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  • There are good boys,

    有好孩子。

  • and then there are very good boys

    還有一些很好的男孩

  • like these dogs here. They're searching for a scent

    就像這些狗一樣它們在尋找一種氣味

  • that no human can detect:

    人類無法察覺的。

  • the scent of an epileptic seizure.

    癲癇發作的氣味。

  • We've long known that dogs can detect seizures in humans

    我們早就知道狗能檢測到人類的癲癇發作。

  • in some cases 45 minutes before they occur.

    在某些情況下,在發生前45分鐘。

  • That's one reason why organizations like Handi'chiens

    這也是為什麼像Handi'chiens這樣的機構

  • in France provide service dogs for people with epilepsy.

    在法國為癲癇患者提供服務犬。

  • And in some cases, this can prove lifesaving.

    而在某些情況下,這可以證明是救命的。

  • It might give people time to take medication

    可能會讓人們有時間吃藥

  • that could prevent or reduce the severity of a seizure

    可以防止或減輕癲癇發作的嚴重性的措施。

  • or move somewhere safer where an injury

    或搬到更安全的地方,以免受傷

  • is less likely to occur.

    是不太可能發生的。

  • Incredible?

    難以置信?

  • Yes.

    是的,我知道

  • But proven?

    但經過證明?

  • Not until French researchers teamed up with Medical Mutts,

    直到法國研究人員與Medical Mutts合作。

  • a US-based organization that trains seizure alert dogs.

    美國一家訓練癲癇警報犬的組織。

  • That marker, they believed, was a scent

    他們認為,那個標記是一種氣味。

  • that dogs can detect.

    狗能發現的。

  • So in 2018, they set up an experiment.

    於是在2018年,他們設立了一個實驗。

  • First, they collected dozen of samples of

    首先,他們收集了十幾份樣品的

  • breath and sweat from people with

    人的呼吸和汗水

  • different forms of epilepsy.

    不同形式的癲癇。

  • Some of them were taken during or right after a seizure,

    其中一些是在癲癇發作期間或剛發作後拍攝的。

  • while others were collected after exercise or at rest.

    而其他的則是在運動後或休息時收集的。

  • Then they distributed them among seven different

    然後他們把它們分給七個不同的

  • steel containers in this room.

    這個房間裡的鋼製貨櫃。

  • Finally, they let out, or, they let in the dogs.

    最後,他們放了出來,或者,他們放了狗進來。

  • One by one, Casey, Dodger, Lana, Zoey, and Roo

    凱西、朵朵、拉娜、柔伊、魯魯一個接一個

  • walked into the room.

    走進了房間。

  • They were trained to stop and stand still

    他們被訓練得停在原地不動

  • if they think they detected the scent of a seizure.

    如果他們認為自己檢測到了癲癇發作的氣味。

  • And if they were right, they got a treat,

    如果他們是對的,他們就會得到獎勵。

  • good dog!

    好狗

  • To the researchers' excitement, the canines excelled.

    令研究人員興奮的是,這些犬類的表現非常出色。

  • Three of the dogs, Casey, Dodger, and Zoey,

    三隻狗,凱西、朵朵和佐伊。

  • sniffed out the odor associated with seizure with

    用嗅覺嗅出與癲癇發作有關的氣味。

  • 100% accuracy.

    100%的準確性。

  • The two other pups, Lana and Roo, who had less

    另外兩隻幼犬拉娜和魯,他們的體重較輕。

  • time to train, weren't quite as accurate.

    訓練的時間,是不是很準確。

  • But they still correctly identified two-thirds

    但他們仍然正確識別了三分之二的人

  • of the seizure samples on their first try.

    的癲癇樣本的第一次嘗試。

  • What makes these results even more remarkable

    是什麼讓這些結果更加顯著

  • is that the scent samples were from different people

    是,氣味樣本是來自不同的人

  • and also produced by different kinds of seizures.

    而且也是由不同種類的癲癇發作產生的。

  • And what exactly is that marker made of?

    而那個標記到底是用什麼做的呢?

  • Here's the thing: We still don't know.

    事情是這樣的:我們還是不知道。

  • It's likely that seizures trigger a change in the body's

    很可能是癲癇發作引發了身體的變化。

  • electrical activity, the researchers say.

    研究人員說,電活動。

  • And those changes can affect the

    而這些變化會影響到

  • composition of odor molecules that

    氣味分子的組成

  • we emit through our sweat, breath, and, likely, urine.

    我們通過我們的汗水,呼吸,和,很可能,尿液排放。

  • Now, whether people emit these odors

    現在,人是否會發出這些氣味

  • before a seizure in time to reduce its worst effects

    癲癇發作前,及時減少其最壞的影響。

  • is still in question,

    仍然是個問題。

  • and it's not something that the researchers tested.

    而這並不是研究人員測試的東西。

  • But some experts claim that people emit a specific

    但有專家稱,人們會發出一種特殊的

  • group of odor chemicals 15 to 45 minutes prior to seizing,

    在扣押前15至45分鐘,一組氣味化學品。

  • which dogs can detect.

    狗能檢測到的。

  • So what exactly makes canines such smell superstars?

    那麼到底是什麼原因讓犬類成為這樣的嗅覺巨星呢?

  • It's their incredible noses.

    這是他們不可思議的鼻子。

  • With as many as 300 million olfactory receptors,

    擁有多達3億個嗅覺受體。

  • a dog's nose is up to 100 thousand times

    狗鼻子十萬八千倍

  • stronger than our own.

    比我們自己的強。

  • That means they can detect a few scent molecules

    這意味著他們可以檢測到一些氣味分子。

  • among trillions of them.

    萬億人中。

  • Scientists are now trying to build electronic noses

    科學家們現在正試圖製造電子鼻子。

  • that are just as powerful.

    是一樣的強大。

  • The idea is that they too

    這個想法是,他們也

  • could be used to sniff out diseases.

    可以用來嗅出疾病。

  • But for now e-noses are nowhere near as good as dogs,

    但目前電子鼻還遠不如狗。

  • and in some ways, doesn't that seem like a good thing?

    在某些方面,這不像是一件好事嗎?

There are good boys,

有好孩子。

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狗狗如何嗅出癲癇發作的氣味 (How Dogs Sniff Out Seizures)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 27 日
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