Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • Here in this abundant forest, Malassezia is equipped with everything it could ever need.

    在這片富饒的森林中,馬拉色菌擁有一切所需。

  • Feasting constantly, it's in paradise.

    盛宴不斷,彷彿在天堂一般。

  • But waitwhat's this?

    但是等等,這是什麼?

  • In fact, Malassezia is a type of yeast that lives and dines on all of our scalps.

    事實上,馬拉色菌是一種酵母菌,它在我們的頭皮上生活和吃飯。

  • And in about half of the human population, its activity causes dandruff.

    它的活動讓世界上一半的人口長頭皮屑。

  • So, why do some people have more dandruff than others?

    那麼為什麼有些人的頭皮屑比較多?

  • And how can it be treated?

    又該如何治療呢?

  • We might consider ourselves individuals, but we're really colonies.

    我們可能認為自己是個體,但我們其實是殖民地。

  • Our skin hosts billions of microbes.

    我們的皮膚上住著數十億微生物。

  • Malassezia yeasts make themselves at home on our skin shortly after we're born.

    在我們出生後不久,馬拉色酵母菌就在我們的皮膚上安了家。

  • Follicles, the tiny cavities that grow hairs all over our body, make for especially popular living quarters.

    我們遍佈全身的毛髮都是從毛囊長出來的,而這也是馬拉色菌最愛的住所。

  • Malassezia are fond of these hideouts because they contain glands that secrete an oil called sebum that's thought to lubricate and strengthen our hair.

    馬拉色菌之所以喜歡這些藏身之處,是因為它們含有一種腺體,會分泌出一種叫做皮脂的油,而一般認為這種油能潤滑和強韌毛髮。

  • Malassezia evolved to consume our skin's proteins and oils.

    馬拉色菌進化為以皮膚的蛋白質和油為食。

  • And because of its many sebum-secreting follicles, our scalp is one of the oiliest places on our bodyand consequently, one of the yeastiest.

    由於皮膚有很多分泌皮脂的毛囊,頭皮就成了全身最油的地方之一,也因而成為酵母菌最多的地方之一。

  • As these fungi feast on our scalp's oils, dandruff may form.

    這些真菌酵母在頭皮上大快朵頤時,頭皮屑就可能會形成。

  • This is because sebum is composed of both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

    這是因為皮脂是由飽和脂肪酸和不飽和脂肪酸所組成的。

  • Saturated fats neatly pack together.

    飽和脂肪的結構整齊緊密。

  • Unsaturated fats, on the other hand, contain double bonds that create an irregular kink in their structure.

    但另一方面,不飽和脂肪含有雙鍵,會在結構中產生不規則的扭結。

  • Malassezia eat sebum by secreting an enzyme that releases all of the oil's fatty acids.

    馬色拉菌會分泌一種酶,將油脂分解為脂肪酸來吃。

  • But they only consume the saturated fats, leaving the unsaturated ones behind.

    但他們只會吃飽和脂肪,並把不飽和脂肪放在一邊。

  • These irregularly shaped leftovers soak into the skin and pry its barrier open, allowing water to escape.

    這些形狀不規則的剩菜滲入皮膚,撬開屏障,讓水逸出。

  • The body detects these breaches and responds defensively, causing the inflammation that gives dandruff its itch.

    身體會偵測到這些破壞,並作出防禦性的發炎反應,而頭皮屑之所以會癢就是因為這些發炎反應。

  • It also makes the skin cells proliferate to repair the damaged barrier.

    頭皮的皮膚細胞也會增生,以修復損壞的屏障。

  • Usually, our skin's outer surface, or epidermis, completely renews itself every two to three weeks.

    通常身體的皮膚表面,也就是表皮,每二到三週會完全更新一次。

  • Epidermal cells divide, move outwards, die, and form the skin's tough outer layer, which gradually sheds off in single cells far too small to see.

    表皮細胞會分裂,向外移動,死亡,形成皮膚堅韌的外層,然後小到眼睛都看不到的細胞一個個逐漸脫落。

  • But with dandruff, cells churn out quickly to correct the broken barrier, meaning they don't mature and differentiate properly.

    但為了修補損壞的屏障,頭皮細胞必須快速增生,造成細胞未適當地成熟和分化。

  • Instead, they form large, greasy clumps around the hair follicle that are shed as visible flakes.

    相對的,它們會在毛囊周圍形成一團一團的油脂,並在脫落時變成一片片肉眼可見的碎屑。

  • This is how Malassezia's voracious appetite and our body's reaction to its by-products lead to dandruff.

    馬拉色菌貪婪的胃口,和我們的身體對它副產品的反應就是頭皮屑生成的原因。

  • Currently, the most effective way to get rid of dandruff is by using antifungals in things like shampoos, applied directly to the scalp, to kill Malassezia.

    目前,擺脫頭皮屑最有效的方法是使用抗黴菌的洗髮精,把它直接用在頭皮上來殺死馬拉色菌。

  • For those who experience dandruff, it usually comes and goes as sebum secretions vary throughout one's lifetime due to hormonal changes.

    對於有頭皮屑困擾的人來說,這種症狀通常會來來去去,因為皮脂分泌物的多寡在一生中會因荷爾蒙的變化而改變。

  • But despite the fact that Malassezia colonize everyone to a similar extent, not everyone gets dandruff.

    儘管馬拉色菌多多少少都會殖民在每個人頭上,但並不是每個人都會有頭皮屑。

  • Some people are more susceptible.

    有些人比較容易有這種困擾。

  • Exactly why is unclear.

    具體原因還不清楚。

  • Do people with dandruff have a certain genetic predisposition?

    會長頭皮屑的人是否有某些特殊基因?

  • Is their skin barrier more permeable?

    他們皮膚的屏障滲透率更高嗎?

  • Scientists are currently investigating if people with dandruff do, in fact, lose more water through their scalps, and whether this is what's leading their skin cells to proliferate.

    科學家目前正在研究頭皮屑患者的頭皮是否真的更容易脫水,以及他們的頭皮細胞是否因此而增生。

  • Researchers are learning that Malassezia communicate with our immune system using small, oily molecules called oxylipins that regulate inflammation.

    研究人員最近得知,馬拉色菌使用稱為氧脂素的油性小分子與免疫系統溝通,而氧脂素可以調節發炎反應。

  • If they can find a way to inhibit inflammatory oxylipins and boost anti-inflammatory ones, they could develop new treatments.

    如果能有辦法抑制引起發炎反應的氧脂素,同時增加抗發炎的氧脂素,他們就能開發出新的療法。

  • Scientists are also investigating if there's any benefit to our relationship with Malassezia.

    科學家們也在研究馬拉色菌對我們是否有益處。

  • They hypothesize that dandruff, which can be uncomfortable and embarrassing for us, creates a reliable, oily food source for the yeast.

    他們提出的假設是,儘管頭皮屑讓人不舒服和尷尬,對酵母菌來說,卻是可靠又富含油脂的食物來源。

  • But dandruff isn't contagious or a great threat to our health.

    但頭皮屑不會傳染,對我們的健康也沒什麼威脅。

  • And Malassezia seem to excel at defending their territory, our skin, from other, more harmful microbes like Staphylococcus aureus.

    馬拉色菌好像也很擅長保護他們的領地——我們的皮膚,免受金黃色葡萄球菌及其他有害微生物的危害。

  • So, while scientists have gotten to the bottom of many mysteries surrounding this condition, it must be said: dandruff remains a head-scratcher.

    因此,儘管科學家已經揭開圍繞這種疾病的許多謎團,但我們還是要說:頭皮屑還是讓我們不停搔頭。

Here in this abundant forest, Malassezia is equipped with everything it could ever need.

在這片富饒的森林中,馬拉色菌擁有一切所需。

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 皮膚 頭皮 毛囊 脂肪酸 分泌

有夠困擾!到底頭皮屑是怎麼形成的又該怎麼去除呢?! (What causes dandruff, and how do you get rid of it? - Thomas L. Dawson)

  • 3167 163
    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 10 月 15 日
影片單字