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  • What I want to do this afternoon

    今個下午,我想做些

  • is something a little different than what's scheduled.

    與日程表中編排的有點兒不一樣的事。

  • Foreign policy, you can figure that out

    要知道外交政策的話,你大抵看看,

  • by watching, I don't know, Rachel Maddow or somebody,

    我不知道,雷切爾·瑪多 (Rachel Maddow) 或某誰,

  • but — (Laughter) —

    就可以了,不過 — (眾笑) —

  • I want to talk about young people and structure,

    我想談談年青人和結構,

  • young people and structure.

    年青人及結構。

  • This was last Wednesday afternoon

    上星期三的下午,

  • at a school in Brooklyn, New York,

    我在紐約市布魯克林區的一所學校,

  • at Cristo Rey High School, run by the Jesuits.

    是由耶穌會營辦的 Cristo Rey 高中。

  • And I was talking to this group of students, and take a look at them.

    我與這一班學生對話,並觀察他們。

  • They were around me in three directions.

    他們從三個方向面對着我。

  • You'll noticed that almost all of them are minority.

    你會注意到他們幾乎所有人都是少數族裔。

  • You'll notice that the building is rather austere.

    你會注意到建築物頗為簡樸。

  • It's an old New York school building, nothing fancy.

    那是個老舊的紐約市校舍建築,絕無花巧。

  • They still have old blackboards and whatnot.

    那裏仍有老舊的黑板,諸如此類。

  • And there are about 300 kids in this school,

    而這所學校,有約 300 名小孩子就讀,

  • and the school's been going now for four years,

    開辦迄今已有四年了,

  • and they're about to graduate their first class.

    而首屆學生亦即將畢業。

  • Twenty-two people are graduating,

    有二十二人將會畢業,

  • and all 22 are going to college.

    而當中全部人都會升讀大學。

  • They all come from homes where there is, for the most part,

    二十二位來自的家庭,大部份

  • just one person in the home,

    家中只有一位親人,

  • usually the mother or the grandmother, and that's it,

    通常是母親或祖母,就沒別人了,

  • and they come here for their education

    而他們來這裏,是為了接受教育,

  • and for their structure.

    以及他們的結構。

  • Now I had this picture taken, and it was put up

    拍了這幅照片之後,在上星期就放上了

  • on my Facebook page last week,

    我的 Facebook 頁面,

  • and somebody wrote in,

    有人寫道:

  • "Huh, why does he have him standing at attention like that?"

    「唔,為何包先生讓孩子這樣的向他立正?」

  • And then they said, "But he looks good." (Laughter)

    他們接着寫道:「但孩子看起來挺不錯的。」 (眾笑)

  • He does look good, because kids need structure,

    他的確頗好看,因為小孩子需要結構,

  • and the trick I play in all of my school appearances

    而每次我到訪學校,必定會耍個把戲,

  • is that when I get through with my little homily to the kids,

    就是當我與小孩子說完道理後,

  • I then invite them to ask questions,

    我就會邀請他們發問,

  • and when they raise their hands, I say, "Come up,"

    而當他們舉起手時,我就說:「上來」,

  • and I make them come up and stand in front of me.

    並讓他們排好隊在我面前站立。

  • I make them stand at attention like a soldier.

    我讓他們像士兵一樣立正。

  • Put your arms straight down at your side,

    雙手垂放在側,

  • look up, open your eyes, stare straight ahead,

    抬起頭,睜大眼睛,直視前方,

  • and speak out your question loudly so everybody can hear.

    大聲說出你的問題,讓每個人都能聽到。

  • No slouching, no pants hanging down, none of that stuff.

    不要曲起背,不要把褲子穿成大褲襠,不要碎唸。

  • (Laughter)

    (眾笑)

  • And this young man, his name is -- his last name Cruz --

    而這位年青人,名字是 -- 他姓 Cruz -- 他很喜歡這樣。

  • he loved it. That's all over his Facebook page and it's gone viral.

    並在 Facebook 上說個不停,就像病毒般流傳。

  • (Laughter)

    (眾笑)

  • So people think I'm being unkind to this kid.

    所以,人們以為我對這小子苛刻。

  • No, we're having a little fun.

    不,其實我們在享受一點兒樂趣。

  • And the thing about it, I've done this for years,

    而我想提一提,我這樣做已有多年了,

  • the younger they are, the more fun it is.

    小孩子年紀愈小,就愈有趣。

  • When I get six- and seven-year-olds in a group,

    當我有一班六、七歲的小孩子時,

  • I have to figure out how to keep them quiet.

    我要想辦法讓他們安靜下來。

  • You know that they'll always start yakking.

    你知道他們經常吵個不停。

  • And so I play a little game with them

    因此我與他們先玩個小遊戲

  • before I make them stand at attention.

    才讓他們立正。

  • I say, "Now listen. In the army,

    我說:「聽着。在軍隊裏,

  • when we want you to pay attention,

    當我們想引起你注意時,

  • we have a command. It's called 'at ease.'

    我們有個命令。就是叫「稍息」。

  • It means everybody be quiet and pay attention. Listen up.

    意思是每個人都安靜並留心。聽好。

  • Do you understand?"

    明白嗎?」

  • "Uh-huh, uh-huh, uh-huh." "Let's practice. Everybody start chatting."

    「唔,唔,唔。」「練習一下吧。大家開始聊天。」

  • And I let them go for about 10 seconds, then I go, "At ease!"

    之後我讓他們吵約十秒鐘,然後我說:「稍息!」

  • "Huh!" (Laughter)

    「唔!」(眾笑)

  • "Yes, General. Yes, General."

    「是,將軍。是,將軍。」

  • Try it with your kids. See if it works. (Laughter)

    不妨跟你的孩子試試。看看是否湊效。 (眾笑)

  • I don't think so.

    我想未必。

  • But anyway, it's a game I play, and it comes obviously

    無論如何,這是個我玩的遊戲,而且很明顯

  • from my military experience.

    是來自我的軍事經驗。

  • Because for the majority of my adult life,

    因為我成人的生命裏,大部分時間

  • I worked with young kids, teenagers with guns, I call them.

    我都與年青小伙子一起工作,我叫他們「持槍少年」。

  • And we would bring them into the army,

    而我們將他們帶進軍隊裏,

  • and the first thing we would do is to put them

    我們第一件會做的事,就是將他們

  • in an environment of structure, put them in ranks,

    放進有結構的環境裏,將他們放進軍階中,

  • make them all wear the same clothes,

    讓他們全都穿相同的衣服,

  • cut all their hair off so they look alike,

    剃光頭髮,讓他們看來都很相似,

  • make sure that they are standing in ranks.

    確保他們是按軍階站立。

  • We teach them how to go right face, left face,

    我們教導他們怎樣將頭往右、往左步操,

  • so they can obey instructions and know

    好讓他們懂得服從指示,

  • the consequences of not obeying instructions.

    並學懂不服從指示的後果。

  • It gives them structure.

    這給予他們結構。

  • And then we introduce them to somebody who they come to hate immediately, the drill sergeant.

    之後我們向他們介紹一個他們立即就會討厭的人,教官。

  • And they hate him.

    而他們討厭他。

  • And the drill sergeant starts screaming at them,

    教官開始向他們大聲呼喊,

  • and telling them to do all kinds of awful things.

    並指令他們做各種難為的事情。

  • But then the most amazing thing happens over time.

    但最奇妙的事情,隨着時間慢慢發生。

  • Once that structure is developed,

    當那種結構發展出來時,

  • once they understand the reason for something,

    當他們明白事情背後的理由,

  • once they understand, "Mama ain't here, son.

    當他們明白:「媽媽不在這裏,小子。

  • I'm your worst nightmare. I'm your daddy and your mommy.

    我是你最壞的惡夢。我是你的爸爸和媽媽。

  • And that's just the way it is. You got that, son?

    而這就是這裏的方式。收到嗎,小子?

  • Yeah, and then when I ask you a question, there are only three possible answers:

    沒錯,然後當我問你一條問題時,只有三種可能答案:

  • yes, sir; no, sir; and no excuse, sir.

    『是,長官』;『不是,長官』;和『沒有理由,長官』。

  • Don't start telling me why you didn't do something.

    不要開始告訴我,為何你沒做到。儘管說

  • It's yes, sir; no, sir; no excuse, sir."

    『是,長官』;『不是,長官』;『沒有理由,長官』。」

  • "You didn't shave." "But sir —"

    「你沒有刮鬍子。」「但是長官 —」

  • "No, don't tell me how often you scraped your face this morning.

    「不,不要告訴我今早你怎樣不斷刮傷臉皮。

  • I'm telling you you didn't shave."

    我在告訴你,你沒有刮鬍子。」

  • "No excuse, sir." "Attaboy, you're learning fast."

    「沒有理由,長官。」「不錯,真是快上手。」

  • But you'd be amazed at what you can do with them

    但你會驚訝,當你將他們放進那種結構中時,

  • once you put them in that structure.

    你能讓他們做到的事情。

  • In 18 weeks, they have a skill. They are mature.

    在十八週內,他們學到技巧。變得成熟。

  • And you know what, they come to admire the drill sergeant

    而你知道嗎?他們開始欽羡教官,

  • and they never forget the drill sergeant.

    然後他們永遠難忘教官。

  • They come to respect him.

    他們開始敬佩他。

  • And so we need more of this kind of structure and respect

    所以我們需要將多些這類型的結構和敬佩

  • in the lives of our children.

    放進我們兒女的生命中。

  • I spend a lot of time with youth groups,

    我有不少時間,常常與青年人一起,

  • and I say to people, "When does the education process begin?"

    而我對人們說:「教育的過程從何時開始?」

  • We're always talking about, "Let's fix the schools.

    我們常常在說:「讓我們來改善學校。

  • Let's do more for our teachers. Let's put more computers in our schools.

    為教師提供更多配套。在學校安裝更多電腦。

  • Let's get it all online."

    讓所有事物都步上軌道。」

  • That isn't the whole answer. It's part of the answer.

    那不是答案的全部。僅只包含一小部分。

  • But the real answer begins with bringing a child to the school

    但真正的答案,是從帶小孩上學開始,

  • with structure in that child's heart and soul to begin with.

    從那小孩心靈中的結構開始。

  • When does the learning process begin? Does it begin in first grade?

    學習的過程從何時開始?是從一年級開始嗎?

  • No, no, it begins the first time

    不,不,它的開始

  • a child in a mother's arms

    是小孩第一次在母親臂中

  • looks up at the mother

    仰視母親時,

  • and says, "Oh, this must be my mother.

    心想:「噢,這一定是我的母親。

  • She's the one who feeds me.

    她是哺養我的人。

  • Oh yeah, when I don't feel so good down there,

    沒錯,當我覺得有點兒不舒服的時候,

  • she takes care of me.

    她會照料我。

  • It's her language I will learn."

    我會學她的語言。」

  • And at that moment they shut out all the other languages

    而那個時候,他們就會將所有其他

  • that they could be learning at that age,

    那個年紀時可以學習的語言都拒諸門外,

  • but by three months, that's her.

    而首三個月,她就是一切。

  • And if the person doing it, whether it's the mother

    如果那個人,不管是母親

  • or grandmother, whoever's doing it,

    還是祖母,不管是誰做這件事,

  • that is when the education process begins.

    那就是教育過程的開始。

  • That's when language begins.

    那是語言的開始。

  • That's when love begins. That's when structure begins.

    那是愛的開始。那是結構的開始。

  • That's when you start to imprint on the child

    那是你開始在小孩中烙印

  • that "you are special,

    「你是特別的,

  • you are different from every other child in the world.

    你與世界上任何其他一位小孩都不同。

  • And we're going to read to you."

    而我們將會向你朗讀。」

  • A child who has not been read to

    得不到朗讀的小孩,

  • is in danger when that child gets to school.

    當小孩上學時可能會有風險。

  • A child who doesn't know his or her colors

    一個小孩,不知道自己的膚色,

  • or doesn't know how to tell time, doesn't know how to tie shoes,

    或者不知道如何報時間,不知道怎樣綁鞋帶,

  • doesn't know how to do those things,

    不知道怎樣做那些事情,

  • and doesn't know how to do something that

    也不知道如何去做那件

  • goes by a word that was drilled into me as a kid: mind.

    自小就紮根我的腦海中的字眼:注意。

  • Mind your manners! Mind your adults! Mind what you're saying!

    注意你的言行舉止!當心身邊的大人!小心你所說的話!

  • This is the way children are raised properly.

    這是正確養育兒童的方式。

  • And I watched my own young grandchildren now come along

    我現在看着自己年幼的孫兒,

  • and they're, much to the distress of my children,

    他們真令我的兒女頭疼,

  • they are acting just like we did. You know? You imprint them.

    他們就像我們當年一樣。你知道嗎?你要去烙印他們。

  • And that's what you have to do to prepare children for education and for school.

    而那就是你要做的事,去準備兒童接受教育和上學。

  • And I'm working at all the energy I have

    現在我正盡全力

  • to sort of communicate this message that

    希望將這個訊息宣揚:

  • we need preschool, we need Head Start,

    我們需要學前教育,我們需要「啟蒙計劃」,

  • we need prenatal care.

    我們需要產前檢查。

  • The education process begins even before the child is born,

    教育的過程,早在小孩誕生之前已經開始,

  • and if you don't do that, you're going to have difficulty.

    若你不這樣做的話,就可能會面對困難。

  • And we are having difficulties in so many of our communities

    而我們在很多社區中都面對困難,

  • and so many of our schools where kids are coming

    很多學校接收一年級新生,

  • to first grade and their eyes are blazing,

    那些學童雙眼發亮,

  • they've got their little knapsack on and they're ready to go,

    他們收拾好小背包準備上學,

  • and then they realize they're not like the other first graders

    然後他們發覺自己不像其他一年級生,

  • who know books, have been read to, can do their alphabet.

    其他人懂書,有人朗讀給他們聽,懂得英文字母。

  • And by the third grade, the kids who didn't have

    而到了三年級,那些一開始

  • that structure and minding in the beginning

    缺乏那種結構和思維的小孩子,

  • start to realize they're behind, and what do they do?

    開始發覺他們落後了,然後他們怎樣做?

  • They act it out. They act it out, and they're on their way

    他們行為出位。他們表現出來,然後他們就要

  • to jail or they're on their way to being dropouts.

    邁向一條鋃鐺入獄或是中途綴學的道路。