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  • In the late 1860s, scientists believed they were on the verge

    在19世紀60年代末,科學家們認為他們正處於這樣的邊緣

  • of uncovering the brain's biggest secret.

    揭開大腦的最大祕密。

  • They already knew the brain controlled the body through electrical impulses.

    他們已經知道大腦通過電脈衝控制身體。

  • The question was, how did these signals travel through the body

    問題是,這些信號是如何通過身體傳播的?

  • without changing or degrading?

    而不改變或降低?

  • It seemed that perfectly transmitting these impulses

    似乎完美地傳遞了這些衝動。

  • would require them to travel uninterrupted along some kind of tissue.

    會要求他們沿著某種組織不間斷地旅行。

  • This idea, called reticular theory,

    這種想法,叫做網狀理論。

  • imagined the nervous system as a massive web of tissue

    把神經系統想象成一個巨大的組織網。

  • that physically connected every nerve cell in the body.

    將身體裡的每一個神經細胞都物理地連接起來。

  • Reticular theory captivated the field with its elegant simplicity.

    網狀理論以其優雅的簡潔性吸引了該領域。

  • But soon, a young artist would cut through this conjecture,

    但很快,一位年輕的藝術家就會切斷這種猜想。

  • and sketch a bold new vision of how our brains work.

    併為我們的大腦如何工作勾勒出一個大膽的新願景。

  • 60 years before reticular theory was born,

    網狀理論誕生前60年。

  • developments in microscope technology

    顯微鏡技術的發展

  • revealed cells to be the building blocks of organic tissue.

    揭示了細胞是有機組織的構件。

  • This finding was revolutionary,

    這一發現是革命性的。

  • but early microscopes struggled to provide additional details.

    但早期的顯微鏡難以提供更多的細節。

  • The technology was especially challenging for researchers studying the brain.

    對於研究大腦的研究人員來說,這項技術尤其具有挑戰性。

  • Soft nervous tissue was delicate and difficult to work with.

    軟神經組織嬌嫩,工作難度大。

  • And even when researchers were able to get it under the microscope,

    甚至當研究人員能夠在顯微鏡下。

  • the tissue was so densely packed it was impossible to see much.

    組織密密麻麻,看不出什麼。

  • To improve their view,

    為了改善他們的看法。

  • scientists began experimenting with special staining techniques

    科學家們開始用特殊的染色技術進行實驗

  • designed to provide clarity through contrast.

    旨在通過對比度提供清晰度。

  • The most effective came courtesy of Camillo Golgi in 1873.

    最有效的是1873年由Camillo Golgi提供的。

  • First, Golgi hardened the brain tissue with potassium bichromate

    首先,高爾基用重鉻酸鉀使腦組織變硬

  • to prevent cells from deforming during handling.

    以防止細胞在搬運過程中變形。

  • Then he doused the tissue in silver nitrate,

    然後他把組織浸泡在硝酸銀中。

  • which visibly accumulated in nerve cells.

    它明顯地積累在神經細胞中。

  • Known as theblack reaction,”

    被稱為 "黑色反應",

  • Golgi's Method finally allowed researchers to see the entire cell body

    高爾基法終於讓研究人員看到了整個細胞體的情況。

  • of what would later be named the neuron.

    的,後來被命名為神經元。

  • The stain even highlighted the fibrous branches

    染色劑甚至突出了纖維狀的樹枝。

  • that shot off from the cell in different directions.

    細胞中射出的不同方向。

  • Images of these branches became hazy at the ends,

    這些樹枝的影像在末端變得模糊不清。

  • making it difficult to determine exactly how they fit into the larger network.

    使得難以確定它們究竟如何融入更大的網絡。

  • But Golgi concluded that these branches connected,

    但高爾基斷定,這些分支是相通的。

  • forming a web of tissue comprising the entire nervous system.

    形成一個由整個神經系統組成的組織網。

  • 14 years later, a young scientist and aspiring artist

    14年後,一個年輕的科學家和有抱負的藝術家。

  • named Santiago Ramón y Cajal began to build on Golgi's work.

    名為Santiago Ramón y Cajal的人開始在高爾基的工作基礎上進行研究。

  • While writing a book about microscopic imaging,

    在寫一本關於顯微成像的書時。

  • he came across a picture of a cell treated with Golgi's stain.

    他看到一張用高爾基染色劑處理過的細胞的照片。

  • Cajal was in awe of its exquisite detailboth as a scientist and an artist.

    卡哈爾對其精緻的細節讚歎不已--既是科學家又是藝術家。

  • He soon set out to improve Golgi's stain even further

    他很快就開始著手進一步改善高爾基的染色效果。

  • and create more detailed references for his artwork.

    併為他的作品創造更詳細的參考。

  • By staining the tissue twice in a specific time frame,

    通過在特定時間內對組織進行兩次染色。

  • Cajal found he could stain a greater number of neurons with better resolution.

    Cajal發現他可以用更好的分辨率來染色更多的神經元。

  • And what these new slides revealed would upend reticular theory

    而這些新的幻燈片所揭示的東西將顛覆網狀理論----------。

  • the branches reaching out from each nerve cell

    枝葉

  • were not physically connected to any other tissue.

    沒有物理連接到任何其他組織。

  • So how were these individual cells transmitting electrical signals?

    那麼這些單個細胞是如何傳遞電信號的呢?

  • By studying and sketching them countless times,

    通過對它們無數次的研究和勾畫。

  • Cajal developed a bold, new hypothesis.

    卡亞爾提出了一個大膽的新假設。

  • Instead of electrical signals traveling uninterrupted across a network of fibers,

    而不是電信號在光纖網絡中不間斷地傳輸。

  • he proposed that signals were somehow jumping from cell to cell

    他提出信號在細胞間跳躍的說法。

  • in a linear chain of activation.

    在一個線性的激活鏈中。

  • The idea that electrical signals could travel this way was completely unheard of

    電信號可以通過這種方式傳播的想法是完全聞所未聞的。

  • when Cajal proposed it in 1889.

    1889年卡哈爾提出時。

  • However his massive collection of drawings supported his hypothesis from every angle.

    然而他收集的大量圖紙從各個角度支持了他的假設。

  • And in the mid-1900s, electron microscopy further supported this idea

    而在20世紀中葉,電子顯微鏡進一步支持了這一觀點

  • by revealing a membrane around each nerve cell

    通過揭示每個神經細胞周圍的膜

  • keeping it separate from its neighbors.

    使其與鄰居分開。

  • This formed the basis of theneuron doctrine,”

    這形成了 "神經元學說 "的基礎。

  • which proposed the brain's tissue was made up of many discrete cells,

    其中提出大腦的組織是由許多離散的細胞組成的。

  • instead of one connected tissue.

    而不是一個個相連的組織。

  • The neuron doctrine laid the foundation for modern neuroscience,

    神經元學說奠定了現代神經科學的基礎。

  • and allowed later researchers to discover that electrical impulses

    並讓後來的研究人員發現,電脈衝

  • are constantly converted between chemical and electrical signals

    在化學和電信號之間不斷轉換

  • as they travel from neuron to neuron.

    當它們從一個神經元傳到另一個神經元時。

  • Both Golgi and Cajal received the Nobel Prize

    高爾基和卡亞爾都獲得了諾貝爾獎。

  • for their separate, but shared discoveries,

    為他們各自的,但共同的發現。

  • and researchers still apply their theories and methods today.

    和研究人員至今仍在應用他們的理論和方法。

  • In this way, their legacies remain connected as discrete elements

    這樣一來,他們的遺產仍然是作為離散的元素聯繫在一起的。

  • in a vast network of knowledge.

    在龐大的知識網絡中。

In the late 1860s, scientists believed they were on the verge

在19世紀60年代末,科學家們認為他們正處於這樣的邊緣

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 細胞 神經元 網狀 組織 顯微鏡

榮獲諾貝爾醫學獎的藝術家梅蘭妮-E-皮弗爾 (The artist who won a Nobel Prize... in medicine - Melanie E. Peffer)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 02 月 08 日
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