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  • This is Waladuna Mosque in Jakarta.

    這是雅加達的瓦拉杜納清真寺。

  • Its roof is in ruins.

    它的屋頂是一片廢墟。

  • Moss covers the walls.

    牆壁上佈滿了青苔。

  • And sea water flows through every corner of it.

    而海水則流過它的每一個角落。

  • The last time people prayed here was in 2001, back when it was above ground.

    上一次人們在這裡祈禱是在2001年,那時這裡還在地面上。

  • Today, it's a warning sign.

    今天,這是一個警告信號。

  • It signals what could happen to Indonesia's  capital city if things don't change soon.

    這預示著,如果事情不盡快改變,印尼首都可能會發生什麼。

  • Because, even though Jakarta faces the same sea rising levels

    因為,儘管雅加達面臨著同樣的海平面上升的問題

  • as other coastal cities around the world,

    和世界其他沿海城市一樣。

  • that's not quite what we're looking at here.

    這不是我們要看的東西。

  • Jakarta is sinking. And it's been sinking for decades.

    雅加達正在下沉。幾十年來,它一直在下沉。

  • These blue areas show just how much  the city has sunk since the 1970s.

    這些藍色的區域顯示了自20世紀70年代以來,這個城市已經沉淪了多少。

  • The darker the area gets, the more it's dropped.

    面積越暗,掉落的東西越多。

  • Here's how much it's descended today.

    這就是今天它的降幅。

  • Most of the sinking happens here, in the north coast,

    大部分的下沉發生在這裡,在北海岸。

  • where Jakarta meets the Java Sea.

    雅加達與爪哇海的交匯處。

  • Here, the land is sinking by about 25 cm a year,  

    在這裡,土地每年要下沉25釐米左右。

  • destabilizing the area, damaging homes,

    破壞該地區的穩定,破壞房屋;

  • and upending people's lives, over and over again.

    並顛覆人們的生活,一次又一次。

  • Many residents here are fishermen, who need  to live by the coast to make a living,

    這裡的很多居民都是漁民,他們需要在海邊生活,以維持生計。

  • but, further inland, Jakarta's more than  10 million residents are also at risk.

    但在更遠的內陸地區,雅加達的1000多萬居民也面臨著危險。

  • A huge portion of the city, and the homes of millions, could be underwater by 2050.

    到2050年,城市的一大部分,以及數百萬人的家園,可能會被淹沒。

  • Jakarta sits onswampy plain, on low coastal land.

    雅加達坐落在一片沼澤平原上,地處沿海低地。

  • It has 13 rivers that drain through it.

    它有13條河流流經這裡。

  • But the reason the city is sinking

    但城市下沉的原因

  • is actually that most people here don't have enough water.

    其實是這裡的大多數人沒有足夠的水。

  • Most Jakartans lack access to clean, piped water.

    大多數雅加達人無法獲得清潔的自來水。

  • Instead, they get their water  by digging wells like this one.

    相反,他們通過挖掘像這樣的井來獲取水源。

  • The pumps go deep into the ground to  extract the water stored in aquifers,  

    水泵深入地下,抽取蓄水層中的水。

  • underground layers of rock that hold groundwater.

    蘊藏地下水的地下岩層。

  • The porous spaces of the rock are filled with it.

    岩石的多孔空間被它填滿。

  • Multiply this by a few millionand you have a problem.

    乘以幾百萬,你就有問題了。

  • Think of the rock as a soaked sponge:

    把石頭看成是一塊浸泡過的海綿。

  • the more water is extracted, the more it deflates,

    抽出的水越多,就越是洩氣。

  • causing the soil to compact and collapse, and the ground above it to sink.

    導致土壤壓實塌陷,上面的地面下沉。

  • Pumps alone shouldn't be able to do this.

    單純的泵應該做不到這一點。

  • While some layers of earth will never recover their water,

    雖然有些土層永遠不會恢復其水分。

  • aquifers are usually refilled naturally when it rains.

    含水層通常會在下雨時自然回填。

  • But in Jakarta, that's becoming increasingly rare.

    但在雅加達,這種情況越來越少。

  • For decades, Jakarta has been developing at a fast pace,

    幾十年來,雅加達一直在快速發展。

  • and is now covered in concrete.

    並且現在已經被混凝土覆蓋。

  • So the rainfall that would usually fill up the aquifers isn't being absorbed.

    所以通常會填滿含水層的雨水沒有被吸收。

  • It's gotten so bad that in coastal areas prone to flooding,

    它變得如此糟糕,在沿海地區容易發生洪水。

  • like the fishing community Muara Baru,

    像漁業社區Muara Baru。

  • people have built makeshift bridges  to move through their neighborhoods.

    人們搭建了臨時的橋樑,以便在他們的社區中移動。

  • Combined with sea level rise,

    結合海平面上升。

  • it's also made floods during high tide and rainy seasons much more dangerous.

    這也讓漲潮和雨季的洪水變得更加危險。

  • Like in 2007, when Jakarta experienced one of the worst floods

    就像2007年,雅加達經歷了最嚴重的洪災之一

  • in its modern history.

    在其現代史上。

  • A storm and high tide caused rivers and canals around the city to overflow,

    一場暴風雨和大潮導致城市周圍的河流和運河溢出。

  • killing 80 people.

    殺害80人。

  • Maksim has already lost his home to the sinking,

    馬克西姆已經因為沉沒而失去了家園。

  • and now sleeps on his fishing boat.

    現在睡在他的漁船上。

  • And Nondho has had to rebuild his home several times.

    而農夫也不得不多次重建家園。

  • Groundwater pumping is putting  Jakarta's survival at risk.

    地下水抽水使雅加達的生存受到威脅。

  • But to understand how it got into this situation to begin with,

    但要明白一開始怎麼會變成這種情況。

  • you have to go back centuries.

    你必須回到幾個世紀前。

  • In the 1600s, when European  powers were colonizing the world,  

    在16世紀,當歐洲列強對世界進行殖民統治時。

  • the Dutch took over what was then  the port town of Jayakarta.

    荷蘭人接管了當時的港口城市查亞加達。

  • They razed it to the ground, and in its place, built Batavia:

    他們把它夷為平地,在它的位置上,建造了巴達維亞。

  • a headquarters for their growing empire.

    為他們不斷髮展的帝國提供一個總部。

  • They began to rule over the Indonesian,  

    他們開始統治印度尼西亞。

  • Chinese, Indian, and Arab people  who had lived there for centuries,  

    在那裡生活了幾個世紀的中國人、印度人和阿拉伯人。

  • and built their new city in the Dutch style,

    並以荷蘭風格建造了他們的新城。

  • with narrow townhouses along a grid of canals.

    沿著運河的網格,有狹窄的聯排別墅。

  • The canals were used for trade, defenseand to make Batavia feel like a Dutch city.  

    運河被用於貿易、防禦,並使巴達維亞感覺像一個荷蘭城市。

  • But look at Batavia from above,

    但從上面看巴達維亞。

  • and you can see the city grid served a darker purpose, too.

    而且你可以看到城市電網也有更黑暗的目的。

  • If you look closely, you'll notice  that there aren't many bridges

    如果你仔細觀察,你會發現,沒有多少橋樑

  • between the two sides, or between the blocks.

    兩邊之間,或塊之間。

  • This was by design. The Dutch were outnumbered.

    這是設計好的荷蘭人寡不敵眾

  • So, in order to control the local population, they divided it.

    於是,為了控制當地的人口,他們將其分化。

  • It looked like this.

    它看起來像這樣。

  • Pretty much every group was confined to their city quarter.

    幾乎每個團體都被限制在他們的城市區域。

  • The Dutch ruled over the local population like this for over a century.

    荷蘭人就這樣統治了當地居民一個多世紀。

  • But that began to change in the mid-1700s.

    但這種情況在17世紀中期開始發生變化。

  • Because the Dutch didn't properly maintain  the canals, they began to deteriorate,  

    因為荷蘭人沒有好好維護運河,運河開始惡化。

  • and sediment from earthquakes  blocked the flow of water.

    和地震產生的泥沙阻斷了水流。

  • The water in the canals turned  stagnant, and soon, deadly.

    運河裡的水變成了死水,很快,就變成了死水。

  • As disease spread through the canals,

    隨著疾病在運河中的傳播。

  • the wealthier Dutch moved south of Batavia,

    較富裕的荷蘭人搬到了巴達維亞以南。

  • where they began to develop a new  colonial administrative center.

    在那裡他們開始發展一個新的殖民行政中心。

  • But, despite the death and disease, the Dutch continued to leave the canals untreated.

    但是,儘管死傷無數,疾病纏身,荷蘭人還是繼續放任運河不處理。

  • Instead, they began to use piped water.

    相反,他們開始使用自來水。

  • In the 1870s, they developed the  first centralized water supply,  

    19世紀70年代,他們研製出了第一臺集中式供水設備。

  • with iron pipes to distribute water to homes.

    用鐵管將水分配到各家各戶。

  • The pipes provided clean drinking  water and indoor bathrooms.

    管道提供了清潔的飲用水和室內浴室。

  • But the pipes were concentrated in these  areas, where the Dutch had moved to.

    但管道集中在這些地區,荷蘭人已經搬到了這裡。

  • The indigenous population was left in  informal settlements, called "kampongs,"

    土著居民被留在被稱為 "Kampongs "的非正式住區。

  • far from the piped water.

    遠離自來水。

  • And this created a new kind of division in the city.

    而這也造成了城市的一種新的分裂。

  • Native residents had to rely  on street vendors for water.

    土生土長的居民不得不依靠街邊的小販買水。

  • But most often, they were forced to get  their water from the neglected canals.

    但大多數情況下,他們被迫從被忽視的運河中取水。

  • It took decades before pipes were  finally built in these communities.

    花了幾十年時間,這些社區的管道才最終建成。

  • And when they were, it would  only be a few public standpipes.

    而當他們在的時候,也只會是一些公共的站臺。

  • This continued through 1949.

    這種情況一直持續到1949年。

  • After an armed conflict, the Dutch finally recognized Indonesia's independence, and left.

    一場武裝衝突後,荷蘭人終於承認印尼的獨立,並離開了。

  • The legacy they left behind was a sprawling city,

    他們留下的遺產是一個龐大的城市。

  • built on marshland, and segregated by water access,

    建在沼澤地上,並以水路隔離。

  • that, now, Jakartans had to deal with.

    現在,雅加達人不得不處理。

  • Over the next decadesJakarta's population skyrocketed.

    在接下來的幾十年裡,雅加達的人口急劇增加。

  • More people required more housing, more storesand more streets.

    更多的人需要更多的住房、更多的商店和更多的街道。

  • And the city expanded fast.

    而且城市擴張得很快。

  • But its water infrastructure still  doesn't serve the majority of the city.

    但它的水利基礎設施仍然不能服務於城市的大部分地區。

  • This chart shows how much of  Jakarta's population has piped water.

    這張圖顯示了雅加達有多少人口擁有自來水。

  • It was 12 percent in the 50s, and  is still under 50 percent today.

    50年代是12%,現在還不到50%。

  • Many of the people without access to piped water

    許多無法獲得自來水的人;

  • have no other choice but to keep pumping groundwater to survive.

    沒有其他選擇,只能不斷地抽取地下水來生存。

  • And the city continues to sink.

    而這個城市還在繼續下沉。

  • The situation has gotten so bad,

    情況已經變得如此糟糕。

  • the Indonesian government has talked  about moving the capital, from Jakarta,

    印尼政府已經談到了遷都,從雅加達。

  • to the neighboring island of Borneo.

    到鄰近的婆羅洲島。

  • But that won't help the millions  of people living in Jakarta.

    但這對生活在雅加達的數百萬人來說,並沒有幫助。

  • To save the city, in 2014, the  government announced a project,  

    為了拯救這座城市,2014年,政府公佈了一個項目。

  • in collaboration with a Dutch architecture firm,

    與荷蘭一家建築公司合作。

  • to build and reinforce 120 km of seawalls,

    修建和加固120公里的海堤。

  • to stop the water from flooding  the land as it sinks.

    以阻止水在下沉時淹沒土地。

  • But so far, only these 10 kilometers have been reinforced.

    但到目前為止,只有這10公里得到了加固。

  • Like this one in Muara Baru.

    像這個在Muara Baru。

  • The problem is that, just like the rest  of Jakarta, the seawall is sinking.

    問題是,和雅加達其他地方一樣,海堤也在下沉。

  • The project also includes an ambitious $40 billion plan

    該項目還包括一項雄心勃勃的400億美元計劃。

  • to build a 38 km wall, shaped like a massive bird,

    以建造一堵38公里長的牆,形似一隻巨大的鳥。

  • to protect the coast from flooding.

    以保護海岸不被淹沒。

  • But this project could take  up to 30 years to complete.

    但這個項目可能需要30年才能完成。

  • And by then, Jakarta could have  lost most of its coastal land.

    而到那時,雅加達可能已經失去了大部分的沿海土地。

  • Jakarta will continues to sink until  groundwater stops being pumped.

    雅加達將繼續下沉,直到停止抽取地下水。

  • And groundwater will continue to be pumped

    而地下水將繼續被抽取

  • until the government provides an alternative.

    直到政府提供一個替代方案。

  • This has been done before. In the 1950s,

    以前也有人這樣做。在20世紀50年代。

  • Tokyo managed to stop severe  sinking by providing piped water.

    東京通過提供自來水,成功阻止了嚴重的下沉。

  • Taipei, Shanghai, Bangkokare other cities in the region  

    臺北、上海、曼谷等地區的城市。

  • that have managed to stop their cities from sinking.

    成功阻止其城市下沉的。

  • But time is running out.

    但時間已經不多了。

  • Jakarta has been free of Dutch rule for a little over 70 years now.

    雅加達擺脫荷蘭人的統治已經有70多年了。

  • But the way the Dutch built their city, carved it up,

    但荷蘭人建造城市的方式,把它刻畫得淋漓盡致。

  • and restricted its water, plagues it to this day.

    並限制其用水,困擾至今。

  • Jakarta is sinking into the sea.

    雅加達正在沉入大海。

  • And, until its government figures out how to provide clean, piped water for its citizens,

    而且,直到政府想出如何為公民提供清潔的自來水。

  • that will continue to be its reality.

    這將繼續成為其現實。

  • For as long as it's still here.

    只要它還在這裡。

This is Waladuna Mosque in Jakarta.

這是雅加達的瓦拉杜納清真寺。

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B1 中級 中文 Vox 雅加達 荷蘭人 城市 運河 自來水

雅加達為何沉淪 (Why Jakarta is sinking)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 02 月 19 日
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