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  • Right now

    現在

  • you have a movie playing inside your head.

    你的大腦裡正播放一部電影,

  • It's an amazing multi-track movie.

    一部很棒的多軌道電影,

  • It has 3D vision and surround sound

    它有3D視覺特效與環繞音效,

  • for what you're seeing and hearing right now,

    為你帶了一場視聽盛宴,

  • but that's just the start of it.

    但是還不只如此。

  • Your movie has smell and taste and touch.

    你還能聞到、嚐到、觸摸到,

  • It has a sense of your body,

    它與你的身體感官融為一體,

  • pain, hunger, orgasms.

    痛覺、飢餓、高潮,

  • It has emotions,

    它還有感情、

  • anger and happiness.

    憤怒與開心,

  • It has memories, like scenes from your childhood

    它擁有回憶,像是兒時情景

  • playing before you.

    在你面前播放著,

  • And it has this constant voiceover narrative

    在你的意識流裏

  • in your stream of conscious thinking.

    還有似近似遠的旁白解說。

  • At the heart of this movie is you

    這部電影的主角是你,

  • experiencing all this directly.

    直接經歷所有一切。

  • This movie is your stream of consciousness,

    這部電影就是你的意識流,

  • the subject of experience

    對於內在世界甚至與外在世界

  • of the mind and the world.

    主觀的精神體驗。

  • Consciousness is one of the fundamental facts

    意識是人類存在

  • of human existence.

    的幾個重要基礎之一,

  • Each of us is conscious.

    我們每一個人都具備意識。

  • We all have our own inner movie,

    我們都主演一部內在的電影,

  • you and you and you.

    你、你,還有你。

  • There's nothing we know about more directly.

    沒有比意識更直接的感受了,

  • At least, I know about my consciousness directly.

    至少我能直接理解我意識,

  • I can't be certain that you guys are conscious.

    但我無法確知你們是否都有意識。

  • Consciousness also is what makes life worth living.

    意識賦予存在意義,

  • If we weren't conscious, nothing in our lives

    如果我們沒有意識,

  • would have meaning or value.

    生命中的一切便失去意義和價值,

  • But at the same time, it's the most

    這是宇宙之中

  • mysterious phenomenon in the universe.

    最神秘令人費解的現象。

  • Why are we conscious?

    為何我們擁有意識?

  • Why do we have these inner movies?

    為何我們擁有這些內心世界的電影?

  • Why aren't we just robots

    為何我們不像機器人一樣,

  • who process all this input,

    只是簡單的輸入資料,

  • produce all that output,

    輸出資料,

  • without experiencing the inner movie at all?

    對內在的感受全然不覺?

  • Right now, nobody knows the answers

    這個問題至今

  • to those questions.

    沒有解答。

  • I'm going to suggest that to integrate consciousness

    我認為研究意識這一門科學,

  • into science, some radical ideas may be needed.

    我們需要建立一些基礎概念,

  • Some people say a science of consciousness

    許多人認為對意識進行研究

  • is impossible.

    是不可能的,

  • Science, by its nature, is objective.

    科學的本質是客觀的,

  • Consciousness, by its nature, is subjective.

    意識的本質卻是主觀的,

  • So there can never be a science of consciousness.

    所以不可能以客觀的科學 研究主觀的意識,

  • For much of the 20th century, that view held sway.

    這是二十世紀普遍存在的論點。

  • Psychologists studied behavior objectively,

    心理學以客觀方法研究人類的行為,

  • neuroscientists studied the brain objectively,

    神經學家以客觀方法研究大腦,

  • and nobody even mentioned consciousness.

    卻沒有任何人提及意識,

  • Even 30 years ago, when TED got started,

    甚至在三十年前 TED 剛開始的時候,

  • there was very little scientific work

    當時關於意識的研究

  • on consciousness.

    也是少之又少。

  • Now, about 20 years ago,

    大約二十年前,

  • all that began to change.

    改變開始了。

  • Neuroscientists like Francis Crick

    神經科學家,比如 Francis Crick,

  • and physicists like Roger Penrose

    以及物理學家比如 Roger Penrose

  • said now is the time for science

    認為現在該是科學家

  • to attack consciousness.

    著手研究意識的時候了,

  • And since then, there's been a real explosion,

    真正的探索至此開始,

  • a flowering of scientific work

    隨之而來的是意識研究的

  • on consciousness.

    黃金時代,

  • And this work has been wonderful. It's been great.

    研究成果斐然,

  • But it also has some fundamental

    但至今仍存在著

  • limitations so far.

    幾個根本上的研究限制。

  • The centerpiece

    近年來

  • of the science of consciousness in recent years

    關於意識的研究

  • has been the search for correlations,

    主要集中在研究

  • correlations between certain areas of the brain

    某些腦區同

  • and certain states of consciousness.

    種特定意識狀態之間的聯繫。

  • We saw some of this kind of work

    Nancy Kanwisher 讓我們

  • from Nancy Kanwisher and the wonderful work

    了解了一些這樣的研究,

  • she presented just a few minutes ago.

    幾分鐘前她在演說中分享了研究成果,

  • Now we understand much better, for example,

    現在我們(對於意識)更加了解了,比如

  • the kinds of brain areas that go along with

    某些腦區同

  • the conscious experience of seeing faces

    面部識別有關,

  • or of feeling pain

    有的與痛覺有關,

  • or of feeling happy.

    還有的與快感有關,

  • But this is still a science of correlations.

    但這只是說明它們有相關性,

  • It's not a science of explanations.

    還不能夠解釋原因。

  • We know that these brain areas

    我們知道這些腦區

  • go along with certain kinds of conscious experience,

    與某些意識經驗有關聯,

  • but we don't know why they do.

    但不知道為何有關聯。

  • I like to put this by saying

    我認為

  • that this kind of work from neuroscience

    某些神經學研究

  • is answering some of the questions

    的確解釋了一些關於

  • we want answered about consciousness,

    意識的疑問,

  • the questions about what certain brain areas do

    找出了那些特定的腦區的作用

  • and what they correlate with.

    以及它們之間的相關性,

  • But in a certain sense, those are the easy problems.

    但在某種意義上,這些只是簡單的疑問,

  • No knock on the neuroscientists.

    並沒有難倒神經學家。

  • There are no truly easy problems with consciousness.

    事實上,關於意識的問題都不簡單,

  • But it doesn't address the real mystery

    即便如此,還是沒有

  • at the core of this subject:

    解決核心的問題:

  • why is it that all that physical processing in a brain

    為什麼大腦中的物理過程

  • should be accompanied by consciousness at all?

    會和意識產生聯繫?

  • Why is there this inner subjective movie?

    為什麼會存在主觀的內心電影?

  • Right now, we don't really have a bead on that.

    現在我們對此還沒有很好的解答。

  • And you might say,

    或許你會說

  • let's just give neuroscience a few years.

    再多給神經科學多一些時間,

  • It'll turn out to be another emergent phenomenon

    它最終會向我們說明 意識也是一種湧現現象,

  • like traffic jams, like hurricanes,

    就像交通堵塞、龍捲風,

  • like life, and we'll figure it out.

    就像生命,我們會搞清楚的。

  • The classical cases of emergence

    所有湧現現象的經典案例都是

  • are all cases of emergent behavior,

    應急行為的表現,

  • how a traffic jam behaves,

    交通堵塞是如何形成的,

  • how a hurricane functions,

    龍捲風如何運作,

  • how a living organism reproduces

    生物體如何繁殖,

  • and adapts and metabolizes,

    適應環境,新陳代謝,

  • all questions about objective functioning.

    所有疑問都是關於客觀機能的。

  • You could apply that to the human brain

    你可以把它應用到人類大腦上

  • in explaining some of the behaviors

    去解釋人類大腦的某些行為

  • and the functions of the human brain

    和功能

  • as emergent phenomena:

    和湧現發象很像:

  • how we walk, how we talk, how we play chess,

    我們如何走、如何交談、如何下棋,

  • all these questions about behavior.

    這些問題都是關於行為的,

  • But when it comes to consciousness,

    但是當談到意識時,

  • questions about behavior

    關於行為的問題

  • are among the easy problems.

    就是一個簡單的問題。

  • When it comes to the hard problem,

    難的問題是

  • that's the question of why is it

    為什麼

  • that all this behavior

    這些行為

  • is accompanied by subjective experience?

    都伴隨著主觀體驗?

  • And here, the standard paradigm

    對此,湧現現象的

  • of emergence,

    標準範例,

  • even the standard paradigms of neuroscience,

    甚至是神經科學的標準範例,

  • don't really, so far, have that much to say.

    目前來講,也沒有什麼好說的。

  • Now, I'm a scientific materialist at heart.

    我本質上是一名科學唯物主義者,

  • I want a scientific theory of consciousness

    我想要一種行得通的

  • that works,

    關於意識的科學理論,

  • and for a long time, I banged my head

    長期以來

  • against the wall

    我想破了腦袋

  • looking for a theory of consciousness

    尋找一種行得通的

  • in purely physical terms

    但從物理角度

  • that would work.

    解釋意識的理論,

  • But I eventually came to the conclusion

    但我最終得出一個結論

  • that that just didn't work for systematic reasons.

    由於系統原因,它不會奏效。

  • It's a long story,

    說來話長,

  • but the core idea is just that what you get

    但是思想的核心就是

  • from purely reductionist explanations

    你從物理方面,在基於大腦方面

  • in physical terms, in brain-based terms,

    通過純粹的還原解釋得到的

  • is stories about the functioning of a system,

    都是關於系統的運行,

  • its structure, its dynamics,

    它的結構、活力、

  • the behavior it produces,

    產生的行為

  • great for solving the easy problems

    很適合解決簡單問題,

  • how we behave, how we function

    比如我們的行為如何活動,

  • but when it comes to subjective experience

    但涉及到主觀體驗時,

  • why does all this feel like something from the inside? —

    為什麼這些都像是來自內部?

  • that's something fundamentally new,

    這是個全新的

  • and it's always a further question.

    更進一步的問題。

  • So I think we're at a kind of impasse here.

    我覺得我們有點兒卡在這了,

  • We've got this wonderful, great chain of explanation,

    我們有一套美妙的解釋鏈,

  • we're used to it, where physics explains chemistry,

    我們習慣了用物理解釋化學,

  • chemistry explains biology,

    用化學解釋生物學,

  • biology explains parts of psychology.

    用生物學解釋心理學的一部分。

  • But consciousness

    但是意識

  • doesn't seem to fit into this picture.

    似乎並不符合這一情形,

  • On the one hand, it's a datum

    一方面它是一個已知數,

  • that we're conscious.

    就是我們是有意識的,

  • On the other hand, we don't know how

    另一方面我們不知道

  • to accommodate it into our scientific view of the world.

    如何讓它符合科學的世界觀,

  • So I think consciousness right now

    所以現在我認為意識

  • is a kind of anomaly,

    是一種反常事物,

  • one that we need to integrate

    我們需要整合

  • into our view of the world, but we don't yet see how.

    我們的世界觀,但如今還沒有找到方法,

  • Faced with an anomaly like this,

    面對這樣的異常事物,

  • radical ideas may be needed,

    可能需要激進的想法,

  • and I think that we may need one or two ideas

    我認為,我們在科學地

  • that initially seem crazy

    抓住意識之前,

  • before we can come to grips with consciousness

    可能需要一兩個

  • scientifically.

    最初看起來瘋狂的點子。

  • Now, there are a few candidates

    現在對於這些瘋狂的想法是什麼,

  • for what those crazy ideas might be.

    已經有了一些選項。

  • My friend Dan Dennett, who's here today, has one.

    我的朋友 Dan Dennet 有一個想法,他今天也來了,

  • His crazy idea is that there is no hard problem

    他認為關於意識

  • of consciousness.

    完全沒有什麼難題。

  • The whole idea of the inner subjective movie

    主觀電影這一觀點

  • involves a kind of illusion or confusion.

    涉及到一種幻覺或困惑,

  • Actually, all we've got to do is explain

    實際上我們需要做的就是解釋

  • the objective functions, the behaviors of the brain,

    客觀功能大腦的行為活動,

  • and then we've explained everything

    然後就解釋了一切

  • that needs to be explained.

    需要被解釋的

  • Well I say, more power to him.

    要我說賜予他更多力量吧。

  • That's the kind of radical idea

    我們需要探索

  • that we need to explore

    這種激進的想法,

  • if you want to have a purely reductionist

    如果你想得出純簡化論的關於

  • brain-based theory of consciousness.

    意識的基於大腦的理論。

  • At the same time, for me and for many other people,

    同時,對我和其他人來說,

  • that view is a bit too close to simply

    這個觀點有些接近簡單地

  • denying the datum of consciousness

    直接否定有關意識的已知資料,

  • to be satisfactory.

    而不能令人滿意,

  • So I go in a different direction.

    因此我選擇了另外一個方向。

  • In the time remaining,

    在剩下的時間裡,

  • I want to explore two crazy ideas

    我想探討兩個我認為

  • that I think may have some promise.

    可能有希望的想法。

  • The first crazy idea

    第一個瘋狂的想法就是

  • is that consciousness is fundamental.

    意識是一種基本概念。

  • Physicists sometimes take some aspects of the universe

    物理學家有時會把宇宙中的某些方面

  • as fundamental building blocks:

    作為一種基本概念:

  • space and time and mass.

    空間、時間,和質量。

  • They postulate fundamental laws governing them,

    他們假定一些基本定律來約束它們,

  • like the laws of gravity or of quantum mechanics.

    比如重力定律,或量子力學定律,

  • These fundamental properties and laws

    這些基本性質和定律

  • aren't explained in terms of anything more basic.

    並不能解釋一些更基礎的東西,

  • Rather, they're taken as primitive,

    這相當於以它們為基礎,

  • and you build up the world from there.

    然後在構建其他。

  • Now sometimes, the list of fundamentals expands.

    現在這張基本定律的清單不時會擴大,

  • In the 19th century, Maxwell figured out

    19世紀 Maxwell 發現

  • that you can't explain electromagnetic phenomena

    不能用當時存在的基本概念——

  • in terms of the existing fundamentals

    空間、時間、質量、牛頓定律

  • space, time, mass, Newton's laws

    來解釋電磁現象,

  • so he postulated fundamental laws

    因此他設定了電磁現象的

  • of electromagnetism

    基本定律,

  • and postulated electric charge

    設定電荷作為

  • as a fundamental element

    這些定律的

  • that those laws govern.

    基本元素。

  • I think that's the situation we're in

    我認為這與我們在

  • with consciousness.

    研究意識上的情形是一樣的,

  • If you can't explain consciousness

    如果你不能用現有的

  • in terms of the existing fundamentals

    基本概念來解釋意識、

  • space, time, mass, charge

    空間、時間、質量、電荷,

  • then as a matter of logic, you need to expand the list.

    那麼從邏輯上來講就應該擴展清單。

  • The natural thing to do is to postulate

    自然就應該假設意識

  • consciousness itself as something fundamental,

    為某種根本的東西,

  • a fundamental building block of nature.

    自然界中最基本的一部分。

  • This doesn't mean you suddenly can't do science with it.

    這不意味著突然就不能用它來研究科學,

  • This opens up the way for you to do science with it.

    它為你研究科學開闢了一條新路,

  • What we then need is to study

    我們需要做的就是研究

  • the fundamental laws governing consciousness,

    控制意識的基本定律、

  • the laws that connect consciousness

    那些將意識與其他基本概念,

  • to other fundamentals: space, time, mass,

    空間、時間、質量

  • physical processes.

    相聯繫的概念。

  • Physicists sometimes say

    物理學家有時會說

  • that we want fundamental laws so simple

    我們希望基本定律簡單地

  • that we could write them on the front of a t-shirt.

    能讓我們印在T恤上,

  • Well I think something like that is the situation

    我想對意識的研究

  • we're in with consciousness.

    也同樣如此。

  • We want to find fundamental laws so simple

    我們希望基本定律簡單的

  • we could write them on the front of a t-shirt.

    能讓我們印在T恤上。

  • We don't know what those laws are yet,

    我們現在還不知道這些定律,

  • but that's what we're after.

    但這是我們接下來要做的。

  • The second crazy idea

    第二個瘋狂的想法是

  • is that consciousness might be universal.

    意識也許是普遍存在的。

  • Every system might have some degree

    每個系統都有

  • of consciousness.

    某種程度的意識,

  • This view is sometimes called panpsychism:

    這種觀點被稱作泛心論,

  • pan for all, psych for mind,

    一切皆有心理活動,

  • every system is conscious,

    每個系統都是有意識的,

  • not just humans, dogs, mice, flies,

    不僅僅是人類、狗、老鼠、蒼蠅,

  • but even Rob Knight's microbes,

    甚至 Rob Knight 的微生物,

  • elementary particles.

    基本粒子都有意識,

  • Even a photon has some degree of consciousness.

    甚至一個光子都有某種程度的意識。

  • The idea is not that photons are intelligent

    這一觀點並不表明光子擁有智慧

  • or thinking.

    或更夠思考,