廢料。

  • And our favorite idiot, Homer,

    還有我們最喜歡的白痴,荷馬。

  • who we all picture as a safety inspector

    大家想象中的安檢員

  • at a nuclear reactor.

    在核反應堆。

  • As recent as 2011, we have the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    最近的2011年,我們有福島核災難。

  • And all of this combined made it really hard

    而這一切加起來,讓它真的很難

  • to not be afraid of nuclear energy.

    不懼怕核能。

  • - But when you look more into it, you find that

    - 但當你深入瞭解後,你會發現

  • no one died at Three Mile Island.

    三裡島沒有人死亡。

  • And most epidemiological studies found

    而大多數流行病學研究發現

  • that it had no detectable health consequences.

    沒有發現對健康的影響;

  • After 30 years, only 51 people died from

    30年後,只有51人死於

  • the incident at Chernobyl.

    切爾諾貝利事件。

  • And scientific studies found few health risks

    而科學研究發現,幾乎沒有健康風險

  • connected to radiation exposure after Fukushima.

    與福島之後的輻射照射有關。

  • - Take this recent In a Nutshell video

    - 就拿最近的這個 "簡明扼要 "的視頻來說

  • linked in the description.

    在描述中鏈接。

  • It shows how using coal, oil, natural gas,

    它顯示瞭如何使用煤炭、石油、天然氣。

  • and biomass has killed 100 million people

    和生物質能使1億人死亡

  • in the past 50 years.

    在過去50年裡,。

  • This was due to pollution created by

    這是由以下原因造成的汙染

  • the byproducts of burning fossil fuels.

    燃燒化石燃料的副產品;

  • - The World Health Organization explains

    - 世界衛生組織解釋說

  • that it's safer to work in a nuclear power plant

    在核電站工作更安全。

  • than in a big city office,

    比在大城市的辦公室。

  • as the urban air pollution of ozone, sulfur dioxide,

    作為城市空氣汙染的臭氧、二氧化硫。

  • carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide

    一氧化碳和二氧化氮

  • causes 7 million deaths annually

    每年造成700萬人死亡

  • - Only 0.005% of the average American's

    - 僅佔普通美國人的0.005%。

  • yearly radiation dose comes from nuclear power.

    每年的輻射劑量來自於核電。

  • This is 200 times less than a cross country flight,

    這比越野飛行少了200倍。

  • a hundred times less than what we get from coal,

    比我們從煤中得到的東西少一百倍。

  • and about the same as eating one banana per year?

    和每年吃一根香蕉差不多?

  • Wait, so if I'm scared of nuclear energy

    等等,如果我害怕核能的話

  • I also have to be scared of a banana?

    我也要怕一根香蕉?

  • But like peanut butter and bananas on toast is my culture.

    但像花生醬和香蕉吐司是我的文化。

  • Also being gay, I hate holding bananas like this

    我也是同志,我最討厭這樣拿著香蕉了

  • 'cause it just reminds me of getting bullied.

    因為它只是讓我想起了被欺負。

  • - [Host] There's also this study, showing that a CT scan

    - [主持人]還有這項研究表明,CT掃描顯示

  • of the abdomen involves about 10 times

    腹腔鏡涉及到約10倍

  • the radiation exposure that the average

    一般人所受的輻射量

  • nuclear worker gets in a year

    核工一年

  • - Or that living in a big polluted city

    - 或者說,生活在一個汙染嚴重的大城市裡

  • increases your mortality risk by 2.8 times

    使您的死亡風險增加2.8倍。

  • that of a Chernobyl cleanup worker.

    切爾諾貝利的清理人員。

  • So what is happening?

    那麼,到底發生了什麼?

  • Is nuclear energy dangerous or safe?

    核能是危險還是安全?

  • - But just before we get to that,

    - 但就在我們說到這之前。

  • we wanna thank today's sponsor Skillshare.

    我們要感謝今天的贊助商技能共享。

  • The first 1,000 people to use the link in our description

    前1,000名使用我們描述中的鏈接的人。

  • get a free trial of Skillshare premium membership.

    獲得技能共享高級會員的免費試用。

  • So go check it out because it goes fast.

    所以去看看吧,因為它走得很快。

  • Skillshare's actually how I improved

    技能共享其實是我進步的方式

  • my own animation skills to animate this channel

    我自己的動畫技能,以動畫這個管道

  • with Greg's drawings.

    與格雷格的圖紙。

  • I also taught myself Photoshop using Skillshare.

    我還用Skillshare自學了Photoshop。

  • And it's just an amazing way to continue

    而這只是一個驚人的方式來繼續。

  • to learn and grow your brain.

    來學習和增長自己的大腦。

  • - Skillshare is an online learning community

    - 技能共享是一個在線學習社區

  • with thousands of classes for curious and creative people.

    擁有上千門課程,適合好奇心強、有創造力的人。

  • You can explore new skills or deepen current passions.

    你可以探索新的技能或加深現有的激情。

  • Like this course that I took for beginner birders,

    就像我參加的這門課程,是為初級鳥友準備的。

  • where it actually taught me

    在那裡,它實際上教會了我

  • to correctly identify mourning doves.

    以正確識別哀鴿。

  • It was so exciting.

    太刺激了

  • It turns out that their wings make a specific type of noise.

    原來,它們的翅膀會發出一種特殊的噪音。

  • Eek!

    Eek!

  • I'm obsessed with birding.

    我痴迷於觀鳥。

  • Or this class about electricity generation,

    還是這堂關於發電的課。

  • where you can take a deep dive

    在那裡你可以深入瞭解

  • into solar, wind, and nuclear energy.

    成太陽能、風能和核能。

  • And actually understand the physics

    而實際上理解物理學

  • and mechanics of generating this electricity.

    以及產生這種電力的力學原理。

  • This was integral for me making this video

    這是我製作這個視頻不可或缺的

  • - It's curated specifically for learning,

    - 這是專門為學習而策劃的。

  • meaning that there are no ads.

    意思是說,沒有廣告。

  • And they're always launching new premium classes.

    而且他們一直在推出新的高級課程。

  • At the cost of $10 a month with an annual subscription,

    以每月10元的費用,年費。

  • which is amazing.

    這是驚人的。

  • - So you can help our show

    - 所以你可以幫助我們的節目

  • by clicking the link in the description.

    通過點擊描述中的鏈接。

  • And the first 1,000 people will get

    而前1000人將獲得

  • a free trial of premium membership.

    免費試用高級會員資格。

  • This genuinely is how you guys can support us

    這真的是你們可以支持我們的方式。

  • here at ASAP Science.

    在ASAP科學中心

  • Now let's get back to the core of this video,

    現在讓我們回到這個視頻的核心。

  • about the nuclear reactor's core.

    關於核反應堆的核心。

  • These reactors use low enriched uranium

    這些反應堆使用低濃鈾。

  • and controlled chain reactions to heat pressurized water,

    並控制鏈式反應加熱加壓水。

  • which in turn heats other water in a secondary circuit

    然後在二次迴路中加熱其他的水

  • that causes steam to rotate a turbine,

    導致汽輪機旋轉的蒸汽。

  • which is linked to a generator that creates electricity.

    它與發電機相連,可以產生電力。

  • Cool water from a river or ocean can be pumped in

    從河流或海洋中抽出的冷卻水可用於以下用途

  • to cool the water in the secondary circuit.

    以冷卻二次迴路中的水。

  • Or, sometimes cooling towers are built.

    或者,有時也會建冷卻塔。

  • Like these iconic bad boys

    就像這些標誌性的壞男孩

  • that we all know and love from The Simpsons.

    我們都知道和愛從辛普森一家。

  • - Current research has found that American opinions

    - 目前研究發現,美國人對

  • haven't changed much on nuclear energy since the cold war,

    自冷戰以來,在核能上並沒有什麼變化。

  • which is weird because it feels like culture has shifted.

    這是奇怪的,因為它感覺像文化已經轉移。

  • Kids no longer learn to hide under their desks

    孩子們不再學會躲在課桌下了。

  • in preparation for nuclear war.

    為核戰爭做準備。

  • Now they learned to hide under their desks

    現在他們學會了躲在課桌下

  • for preparation of a mass shooter.

    為準備大規模射手。

  • In fact, 54% of Americans still oppose nuclear energy today.

    事實上,今天仍有54%的美國人反對核能。

  • So let's talk nuclear power plant safety.

    所以我們來談談核電站的安全問題。

  • A Harvard study found that newer generations

    哈佛大學的一項研究發現,新生代

  • of nuclear reactors, particularly what is called

    核反應堆,特別是所謂的

  • pebble-bed reactors, are designed so that

    卵石床反應堆,其設計是為了保證

  • the nuclear chain reaction cannot run away

    核連鎖反應是跑不掉的

  • and cause a meltdown.

    並導致崩潰。

  • Even in the event of a complete failure

    即使在完全失敗的情況下

  • of the reactor's machinery.

    反應堆機械的。

  • And that with the advent of modern reactors,

    而隨著現代反應堆的出現。

  • such as the pebble-bed reactor,

    如卵石床反應堆。

  • and careful selection of plant sites,

    並精心選擇廠址。