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  • Of all mankind's inventions, none was more consequential than the birth of language.

    在人類所有的發明中,沒有一項比語言的誕生更有意義。

  • Before its creation each person's knowledge was limited to what he or she

    在其產生之前,每個人的知識都只限於自己的

  • experienced directly. Afterward someone who learned something could share it

    直接體會到了。之後有人學到了東西可以分享

  • with anybody else. In this video, we'll look at four things known about language

    與其他任何人。在這段視頻中,我們將看看關於語言的四件已知的事情。

  • learning in general, and then listen to the story of lucky Lucy and poor Pete to

    學習一般,然後聽幸運的露西和可憐的皮特的故事,以

  • understand the importance of language in everyday life. Our brains foundation is

    瞭解語言在日常生活中的重要性。我們大腦的基礎是

  • built through experiences early in life. Pat Levitt from the center of the

    通過早期的經歷建立起來的。帕特-萊維特從中心的

  • Developing Child at Harvard University studied our brain development over the

    哈佛大學發展中的兒童研究了我們的大腦發展,在過去的一年中,我們的大腦發展了。

  • course of our life extensively. He showed how the brain's ability to change

    我們生命的過程中廣泛。他展示了大腦如何改變的能力

  • dramatically drops in the years of life, while the amount of effort such change

    在人生的歲月裡,這種變化的努力量會急劇下降,而這種變化

  • requires increases. Another research showed that at age five 90% of a kid's

    要求增加。另一項研究表明,在5歲時,90%的孩子的

  • brain has been formed. If during these years the child is blocked from

    大腦已經形成。如果在這些年裡,孩子被阻斷了從。

  • receiving stimulating experiences, the Language Center and other parts of the

    刺激性的體驗,語言中心和其他部分。

  • brain are likely to remain weak for life. We learn language socially by observing

    大腦很可能終生保持虛弱。我們通過觀察來學習社會語言

  • and imitating others. Some 1,000 years ago German emperor Friedrich II wanted

    和模仿他人。大約一千年前,德國皇帝弗里德里希二世就想

  • to prove the opposite and showed that we develop language naturally, all by

    來證明相反的事實,並表明我們自然而然地發展語言,都是通過

  • ourselves. He made his nannies raise some children.

    我們自己。他讓他的保姆撫養一些孩子。

  • they were allowed to feed and clean them, but not to interact socially, or ever

    他們被允許餵養和清潔他們,但不允許與他們進行社會交往,或者永遠不允許。

  • speak a word. Not one child learned to speak, but instead, they all died. For the

    說一句話。沒有一個孩子學會說話,反而都死了。對於

  • same reason toddlers can't learn language via tape

    同樣的道理,幼兒不能通過錄音帶學習語言。

  • or technology. They need to be motivated through a human relationship, then they

    或技術。他們需要通過人與人之間的關係來激勵,那麼他們就會

  • pay attention and learn.

    注意和學習。

  • Our language brain growth is strongest in year one. If we study the brains

    我們的語言大腦在一年級的時候增長是最強的。如果我們研究大腦

  • development by the rate of new synapse formation over the first 11 months of

    通過前11個月的新突觸形成率來判斷其發育情況。

  • life, and then the next 15 years, we can see how much the first five years matter.

    人生,然後是未來的15年,我們可以看到前5年有多重要。

  • The growth in the part of the brain responsible for language peaks between

    大腦中負責語言的部分的增長在以下時間段達到頂峰。

  • birth and age 3. During this critical period children can learn a new word

    出生到3歲。在這個關鍵時期,孩子們可以學習一個新的單詞

  • every 90 minutes and several languages simultaneously. Our sensory pathways

    每90分鐘和幾種語言同時進行。我們的感覺路徑

  • responsible for vision and hearing peak before, which makes sense because we need

    負責視覺和聽覺的峰值之前,這是有道理的,因為我們需要的是

  • to see and hear to imitate language. Four month old infants for example, if raised

    來看和聽來模仿語言。例如四個月大的嬰兒,如果養成了

  • bilingual by a British mom and the Chinese dad can already differentiate

    英國媽媽的雙語,中國爸爸的雙語,已經可以區分了。

  • between two languages just by observing the lip movements of their caregivers.

    僅僅通過觀察他們的照顧者的脣部動作,就可以在兩種語言之間進行交流。

  • Higher cognitive function such as logical reasoning peaks only once we

    邏輯推理等高級認知功能,只有當我們

  • have the words and know the symbols to make sense of our world. Language makes

    有文字和知道符號來理解我們的世界。語言使

  • our world: Rich language skills allow us to really listen, to speak well, to enjoy

    我們的世界。豐富的語言能力讓我們能夠真正地聽好、說好、享受好。

  • reading and master writing, they can create an entire world around us. As the

    閱讀和掌握寫作,他們可以在我們身邊創造一個完整的世界。作為

  • German philosopher Wittgenstein said: "the limit of my language is the limit of my

    德國哲學家維特根斯坦說:"我語言的極限就是我的極限

  • world". let's take for example the word "daycare center". Some people think of it

    我們以 "日託中心 "這個詞為例。有些人認為它是

  • as a "preschool" the Irish call it "play school" and the Germans invented the word

    作為 "學前班",愛爾蘭人稱之為 "遊戲學校",德國人則發明了 "遊戲學校 "這個詞。

  • "Kindergarten". Only if we know all three words can we understand what's possible.

    "幼兒園"。只有我們知道這三個字,才能明白什麼是可能。

  • Now let's listen to the story about lucky Lucy and poor Pete, two children

    現在讓我們來聽聽幸運的露西和可憐的皮特這兩個孩子的故事。

  • raised in two very different ways. Lucy is raised by her mother. The mother

    以兩種截然不同的方式撫養。露西是由母親撫養長大的。母親

  • is an average native English speaker who knows around 20,000 different words.

    是一個普通的英語母語者,他知道大約20,000個不同的單詞。

  • Pete's parents hire a nice nanny from a foreign country. Instead of speaking in

    皮特的父母從外國請了一個不錯的保姆。而不是用

  • her native language the nanny is told to talk to Peter only in English. While her

    她的母語,保姆被告知只能用英語與彼得交談。當她的

  • everyday English seems okay she actually knows only around 5,000 words. One

    日常英語看起來還不錯的她其實只認識5000個單詞左右。一

  • fourth of what Anne's mom knows. Year one is when the language brain is developing

    安妮媽媽所知道的四分之一。一年級是語言大腦發育的時候

  • the strongest. iÍf Lucy is awake half of the time her mom speaks she will hear

    如果露西在她媽媽說話的時候有一半時間是清醒的,她就會聽到。

  • around 10,000 words per day and maybe 2500 being directed at her. Directed

    每天一萬字左右,大概2500字是針對她的。導演

  • language is what matters. Whenever her mom connects a word with an actual

    語言才是最重要的。每當她的媽媽把一個詞與實際的

  • experience, Lucy learns its meaning. Pete hears

    經驗,露西知道了它的意義。皮特聽到

  • English only when the nanny deliberately speaks to him, around 1,000 words a day.

    只有在保姆刻意和他說話時才會說英語,每天1000字左右。

  • But not only is quantity lower but also the quality. As the nanny is not fluent,

    但不僅數量減少,品質也降低了。由於保姆的口語不流利。

  • there is a chance that many words come across broken. At their first birthday

    有可能會出現很多字的破綻。在他們的第一個生日

  • both kids can say: "mama" and "papa". What we don't see is that Lucy actually

    兩個孩子都能說:"媽媽 "和 "爸爸"。"媽媽 "和 "爸爸"。我們沒有看到的是,露西其實

  • already knows many many words even though she can't say them. But Pete's

    雖然她不會說,但已經認識了很多很多字。但皮特的

  • language universe is more limited. When Lucy and her mom look at picture

    語言的宇宙是比較有限的。當露西和她的媽媽看圖片

  • books, her mom points out what they see: a little monkey is also a gorilla, an ape,

    書,她的媽媽指出他們所看到的:小猴子也是一隻大猩猩,一隻猩猩。

  • a clever animal which uses tools, climbs trees and lives with his mama and papa

    聰明的動物,會使用工具,會爬樹,會和爸爸媽媽一起生活。

  • in the rainforests of Africa. When Pete looks at a picture book his learning is

    在非洲的雨林中。當皮特看圖畫書時,他的學習是

  • limited by the language of the nanny. The same monkey is just cute and eats

    受限於保姆的語言。同樣的猴子就是可愛,吃

  • bananas. To compensate he's given a language app, but as Pete lacks

    香蕉。為了補償他,他得到了一個語言應用,但由於皮特缺乏。

  • the foundation he doesn't understand a word. To him, it's just a bunch of new sounds

    他不明白一個字的基礎。對他來說,這只是一堆新的聲音。

  • strangely connected to colorful characters. On their second birthday Lucy

    陌生地與多彩的人物聯繫在一起。在他們兩歲生日的時候,露西

  • knows already well over 200 words, the amount where children start to learn

    已經認識200多個單詞,這是孩子們開始學習的數量。

  • rules and apply grammar. Pete knows less. Sometimes he gets frustrated because he

    規則和運用文法。皮特知道的比較少。有時他感到沮喪,因為他

  • can't express himself. Lucy likes to go with her mom into the park. Sometimes

    無法表達自己的想法。露西喜歡和媽媽一起去公園。有時候

  • they watch the old men play chess. She doesn't understand the game but knows

    他們看老人下棋。她不懂棋,但知道

  • that there are pawns, rooks, knights, a queen and a king, a bishop and

    有兵、車、馬、後、王、象、兵、馬等

  • a horse. One day she will learn the rules. It will be easy because she sees each

    一匹馬。總有一天,她會學會規則。這將是容易的,因為她看到每個

  • figure clearly. Her understanding of their special

    圖清楚。她對他們特殊的理解

  • skills is obvious. For a lack of language Pete sees just a big checkered board and

    技能是顯而易見的。對於語言的匱乏,皮特只看到一個大格子板和

  • some wooden figures which all look quite the same: pawns, knights, bishops. To

    一些木頭人偶,它們看起來都差不多:小兵、騎士、主教。要

  • understand the rules later will be hard for Pete. All figures look so similar. How

    明白了規則以後,皮特就很難了。所有的數字看起來都那麼相似。怎麼會

  • could they do different things? At their third birthday both can say their own

    他們可以做不同的事情嗎?在他們三歲生日的時候,他們都可以說自己的

  • name and form sentences. Lucy's vocabulary now holds 1500 words.

    名字和組成句子。露西的詞彙量現在有1500個單詞。

  • Pete's got 500 to make sense of this world. In year 4 they enter kindergarten.

    皮特有500塊錢來理解這個世界。在第四年,他們進入幼兒園。

  • When Pete stands in front of the big shelf he sees different wooden blocks,

    當皮特站在大架子前,他看到了不同的木塊。

  • the ball, some old toy, a horse and the yellow digger. When Lucy stands in front

    球,一些舊玩具,一匹馬和黃色挖掘機。當露西站在

  • of the same shelf, she sees circles, triangles, squares, a basketball, the red

    在同一個架子上,她看到了圓形、三角形、正方形、一個籃球、紅色的 "小 "字。

  • pinwheel, the beige rocking horse and the carton box of the lego technic digger.

    風車、米色搖擺馬和紙盒的lego technic digger。

  • At playtime, Lucy understands what others are talking about and often takes the

    在遊戲時,Lucy能聽懂別人在說什麼,並經常把自己的想法告訴別人。

  • lead by suggesting a new idea. Pete often doesn't understand what she means.

    通過提出新的想法來引導。皮特經常不明白她的意思。

  • If the group discusses something for longer, he zones out because he has

    如果小組討論某件事的時間較長,他就會因為自己有

  • trouble following the conversation. By the end of the year Lucy knows 3,500

    難以跟上對話。到了年底,露西知道了3500個。

  • words, where Pete only knows 1000 words. Lucy now forms more complicated

    字,而皮特只知道1000個字。露西現在形成了更復雜的

  • sentences in perfect grammar. In the evening her mom reads bedtime stories

    文法完美的句子。晚上,她媽媽給她讀睡前故事。

  • to her. Words she's missing, she learns out of context. As a native speaker, the mom

    對她來說。詞,她缺一不可,斷章取義。作為一個母語人士,媽媽

  • can raise and lower her voice, making the stories exciting. Fairy tales become

    可以提高和降低她的聲音,使故事變得精彩。童話故事變成了

  • alive in her head and Lucy learns to imagine and to think creatively. Pete

    在她的腦海中,露西學會了想象和創造性的思考。皮特

  • still speaks in more simple sentences and his grammar is not perfect. When his

    還是用比較簡單的句子說話,他的文法也不完善。當他的

  • nanny reads to him the voice is more monotone. It's more boring and paying

    保姆給他讀的聲音比較單調。比較枯燥,而且付出

  • attention is more difficult. Words he's missing, often remain missing. By the end

    注意力是比較困難的。他所缺少的話語,往往是一直缺少的。到了最後

  • of the year Lucy knows 6,000 and Pete knows 2,000 words.

    年的露西知道6000個字,皮特知道2000個字。

  • To understand why the actual difference in language abilities between

    要理解為什麼不同學生之間的語言能力存在實際差異。

  • the two is even larger than it seems, let's imagine that words are nothing but

    兩者之間的關係比看起來還要大,讓我們想象一下,文字不過是一種。

  • tools that help us encode the world, form thoughts, structure ideas and then

    工具,幫助我們對世界進行編碼,形成思想,架構思想,然後

  • communicate with others. With 6,000 words compared to 2,000 words

    與他人交流。與2000字相比,有6000字

  • Lucy's toolbox is now three times the size. Lucy has a huge head start as she

    露西的工具箱現在有三倍大了。露西有一個巨大的開端,因為她

  • is entering elementary school. Einstein by the way as a child seldom

    正在進入小學。順便說一下愛因斯坦小時候很少有

  • spoke one interesting anecdote goes like this: As he was a late talker and hardly

    說到一個有趣的軼事是這樣的。由於他說話比較晚,幾乎沒有

  • spoke at the age of seven his parents were worried and tried many things to

    七歲時就會說話,他的父母很擔心,想了很多辦法。

  • get him to speak. At one point they were afraid that he had learning disabilities.

    讓他說話。他們一度擔心他有學習障礙。

  • At last, at the dinner table one night, he broke his silence to say: "the soup is too

    最後,在一個晚上的飯桌上,他打破沉默說,"這湯太...

  • hot!", greatly relieved his parents asked why he had never said a word before?

    熱!",大大鬆了一口氣,父母問他為什麼以前從來沒有說過一句話?

  • The young genius replied: "Because up until now, everything was in order.". What are

    年輕的天才回答道。"因為到現在為止,一切都很正常。"什麼是

  • your thoughts about language learning? Can someone like Pete still catch up

    你對語言學習的看法?像皮特這樣的人還能趕上

  • later in life or maybe find other good ways to express himself?

    在以後的生活中,或者可以找到其他好的方式來表達自己?

  • Maybe our point of view is too narrow and Pete and Lucy actually balance each

    也許是我們的視野太狹窄了,皮特和露西其實是互相平衡的。

  • other out with the different skills they have? Please share your thoughts in the

    的不同技能的其他出?請在

  • comments below!

    評論如下

  • Millions of students from all around the globe have watched our sprouts videos

    來自世界各地的數百萬學生觀看了我們的芽菜視頻。

  • for better learning, thousands of teachers play them in their classrooms

    為了更好的學習,成千上萬的教師在課堂上播放他們的作品

  • to start projects, volunteers on YouTube have translated them to over 25

    志願者們在YouTube上將這些項目翻譯成超過25種語言。

  • languages. Our mission is to promote learning by doing in classrooms around

    語言。我們的使命是在課堂上通過實踐促進學習,圍繞著

  • the world. If you are a great explainer and a passionate teacher and you want to

    的世界。如果你是一個優秀的講解員,一個充滿激情的老師,你想要

  • help us develop outstanding content contact us, to support our channel with a

    幫助我們開發優秀的內容聯繫我們,以支持我們的管道與

  • donation visit www.patreon.com/sprouts

    捐獻請訪問www.patreon.com/sprouts

Of all mankind's inventions, none was more consequential than the birth of language.

在人類所有的發明中,沒有一項比語言的誕生更有意義。

字幕與單字
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B1 中級 中文 露西 皮特 語言 保姆 大腦 媽媽

語言的學習和發展。生命的頭5年 (Learning and Development of Language: The First 5 Years of Life)

  • 8 3
    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 31 日
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