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  • Erikson's Theory of Psycho-social Development

    艾瑞克森心理社會發展理論

  • identifies eight stages in which a healthy individual

    健康的個體從出生到死亡

  • should pass through from birth to death.

    共會經歷8個發展階段

  • At each stages we encounter different needs,

    每個階段我們會有不同的需求

  • ask new questions and meet people

    會有不同的議題

  • who influence our behaviour and learning.

    並遇見許多影響我們行為與學習的人

  • Stage 1 "Basic Trust vs. Mistrust"

    階段1: 信任他人vs.不信任

  • #Infancy (1-2 years)

    嬰兒期(1-2歲)

  • As infants we ask ourselves if we can trust the world

    當還是嬰兒時我們會問自己,是否能夠信任這世界

  • and we wonder if it's safe.

    以及這世界是否安全

  • We learn that if we can trust someone now,

    如果在此階段我們學習到可以信任某人

  • we can also trust others in the future.

    未來我們也能信任他人

  • If we experience fear,

    但如果我們經歷的是害怕

  • we develop doubt and mistrust.

    則會發展出懷疑與不信任的性格

  • The key to our development is our mother.

    此時影響我們的重要他人是我們的母親

  • Stage 2 "Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt"

    階段2:活潑自信vs.羞恥懷疑

  • #Early childhood (2-4 years)

    幼兒期(2-4歲)

  • In our early childhood,

    在我們的幼兒期

  • we experience ourselves and discover our body.

    我們開始了解自己並發展肢體

  • We ask: is it okay to be me?

    我們會問: 我這樣可以嗎?

  • If we are allowed to discover ourselves,

    如果我們被允許去發掘我們自己

  • then we develop self-confidence.

    那麼我們就會建立自信

  • If we are not, we can develop shame and self-doubt.

    如果不被允許,我們則會產生羞恥與自我懷疑

  • Both parents now play a major role.

    此時父母扮演重要的角色

  • Stage 3 "Initiative vs. Guilt"

    階段3:自動自發vs.退縮內疚

  • #Preschool Age (4-5 years)

    遊戲期(4-5歲)

  • In preschool, we take initiative, try out new things,

    在遊戲期,我們主動嘗試新事物

  • and learn basic principles like how round things roll.

    並學習基本原理

  • We ask: Is it okay for me to do what I do?

    我們會問: 我這樣做是可以的嗎?

  • If we are encouraged, we can follow our interests.

    若我們被鼓勵,我們就可以發展我們的興趣

  • If we are held back or told that what we do is silly,

    如果我們被阻止或被告知我們所做的是丟臉的

  • we can develop guilt.

    我們就會發展罪惡感

  • We are now learning from the entire family.

    此時我們從家庭中學習

  • Stage 4 "Industry vs. Inferiority"

    階段4:勤奮努力vs.自貶自卑

  • #School Age (5-12 years)

    學齡期(5-12歲)

  • Now we discover our own interests

    此階段我們發現了自己的興趣

  • and realize that we are different from others.

    並了解我們與眾不同

  • We want to show that we can do things right.

    我們想表現出我們能做得很好

  • We ask if we can make it in this world?

    我們會問:在這個世界上我們能這麼做嗎?

  • If we receive recognition from our teachers

    如果我們從老師或同儕得到認可

  • or peers we become industrious,

    我們會變得主動

  • which is another word for hard-working.

    也就是自動自發、認真努力

  • If we get too much negative feedback,

    但如果我們得到太多否定的回饋

  • we start to feel inferior and lose motivation.

    我們會開始感到自卑並失去動力

  • Our neighbors and schools now influence us the most.

    此階段中,我們的鄰居和學校是影響我們最大的

  • Stage 5 "Identity vs. Role Confusion"

    階段5:自我認同vs.角色混淆

  • #Adolescence (13–19 years)

    青春期(13-19歲)

  • During adolescence we learn that we have different social roles.

    青春期階段我們學到我們有不同的社會角色

  • We are friends, students, children and citizens.

    我們可能是朋友、學生、小孩和公民

  • Many experience an identity crises.

    每個身分都有認同危機

  • If our parents now allow us to go out and explore,

    如果我們的父母允許我們去探索

  • we can find identity.

    我們就能找到自我認同

  • If they push us to conform to their views,

    如果父母要求我們聽從他們的意見

  • we can face role confusion and feel lost.

    我們可能會面臨角色混淆並感到失落

  • Key to our learning are our peers and role models.

    此時同儕與偶像是我們的重要他人

  • Stage 6 "Intimacy vs. Isolation"

    階段6:親密友愛vs.孤獨疏離

  • #Early Adulthood (20-40 years)

    青年期(20-40歲)

  • As young adults we slowly understand who we are

    在青年期,我們漸漸了解我們是誰

  • and we start to let go of the relationships

    並且開始懂得放棄之前建立的關係

  • we had built earlier in order to fit in.

    以便適應

  • We ask ourselves if we can love?

    我們會問:我能愛嗎?

  • If we can make a long-term commitment,

    若我們能做出長期的承諾

  • we are confident and happy.

    我們將感到自信快樂

  • If we cannot form intimate relationships,

    如果我們無法建立親密關係

  • we might end up feeling isolated and lonely.

    我們可能感受孤立與孤獨

  • Our friends and partners are now center to our development.

    此階段中,我們的朋友/夥伴成為發展中心

  • Stage 7 "Generativity vs. Stagnation"

    階段7 精力充沛vs.頹廢遲滯

  • #Adulthood (40-65)

    成年期(40-65歲)

  • When we reach our forties we become comfortable,

    當我們來到四十歲以後我們變得自在

  • use our leisure time creatively

    能盡情運用我們的休閒時光

  • and maybe begin contributing to society.

    並可能開始貢獻社會

  • Our concern is Generativity.

    我們關心的是生產力

  • If we think that we are able to lead the next generation into this world,

    如果我們認為我們能夠領導下一代進入這世界

  • we are happy.

    我們會感到快樂

  • If we did not resolve some conflicts earlier,

    但如果我們在前階段沒有處理好衝突

  • we can become pessimistic and experience stagnation.

    我們將會變得悲觀並進入停滯

  • People at home and at work are now who influence us most.

    此時家人和工作夥伴影響我們最深

  • Stage 8 "Ego Integrity vs. Despair"

    階段8 完美無憾vs.悲觀絕望

  • #Maturity (65-death)

    老年期(65歲至死亡)

  • As we grow older we tend to slow down

    當我們年老後,我們傾向慢下來

  • and begin to look back over our lives.

    並開始回顧我們的人生

  • We ask: how have I done?

    我們會問: 我的人生如何?

  • If we think we did well, we develop feelings of contentment and integrity.

    如果我們認為我們做得很好,我們會感到滿足無憾

  • If not, we can experience despair and become grumpy and bitter.

    如果不是,我們會感到絕望且變得暴躁

  • Time to compare us with mankind.

  • Erik Erikson was a German-American psychologist

  • who together with his wife Joan,

  • became known for his work on psychosocial development.

  • He was influenced by Sigmund and Anna Freud

  • and became famous for coining the phrase "Identity crisis."

  • Although Erikson lacked even a bachelor's degree,

  • he served as a professor at Harvard and Yale.

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Erikson's Theory of Psycho-social Development

艾瑞克森心理社會發展理論

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埃里克森八阶段理论(8 Stages of Development by Erik Erikson)

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    Ruby Huang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 29 日
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