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  • the ground can open up during an earthquake.

    地震時地面會開裂。

  • Everything disappears in the earth.

    一切都在地球上消失了。

  • Earthquakes don't operate like that.

    地震不是這樣操作的。

  • You should always try to get outside.

    你應該總是嘗試去外面。

  • When an earthquake occurs in the midst of running, you can get seriously injured.

    當跑步過程中發生地震時,你可能會受到嚴重的傷害。

  • California will fall into the ocean.

    加利福尼亞州將落入大海。

  • Well, the answer is of course not.

    好吧,答案當然不是。

  • Hello, I'm Veronica.

    你好,我是維羅妮卡。

  • Videos.

    視頻:

  • I am obstruction engineer in by training.

    我是一名訓練有素的障礙物工程師。

  • I am currently President.

    我現在是主席。

  • Adagio has international.

    阿達吉奧擁有國際。

  • My name is Gerardo Suarez.

    我叫Gerardo Suarez

  • I am a senior scientist at the interested of geophysics at the National University of Mexico.

    我是墨西哥國立大學地球物理學的高級科學家。

  • Today we are debunking myths about earthquakes and earthquake safety.

    今天我們就來揭穿關於地震和地震安全的神話。

  • These are myths from social media.

    這些都是來自社交媒體的神話。

  • Doorways are a safe place to take cover during an earthquake.

    門路是地震時安全的避難場所。

  • And Veronica, I think you're better prepared than this is definitely something we've heard from past very old construction.

    而維羅妮卡,我想你的準備比這絕對是我們從過去很老的建築中聽到的東西。

  • And that was when the frame around doors was actually part of the skeleton of the building that really kept up the building.

    而這時,門周圍的框架其實也是建築骨架的一部分,真正支撐起了建築。

  • That was a really strong part of the structure.

    這是結構中非常強大的一部分。

  • Modern construction does not have that.

    現代建築不具備這個條件。

  • In fact, the doors are not in many ways stronger, so they're really not helpful or very protective during earthquake shaking.

    其實,門的強度在很多方面都不高,所以在地震搖晃的時候,門真的沒有什麼用,也沒有什麼保護作用。

  • And in fact, I would say that holding onto the door frame If you have a swinging door during strong earthquake, you can actually get quite injured.

    而事實上,我想說的是,在強震時,如果你的門框是擺動的,其實你會很受傷。

  • There's no universal recipe to be safe.

    沒有萬能的祕方來保證安全。

  • It depends on how your house, your apartment building, is built and where you live, even in what part of the city you live in.

    這要看你的房子,你的公寓樓是怎麼建的,你住在哪裡,甚至你住在城市的哪個地方。

  • The work has to happen before the earthquake in terms of finding a city place create a safe place.

    工作要在地震前進行,在尋找城市場所創建安全場所方面。

  • So trying to figure out okay, if there was shaking, looking up in your own home and seeing what could fall over top of that can be heavy.

    所以想弄清楚好嗎,如果有搖晃,在自己的家裡抬頭看看有什麼東西會掉在上面,那可就重了。

  • This question is about the triangle of life.

    本題考查的是人生的三角關係。

  • Will it save you?

    它能救你嗎?

  • You can see some of these boys after the shaking has happened, but what you don't see is what happened in between.

    震動發生後,你可以看到其中一些男孩,但你看不到的是中間發生的事情。

  • And so it may have been that this very dense object with strong shaking might have moved quite a distance.

    所以可能是這個密度很大的物體,強烈的震動可能已經移動了相當長的距離。

  • Or those objects can actually topple and in many cases can actually be way more dangerous to be there.

    或者說這些物體其實是可以倒塌的,在很多情況下其實是可以更危險的方式在那裡。

  • If you could get under a sturdy table or that would probably be best, protecting your head and neck are really important.

    如果你能在一張結實的桌子下或者那可能是最好的,保護你的頭和脖子真的很重要。

  • But yes, there may be some cases where people were saved because they accidentally were trapped, became between a very strong object and perhaps a beam or something that fell down.

    但是,是的,可能有一些情況下,人們因為不小心被困住了,成為了一個很強的物體之間,或許是一個橫樑或者是什麼東西掉下來了,所以被救了。

  • But I think it is more circumstantial evidence than anything else.

    但我認為這更多的是間接證據。

  • Earthquake proof buildings are indestructible.

    防震建築是堅不可摧的。

  • I want to make a distinction between earthquake proof and earthquake resistant.

    我想區分一下防震和抗震的區別。

  • So in practice, we don't usually design or build earthquake proof buildings.

    所以在實踐中,我們一般不會設計或建造抗震建築。

  • So a similarity might be waterproof versus water resistant.

    所以,相似性可能是防水與耐水。

  • And I think for a very long time we went from really trying to ensure that our designs were life safe, so they really were protecting the occupants inside the building.

    我想在很長一段時間裡,我們都沒有真正嘗試過確保我們的設計是安全的,所以他們真的是在保護建築內的居民。

  • Um, now what we've learned as we've seen Earth, that's another part of the world.

    嗯,現在我們已經瞭解到,因為我們已經看到了地球,這是世界的另一部分。

  • That doesn't mean that you're not going to have damage to a building.

    這並不意味著你不會對建築物造成損害。

  • And so it may be that after an earthquake, you're building no longer functions and you can no longer stay in it.

    所以可能在地震之後,你的建築已經沒有功能了,你不能再呆在裡面。

  • And if that happens on a grand scale, all of a sudden you have an entire city that can't be houses or buildings that can be used for businesses, and so it really affects the economy and the community as a whole.

    而如果這種情況大面積發生,突然間你就會有整個城市的房子或建築不能用於商業,所以真的會影響到整個經濟和社會的發展。

  • and now there's a big movement to try to move towards designing not just for life safety, but actually what's called functional recovery with the idea that you can recover, um, in a shorter time spans.

    現在有一個大的運動,試圖走向設計 不僅僅是為了生命安全,但實際上什麼是所謂的功能恢復 與想法,你可以恢復,嗯,在較短的時間跨度。

  • Small earthquakes prevent bigger ones from happening.

    小地震防止大地震的發生。

  • Well, I bear bad news for people who believe in this because, uh, you know people to say, Oh, it's been very active, you know, lots of small earthquakes.

    對相信這個的人來說,我有個壞消息,因為,你知道人們會說,哦,它一直很活躍,你知道,很多小地震。

  • So they're taking up the energy that's concentrated on default.

    所以他們佔用了集中在違約上的精力。

  • And indeed, yes, they're releasing some energy.

    的確,是的,他們在釋放一些能量。

  • And that happens in places that we call subduction zones where one tectonic plate goes under another one, that there are dozens, literally hundreds of small earthquakes in a certain time frame in a certain place.

    這種情況發生在我們稱之為俯衝帶的地方 一個構造板塊在另一個構造板塊之下 有幾十上百次的小地震發生在某個地方的某個時間範圍內

  • But eventually in this active faults you will have a major earthquake, and by Major, I would just say, larger than magnitude seven point five that is required to release the energy that has been accumulated.

    但最終在這個活動斷層中,你會發生大地震,我只想說,大於七點五級的大地震,是需要釋放積累的能量的。

  • I think there's a misconception that it's only the very big one that's going to be the most dangerous.

    我覺得有一個誤區,就是隻有非常大的才是最危險的。

  • But in fact, what we see is that even with moderate earthquakes, um, there can be a lot of actually injuries and that even un reinforced chimneys we know are very vulnerable to classrooms and under very low levels of shaking.

    但事實上,我們看到的是,即使是中等程度的地震,嗯,也會有很多實際的傷害,即使是未加固的煙囪,我們也知道在教室和很低程度的搖晃下,是非常脆弱的。

  • And those falling into a household, for example, can be very dangerous.

    而那些落入家庭的人,則是非常危險的。

  • We are overdue for a major earthquake.

    我們早就該發生大地震了。

  • So when we say overdue, we imply that we know the earthquake should have occurred before and it hasn't, and this is something that we simply do not don't prediction versus forecasting.

    所以我們說逾期,就意味著我們知道地震應該在之前就發生了,而它沒有發生,這一點我們根本不預測與預報。

  • I think that's where we get a little bit of misunderstanding because we can forecast usually improbabilities.

    我想這也是我們有一點誤解的地方,因為我們可以預測通常的不可能性。

  • We say there's a probability that they will be this size of earthquake within this region, and so we really can't predict specifically where and when to north people occur.

    我們說在這個區域內,他們有可能會發生這種規模的地震,所以我們真的無法具體預測到北方人發生地震的地點和時間。

  • Everyone who lives in a seismic area should be aware everyone should have a kid at home.

    每一個生活在地震區的人都應該知道,每個人家裡都應該有一個孩子。

  • You need to have some water.

    你需要一些水。

  • You need to have a lamp light and so on and so forth.

    你需要有一盞燈燈,等等等等。

  • Okay, These are myths from pop culture.

    好吧,這些都是流行文化中的神話。

  • You should always try to get outside when an earthquake occurs.

    當地震發生時,你一定要儘量到外面去。

  • But for the most part, this is probably not a very safe practice to run outside during earthquakes, shaking, especially because many times things can fall outwards.

    但對於大多數人來說,在地震、晃動的時候在外面跑,這可能不是一個很安全的做法,尤其是很多時候東西會往外掉。

  • in the midst of running.

    在奔跑中。

  • You can get seriously injured in the one situation where it is a good idea, and that's gonna go be urban building that is not strengthened or reinforced in some way.

    在一種情況下,你可能會受到嚴重的傷害,那就是要去是城市建築,沒有經過某種方式的加固或強化。

  • Those buildings are particularly dangerous when you have a heavy roof.

    那些樓房的屋頂很重,特別危險。

  • If you're on the ground floor one of these buildings, you do want to try to run out, assuming you're running out into a space that's open.

    如果你在這些建築的一樓,你確實想嘗試著跑出去,假設你跑出去的空間是開放的。

  • But if you're already outside, stay outside.

    但如果你已經在外面了,就留在外面。

  • Kind of.

    算是吧

  • You want to try to get away from from building facades because the beauty bricks falling.

    你要儘量遠離建築外牆,因為美磚掉落。

  • You want to be very careful about that.

    你要非常小心。

  • The ground can open up during an earthquake.

    地震時地面會開裂。

  • It is a myth that has to be debunked.

    這是一個不得不揭穿的神話。

  • This myth comes very much from earthquake movies, where you see that during the earthquake there's a big crack that opens, and it swallows buildings and people and cars, and then it just pull.

    這個神話非常多的來自於地震電影,你會看到在地震的時候,有一個大裂縫打開了,它把樓房和人、車都吞掉了,然後就拉。

  • It shuts tight and everything disappears in the earth.

    它緊緊地關上,一切都消失在大地中。

  • And this this doesn't happen.

    而這這不會發生。

  • Earthquakes don't operate like that in certain type of soils.

    在某些類型的土壤中,地震不會這樣運作。

  • Cracks are formed because of the very strong shaking, but these are relatively shallow cracks.

    裂縫的形成是因為非常強烈的震動,但這些裂縫都是比較淺的裂縫。

  • I mean, they wouldn't swallow, not even a small cat.

    我的意思是,他們不會吞下,甚至一隻小貓也不會。

  • And probably that image was extrapolated into this fantastic idea of these huge mouths swallowing everything in its surroundings.

    很可能這幅圖畫被推演成了這個奇妙的想法 這些巨大的嘴巴吞噬著周圍的一切。

  • So, no, the answer is, is definitely not in the US.

    所以,不,答案是,肯定不在美國。

  • A big enough earthquake on the West Coast could be felt on the East Coast.

    西海岸足夠大的地震,東海岸也能感覺到。

  • It will be so big that even though it's happening here in California, you will feel it on the East Coast.

    它將是如此之大,即使它發生在加州,你也會在東海岸感受到它。

  • No, that is not.

    不,那不是。

  • What we expect is just a big enough distance that we don't expect anyone to stealing these significant shaking on the East Coast from, uh, earthquake on the on the West Coast, the plates and the type of rock that we have on the East Coast versus the West Coast.

    我們期望的是足夠大的距離 我們不期望有人能從西海岸的地震中 竊取東海岸的顯著震動 東海岸和西海岸的板塊和岩石類型

  • They are different.

    它們是不同的。

  • And so what happens is that the type of, uh, rock that we have in the East Coast earthquake waves seismic waves and actually travel much further.

    所以發生的事情是,呃,岩石的類型,我們有 在東海岸地震波地震波和實際旅行更遠。

  • So what happens is that in the East Coast you'll be able to perceive or feel significant shaking, actually much further distances from the epicenter of the origin of where the earthquake shaking started as opposed to the West coast, where those seismic waves.

    所以,發生的情況是,在東海岸,你能感知或感覺到明顯的晃動,其實與那些地震波開始的原點震中的距離要遠得多,而不是在西海岸。

  • Actually, that energy is absorbed much quicker, and so it doesn't travel as much of a far distance.

    其實,這些能量吸收得更快,所以它的傳播距離沒有那麼遠。

  • We are able to predict earthquakes.

    我們能夠預測地震。

  • This is a very simple answer is no no.

    這是個很簡單的答案,就是沒有沒有。

  • We cannot yet predict earthquakes.

    我們還不能預測地震。

  • And I added the word yet I would say that now it continues to be the goal of seismology.

    而我加了一句話,然而我想說的是,現在它仍然是地震學的目標。

  • To be able to predict earthquakes.

    要能預測地震。

  • I believe the goal of everyone who works in seismology for an engineering seismology.

    我相信每一個從事地震學工作的人,對於工程地震學的目標。

  • It is not to predict earthquakes, but to be prepared for major earthquakes to understand the phenomenon there.

    這不是為了預測地震,而是為了瞭解那裡的現象,做好大地震的準備。

  • There are use of what we call earthquake scenarios, Um, and what those are?

    有使用我們所謂的地震方案, 嗯,那些是什麼?

  • They're not predictions, but they're incredibly useful in the sense that many times we don't see changes in codes or anything until after there's an earthquake and we learned everything that went wrong.

    它們不是預測,但它們非常有用,因為很多時候我們看不到代碼的變化或任何東西,直到發生地震後,我們才知道所有出錯的地方。

  • We use the tool of earthquake scenario, so we choose believable earthquake.

    我們利用地震情景的工具,所以我們選擇可信的地震。

  • That could happen in a certain area to try to understand what maybe some of the key vulnerabilities around that particular city or area, whether it's a water system or the housing or the hospitals to try to get ahead and trying to and still safer practices or actions that will help us address those vulnerabilities before nor figure first midst expert here the most.

    這可能發生在某個地區,試圖瞭解什麼也許一些關鍵的脆弱性周圍的特定城市或地區,無論是水系統或住房或醫院,以嘗試取得領先,並試圖和仍然更安全的做法或行動,這將有助於我們解決這些脆弱性之前也不圖第一中間專家在這裡最。

  • So in tall buildings, it's always safer to be on a lower floor.

    所以在高樓裡,在低樓層總是比較安全的。

  • If you're in a tall building, especially in a place where the codes are usually followed, it's likely that they're actually, they're even higher requirements in terms of design.

    如果你在高樓裡,特別是在一個通常遵循規範的地方,很可能他們實際上,他們在設計上的要求更高。

  • And so funds of the building is safe.

    所以大樓的資金是安全的。

  • It doesn't.

    它沒有。

  • It doesn't matter too much where you are.

    你在哪裡並不太重要。

  • That being said, if there is more movements, that's when there is really, really important to make sure that the contents within your house or whatever the office building are secured and that they can't fall over and topple over and hurt you.

    也就是說,如果動靜比較大,這時候就真的非常非常重要了,要確保你的房子或者是什麼辦公樓內的東西都是安全的,不能倒下翻倒,傷到你。

  • California will fall into the ocean.

    加利福尼亞州將落入大海。

  • Well, the answer is, of course not.

    嗯,答案是,當然不是。

  • California would not fall into the ocean part of California, the westernmost sliver of California.

    加州不會落入加州的海洋部分,是加州最西邊的一片。

  • It sits on the Pacific Plate, whereas the rest of California sits on the North American plate, and these two plates move one relative to one another at a rate of about five to six centimeters per year.

    它位於太平洋板塊上,而加州其他地區則位於北美板塊上,這兩個板塊以每年約五到六釐米的速度一個相對一個地移動。

  • So, yes, when people say Los Angeles is going to end up near Anchorage?

    所以,是的,當人們說洛杉磯最終會靠近安克雷奇?

  • Well, yes, eventually, but in many millions of years.

    嗯,是的,最終,但在許多百萬年。

  • Okay, there's such thing as earthquake weather.

    好吧,有地震天氣這回事。

  • But no, there is no season for earthquakes.

    但不,地震是沒有季節的。

  • There is no weather for earthquakes, and there is no specific time for earthquakes.

    地震沒有天氣,地震也沒有具體時間。

  • You might be thinking of a very, very convenient time that an earthquake would happen.

    你可能會想到一個非常非常方便的時間,地震會發生。

  • It would be very inconvenient.

    這將是非常不方便的。

  • You think about earthquakes, shake and you have to think about different times of the year and different times of the day.

    你想到地震,搖搖欲墜,你要想到一年中不同的時間,不同的時段。

  • You might be sleeping or it might be winter.

    你可能在睡覺,也可能是冬天。

  • It might be rainy, and so the danger is that you're not thinking of kind of all these scenarios.

    可能是雨天,所以危險的是你沒有想到種所有這些情況。

  • Bigger earthquakes happen under full moons.

    更大的地震發生在滿月之下。

  • People connect that to the pull of tides.

    人們把它和潮汐的拉力聯繫起來。

  • And it's true.

    而且是真的。

  • We are very used to the ocean being deformed and the water level changing due to the tides, depending on the cycles of the moon.

    我們已經非常習慣海洋變形,水位因潮汐而變化,這取決於月亮的週期。

  • And this also happens in the earth, the earth itself.

    而這種情況也發生在地球上,地球本身。

  • The continents themselves are deformed because of this rotation of the moon.

    由於月球的這種旋轉,大陸本身就會變形。

  • The deformation is not large enough to produce earthquakes, and people have looked at statistics to see, and there has been absolutely no court relation at all.

    變形量不大,不足以產生地震,大家看了統計資料就知道了,完全沒有宮廷關係。

  • A lot of the actions that you need to take to really protect community and to protect people need to be taken years before the earthquake actually arrives.

    很多你需要採取的行動,以真正保護社區和保護人民,需要在地震真正到來之前幾年採取。

the ground can open up during an earthquake.

地震時地面會開裂。

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B1 中級 中文 地震 建築 板塊 安全 預測 神話

地震專家揭穿13個地震神話|揭穿地震神話 (Earthquake Experts Debunk 13 Earthquake Myths | Debunked)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 03 月 15 日
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