Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

自動翻譯
  • In the previous video, we discussed the idea of power and created a framework for thinking

    在上一個視頻中,我們討論了權力的概念,並建立了一個思考框架。

  • about it.

    關於它。

  • I claimed that someone needed two fundamental ingredients to be powerful: a true understanding

    我聲稱,一個人要想強大,需要兩個基本要素:一個真正的理解。

  • of the world and the resources to shape it.

    世界和塑造世界的資源。

  • As promised, we're going to go over what I left out of the last video which was how

    按照承諾,我們要去看一下我在上一個視頻中遺漏的內容,這是我如何做到的。

  • to obtain a truer understanding of the world.

    以獲得對世界更真實的認識。

  • I believe this essay will shine light on the fact that some ways of thinking are more useful

    我相信這篇文章會給大家帶來啟示,有些思維方式更有用的是

  • than others.

    比別人。

  • Out of all of the essays that I've ever written, this one is the most important.

    在我寫過的所有文章中,這一篇是最重要的。

  • Today, we'll be discussing how to think from first principles.

    今天,我們要討論的是如何從第一原則出發進行思考。

  • First principles are the fundamental building blocks of an idea; they are the most indivisible

    第一原則是思想的基本構件,它們是最不可分割的。

  • parts that we know to be true and that we use to build more complex thoughts.

    我們知道是真實的部分,我們用它們來建立更復雜的思想。

  • I know this sounds a little abstract right now but let me give you some history, an analogy,

    我知道這現在聽起來有點抽象,但讓我給你一些歷史,一個比喻。

  • and an example.

    和一個例子。

  • Thinking from first principles isn't a new or groundbreaking idea.

    從第一原則出發思考並不是一個新的或突破性的想法。

  • In fact, it's been the dominant mode of thinking among all great scientists and philosophers

    事實上,它一直是所有偉大的科學家和哲學家的主要思維模式。

  • for awhile now; it's probably the single most consistent factor among great thinkers.

    有一段時間了;這可能是偉大的思想家中最一致的一個因素。

  • Although there have been many practitioners of this way of thinking, I'd like to zoom

    雖然這種思維方式的踐行者很多,但我想放大一下

  • in on one that you may have heard about: Aristotle.

    在一個你可能聽說過的。亞里士多德

  • He was a prolific organizer who believed that everything could be divided into categories

    他是一個多產的組織者,他認為一切都可以分門別類。

  • and subcategories.

    和子類。

  • The smallest subcategory in any domain is what we would call a first principle.

    任何領域中最小的子類就是我們所說的第一原則。

  • He was also one of the earliest empiricists that we know about.

    他也是我們所知道的最早的經驗主義者之一。

  • [3, 5, 7, 8]

    [3, 5, 7, 8]

  • Empiricist: someone who believes that all knowledge is achieved through experience.

    經驗主義者:相信所有知識都是通過經驗獲得的人。

  • As one of the earliest major contributors to the study of biology, it makes sense that

    作為對生物學研究最早的主要貢獻者之一,這是有道理的。

  • Aristotle was a first principles thinker.

    亞里士多德是一個第一原理思想家。

  • He would dissect animals to gain real world knowledge and then use his capacity for reason

    他將解剖動物以獲得現實世界的知識,然後利用他的理性能力

  • to organize and categorize this information.

    對這些資訊進行組織和分類。

  • This cycle of seeking knowledge through experience and using reason to give it structure is how

    這種通過經驗尋求知識,並利用理性賦予知識以結構的循環,就是如何

  • one comes to know the first principles of a subject.

    一個人來了解一個主題的首要原則。

  • Aristotle believed that we couldn't possess true knowledge unless we understood these

    亞里士多德認為,除非我們理解這些,否則我們不可能擁有真正的知識。

  • principles.

    的原則。

  • [7]

    [7]

  • we do not think we know a thing until we are acquainted with its primary conditions

    ......我們不認為我們知道一件事,直到我們熟悉它的主要條件。

  • or first principles, and have carried our analysis as far as its simplest elements.

    或第一原則,並將我們的分析進行到最簡單的要素。

  • - Aristotle [3]

    - 亞里士多德[3]

  • Now that you have a slight understanding of the history, let me give you an analogy about

    現在你對歷史有了些許瞭解,我給你打個比方,關於

  • thinking from first principles.

    從第一原則出發思考。

  • Imagine your knowledge in a specific domain as a tree.

    把你在特定領域的知識想象成一棵樹。

  • Someone who thinks from first principles - an unconventional thinker - will understand that

    一個從第一原則出發思考的人--一個不拘一格的思考者--就會明白。

  • body of knowledge from the fruit all the way down to the root.

    從果實一直到根部的知識體系。

  • The fruit is what we see in front of us: it's the unearned knowledge that we can obtain,

    果就是我們眼前所看到的:是我們能得到的未得的知識。

  • experience, and repeat right away.

    經驗,並馬上重複。

  • We can look at an apple tree, say that it's just a thing that produces apples, and call

    我們可以看一棵蘋果樹,說它只是一個能生產蘋果的東西,並稱其為

  • it a day.

    它的一天。

  • It's a very shallow understanding of the tree but it's not untrue.

    這是對樹的一種很淺薄的理解,但也不失為一種真理。

  • On the other hand , a first principles thinker will want to know how this creation really

    另一方面,一個第一原理的思考者會想知道這個創造到底是如何進行的

  • came to be.

    來的。

  • They will see that the apple is connected to a branch.

    他們會看到,蘋果與樹枝相連。

  • Every branch is a subset of a greater whole called the trunk.

    每一個分支都是一個更大的整體的子集,稱為樹幹。

  • Finally, they see that the root is the most fundamental part of the tree which gives rise

    最後,他們看到,根是樹的最基本的部分,它引起了

  • to the fruit.

    到的果實。

  • They have gathered multiple pieces of information about the tree through experience but they

    他們通過經驗收集了多條關於這棵樹的資訊,但他們

  • have also organized the pieces of information in relation to each other.

    還組織了相互關聯的資訊碎片。

  • These free-floating facts have been transformed into an organized body of knowledge.

    這些自由浮動的事實已經轉化為有組織的知識體系。

  • The conventional thinker will believe that they can put the apple seeds anywhere and

    傳統思維的人會認為,他們可以把蘋果的種子放在任何地方,並。

  • grow delicious apples; they lack true understanding.

    長出美味的蘋果,他們缺乏真正的理解。

  • Upon examining the roots, the first principles thinker will see that a delicious fruit starts

    究其根源,第一原理思考者會發現,一個美味的果實開始於

  • with good soil; they have a nuanced understanding.

    有著良好的土壤;他們有著細微的理解。

  • The conventional thinker is the guy at the cocktail party who has all of the interesting

    傳統思想家是在雞尾酒會上擁有所有有趣的人。

  • facts: his knowledge consists solely of fruit that he can display.

    事實:他的知識只包括他能展示的果實。

  • On the contrary, the unconventional thinker is consistently focused on building trees

    相反,不拘一格的思想家一貫注重建樹

  • of knowledge.

    的知識。

  • Like Aristotle, he or she goes back and forth between experience and reason to build an

    像亞里士多德一樣,他(她)在經驗和理性之間來回穿梭,建立起一種

  • organized and structured body of knowledge.

    有組織、有條理的知識體系。

  • A tree planted in good soil will have strong and healthy roots and thus produce delicious

    在好的土壤中種植的樹,會有強壯健康的根部,從而生產出美味的食物

  • fruit.

    果。

  • Likewise, an idea that blooms from true and beautiful first principles will itself be

    同樣,從真善美的第一原則中綻放出來的思想本身也會是

  • beautiful and true.

    美麗而真實。

  • Naturally, if the simple parts that make up a complex whole are good and true, then the

    自然,如果組成複雜整體的簡單部分是好的,是真實的,那麼。

  • complex whole must be good and true as well.

    複雜的整體也必須是好的、真實的。

  • This is important because, as we discussed in the last video, a true understanding of

    這一點很重要,因為正如我們在上一個視頻中所討論的那樣,真正的理解了

  • the world is necessary to obtain power.

    世界是必要的,以獲得權力。

  • Any complex beliefs we hold can only be true if the parts that make it up are true.

    我們所持有的任何複雜的信念,只有在構成它的部分是真實的情況下,才可能是真實的。

  • To make this more concrete, let's think about the process of writing an essay from

    為了讓這個問題更加具體,我們從以下幾個方面來思考作文的寫作過程。

  • first principles.

    第一原則:

  • A well-written essay is like a delicious fruit: it's enjoyable to consume and difficult

    一篇寫得好的作文就像一個美味的水果:吃起來很享受,吃起來很困難

  • to produce without understanding its fundamentals.

    在不瞭解其基本面的情況下進行生產。

  • We can identify its fundamentals by breaking it down into its component parts.

    我們可以通過將其分解為各個組成部分來確定其基本面。

  • An essay is a collection of paragraphs.

    一篇文章是一個段落的集合。

  • Well, a paragraph is a collection of sentences.

    嗯,一個段落是一個句子的集合。

  • A sentence is a collection of words.

    句子是一個詞的集合。

  • Words are a collection of letters and letters are the fundamental building blocks of an

    單詞是字母的集合,而字母是構成一個單詞的基本構件

  • essay.

    作文。

  • Once the components of an essay are understood, we can look at improving each one from the

    當了解了一篇文章的組成部分後,我們就可以從提高每一篇文章的

  • simplest to the complex.

    從最簡單到複雜。

  • If we can make each individual component remarkable then the totality should be remarkable and

    如果我們能使每一個單獨的組成部分變得顯著,那麼整體就應該是顯著的,而且是有意義的。

  • that is the art of first principles thinking.

    這就是第一原理思維的藝術。

  • Now, let's talk about the benefits.

    現在,我們來談談好處。

  • Several benefits come from understanding an idea down to its fundamental components.

    從瞭解一個想法到其基本組成部分,有幾個好處。

  • Once you understand the fundamentals of an idea, you can rearrange them, change them,

    一旦你理解了一個想法的基本原理,你就可以重新安排它們,改變它們。

  • or put them together differently to create a new idea or product.

    或將它們以不同的方式組合在一起,創造一個新的想法或產品。

  • In our writing example, we could have created another layer above the essay: we could call

    在我們的寫作範例中,我們可以在文章上面再建立一層:我們可以稱之為

  • a collection of essays a book.

    散文集一書。

  • We have now invented something new.

    我們現在已經發明瞭新的東西。

  • A fundamental component can be changed in order to improve an idea or a product.

    為了改進一個想法或產品,可以改變一個基本組件。

  • For example, once we knew the fundamental components of the essay, we could put each

    例如,當我們知道了文章的基本構成後,我們就可以把每一

  • of them under scrutiny to see how each component could be its best.

    審視其中的每一個組成部分,看看如何才能發揮其最佳的作用。

  • But, without knowing these components, it's impossible to make any sort of improvement.

    但是,如果不瞭解這些內容,就不可能做出任何改進。

  • Once you understand the foundational components of an idea, it becomes a lot easier to integrate

    一旦你理解了一個想法的基礎組成部分,整合起來就變得容易多了。

  • new knowledge into your understanding.

    新知識融入你的理解。

  • For example, once you know how to write letters it becomes easier to make words.

    例如,一旦你知道如何寫字母,就會變得更容易造字。

  • Once you know how to write words you can make sentences.

    一旦你知道如何寫單詞,你就可以造句。

  • Once you can make sentences, you can make paragraphs, then essays, then books, then

    一旦你會造句,你就可以造段,然後是文章,然後是書,然後是。

  • entire libraries.

    整個圖書館。

  • Understanding the foundational components of an idea makes it easier to transfer that

    理解一個想法的基本組成部分,就能更容易地將其轉移到

  • complex idea to another person.

    複雜的想法給另一個人。

  • You can start with the simplest component and build up the idea from there; this is

    你可以從最簡單的組件開始,並從那裡建立起想法;這就是

  • exactly what we try to do in schools.

    這正是我們在學校裡要做的事。

  • We teach kids how to write the alphabet, then words, and so on.

    我們先教孩子們寫字母,再教孩子們寫單詞,等等。

  • First principle thinkers are better teachers because they can determine the exact level

    第一原理思維者是更好的教師,因為他們可以確定準確的水準。

  • where a student's understanding falls apart.

    在學生的理解力下降的地方。

  • So, you see the benefits but how can someone become a first principle thinker?

    所以,你看到了好處,但如何才能讓一個人成為第一原則思維者呢?

  • How Can Someone Think from First Principles?

    如何讓人從第一原理出發去思考?

  • Thinking from first principles is simple, but not easy.

    從第一原則出發的思考很簡單,但並不容易。

  • I just have one piece of actionable advice and it's inspired by Aristotle: create hierarchies

    我只有一個可操作的建議,它的靈感來自於亞里士多德:創建層次結構。

  • (like what we did with the essay example).

    (就像我們在作文例子中所做的那樣)。

  • Most ideas are nested inside or outside one another and it's the job of a first principles

    大多數思想都是相互嵌套在內部或外部的,這是第一原則的工作。

  • thinker to map out how these ideas are linked.

    思考者要摸清這些思想是如何聯繫起來的。

  • As Aristotle, like all empiricists, would say, knowledge begins with experience.

    正如亞里士多德和所有經驗主義者一樣,會說,知識始於經驗。

  • The world is presenting fruit all around you: amazing and complex acts of creation.

    世界在你身邊呈現出果實:驚人而複雜的創造行為。

  • Discovering the roots of these creations starts with questions such as why or how.

    發現這些創作的根源,首先要問為什麼或如何。

  • The ultimate truth-seeker must not be satisfied with fruit, yet they realize that the search

    最終的真理探索者一定不會滿足於果實,然而他們意識到,尋找

  • for roots is never ending.

    對於根是永無止境的。

  • Once they've reduced an idea down to the smallest fundamentals that they can conceive

    一旦他們把一個想法減少到最小的基本面,他們可以想象到

  • of, they have arrived at the first principles.

    的,他們已經得出了第一個原則。

  • These fundamentals can be used to innovate, optimize, learn more complex ideas, or to

    這些基礎知識可以用來創新、優化、學習更復雜的想法,或者用來

  • teach others.

    教別人。

  • One of the best ways to discover these fundamentals is by actually writing down and organizing

    發現這些基本原理的最好方法之一是實際寫下並整理好以下內容

  • the information in a subject that you're interested in by using a hierarchy or a mind

    通過使用層次結構或思維方式瞭解你感興趣的主題資訊

  • map like how we did with the essay.

    地圖,就像我們做作文一樣。

  • So, that concludes my little mini-series on power.

    所以,我關於權力的小系列就這樣結束了。

  • I put forth a framework for power in the last video and discussed the idea of being valuable

    我在上一個視頻中提出了一個權力的框架,並討論了有價值的理念

  • to obtain it.

    以獲得它。

  • In this video, I put forth a common mode of thought for the truth-seeker.

    在這個視頻中,我提出了一個求真者常見的思維模式。

  • In the next video, I plan to discuss something that might catch you by surprise: the /danger/

    在下一個視頻中,我計劃討論一些可能會讓你大吃一驚的東西:/危險/。

  • of being a first principles thinker.

    的是一個第一原則的思考者。

In the previous video, we discussed the idea of power and created a framework for thinking

在上一個視頻中,我們討論了權力的概念,並建立了一個思考框架。

字幕與單字
自動翻譯

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 原則 知識 思考 思維 原理 果實

最有力量的思考方式|第一原則 (The Most Powerful Way to Think | First Principles)

  • 13 1
    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 03 月 19 日
影片單字