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  • So anyway, who am I?

    好,我是誰。

  • I usually say to people, when they say, "What do you do?"

    當他們問我「你是做什麼的?」,我通常會這樣回應

  • I say, "I do hardware,"

    我說:「我是做硬體的。」

  • because it sort of conveniently encompasses everything I do.

    因為這樣很方便地涵括了我做的每一個東西。

  • And I recently said that to a venture capitalist casually at some

    而且,我最近在一個矽谷會議上就是這樣隨意地跟一個風險資本家說的。

  • Valley event, to which he replied, "How quaint."

    他則回答:「好奇怪。」

  • (Laughter)

    笑聲

  • And I sort of really was dumbstruck.

    我當時真的有些傻住了。

  • And I really should have said something smart.

    我當時真該說點聰明的。

  • And now I've had a little bit of time to think about it,

    現在我有一些時間去想想

  • I would have said, "Well, you know,

    我應該這麼說:

  • if we look at the next 100 years

    如果我們看未來的一百年,

  • and we've seen all these problems in the last few days,

    而我們在過去那幾天看到了這些問題,

  • most of the big issues -- clean water, clean energy --

    大部分這些重大議題,例如: 潔淨的飲水,潔淨的能源,

  • and they're interchangeable in some respects --

    這兩者在某種程度上是可以相互替換的,

  • and cleaner, more functional materials --

    且是更乾淨,更有功能的材料,

  • they all look to me to be hardware problems.

    他們對我來說都是硬體的問題。

  • This doesn't mean we should ignore software,

    這不代表我們應該忽視軟體,

  • or information, or computation."

    或資訊或計算。

  • And that's in fact probably what I'm going to try and tell you about.

    這事實上就是我接著要講的。

  • So, this talk is going to be about how do we make things

    所以,這演講是關於我們如何做東西,

  • and what are the new ways that we're going to make things in the future.

    以及我們將來有那些製造東西的新方法。

  • Now, TED sends you a lot of spam if you're a speaker

    現在,如果你是演講者,TED會寄給你一堆郵件

  • about "do this, do that" and you fill out all these forms,

    要你去做這個做那個,要你填一大堆表格

  • and you don't actually know how they're going to describe you,

    而事實上你並不知道他們將如何描述你

  • and it flashed across my desk that they were going to introduce me as a futurist.

    我剛剛才想到他們將把我描述成未來學家。

  • And I've always been nervous about the term "futurist,"

    談到未來學家這個詞我總是感到緊張

  • because you seem doomed to failure because you can't really predict it.

    由於未來是不可預測的,所以你似乎註定失敗。

  • And I was laughing about this with the very smart colleagues I have,

    關於這個我和我聰明的同事們都一起笑了,

  • and said, "You know, well, if I have to talk about the future, what is it?"

    接著說:「如果我必須談論未來,那未來是什麼?」

  • And George Homsey, a great guy, said, "Oh, the future is amazing.

    我的同事George Homsey,一個很聰明的傢伙,他說:「未來很美好的

  • It is so much stranger than you think.

    比你想像的還要更美好。

  • We're going to reprogram the bacteria in your gut,

    我們將給在你腸子內的細菌重新排列

  • and we're going to make your poo smell like peppermint."

    我們將讓你的大便聞起來像薄荷。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So, you may think that's sort of really crazy,

    你們可能覺得那真的非常瘋狂

  • but there are some pretty amazing things that are happening

    但是有一些神奇的新發明

  • that make this possible.

    使得那樣的事可能成真。

  • So, this isn't my work, but it's work of good friends of mine at MIT.

    這不是我的作品,是我在MIT的好朋友的作品。

  • This is called the registry of standard biological parts.

    這叫標準生物零件組。

  • This is headed by Drew Endy and Tom Knight

    這是由Drew Endy和Tom Knight主導的,

  • and a few other very, very bright individuals.

    還有一些其他非常非常優秀的人也參加。

  • Basically, what they're doing is looking at biology as a programmable system.

    基本上,他們所做的是把生物學看做是一個可程式化的系統。

  • Literally, think of proteins as subroutines

    把蛋白質想成是個副程式

  • that you can string together to execute a program.

    你可以把一些副程式組合成一個可執行的程式。

  • Now, this is actually becoming such an interesting idea.

    現在,這變成一個相當有趣的想法。

  • This is a state diagram. That's an extremely simple computer.

    這是一個狀態圖。它是一部很簡單的電腦。

  • This one is a two-bit counter.

    這是個雙位元的計算器。

  • So that's essentially the computational equivalent of two light switches.

    或從計算的角度來說,相當是兩個燈的開關。

  • And this is being built by a group of students at Zurich

    這是在一個生物設計競賽中

  • for a design competition in biology.

    由一群瑞士的學生製成的。

  • And from the results of the same competition last year,

    在去年相同比賽的結果中

  • a University of Texas team of students programmed bacteria

    德州大學的學生給細菌寫入程式

  • so that they can detect light and switch on and off.

    使得細菌可以感應燈光並且可以開燈和關燈。

  • So this is interesting in the sense that you can now

    這在某程度上相當有趣

  • do "if-then-for" statements in materials, in structure.

    將if then for的陳述句導入材料中、結構中

  • This is a pretty interesting trend,

    將會是一個很有趣的趨勢。

  • because we used to live in a world where everyone's said glibly,

    因為我們以前所生活的世界是一個模糊的世界,

  • "Form follows function," but I think I've sort of grown up in a world

    先有功能後有形態,但我相信我成長在一個

  • -- you listened to Neil Gershenfeld yesterday;

    像你昨天聽到Neil Gershenfeld描述的世界。

  • I was in a lab associated with his -- where it's really a world

    我在一個和他有關的實驗室,在那裡

  • where information defines form and function.

    是一個用資訊來定義形態和功能的世界。

  • I spent six years thinking about that,

    我花了六年的時間來想

  • but to show you the power of art over science --

    但要現在給你們看藝術的力量如何發揮在科學上。

  • this is actually one of the cartoons I write. These are called "HowToons."

    這是我畫的一部漫畫。它們叫做"好圖"

  • I work with a fabulous illustrator called Nick Dragotta.

    我和一個叫做Nick Dragotta的優秀漫畫家工作。

  • Took me six years at MIT,

    我在MIT待了六年,

  • and about that many pages to describe what I was doing,

    必須用很多篇幅來描述我那時做的事

  • and it took him one page. And so this is our muse Tucker.

    但他只用一頁漫畫就夠了。Tucker是我們的靈感來源。

  • He's an interesting little kid -- and his sister, Celine --

    他是一個很有趣的小孩,還有他姊姊Celine

  • and what he's doing here

    他在這裡做的事,

  • is observing the self-assembly of his Cheerios in his cereal bowl.

    是去觀察在他碗裡的燕麥圈自行組合的過程。

  • And in fact you can program the self-assembly of things,

    事實上你可以透過寫程式來控制物品自行組合的過程

  • so he starts chocolate-dipping edges,

    於是他從沾巧克力的燕麥圈開始做

  • changing the hydrophobicity and the hydrophylicity.

    改變其耐水性及抗水性。

  • In theory, if you program those sufficiently,

    理論上,只要你的程式夠完整

  • you should be able to do something pretty interesting

    你可以做出很有趣的東西

  • and make a very complex structure.

    還有很複雜的結構。

  • In this case, he's done self-replication of a complex 3D structure.

    在這裡,他做出可自行複製複雜的三維結構。

  • And that's what I thought about for a long time,

    我思考很久的正是這個,

  • because this is how we currently make things.

    因為這是我們目前做東西的方法。

  • This is a silicon wafer, and essentially

    這是一個矽晶片,而本質上,

  • that's just a whole bunch of layers of two-dimensional stuff, sort of layered up.

    是數層二維的東西堆積起來。

  • The feature side is -- you know, people will say,

    大部分的人認爲重要的特徵為

  • [unclear] down around about 65 nanometers now.

    厚度是65奈米。

  • On the right, that's a radiolara.

    右邊是一個放射蟲

  • That's a unicellular organism ubiquitous in the oceans.

    它是一種在海洋中大量存在的單細胞生物。

  • And that has feature sizes down to about 20 nanometers,

    而它的直徑為20奈米,

  • and it's a complex 3D structure.

    是個複雜的三維結構。

  • We could do a lot more with computers and things generally

    如果我們知道如何以這種方式製造

  • if we knew how to build things this way.

    我們還可以用電腦製造很多其他的東西。

  • The secret to biology is, it builds computation

    生物的奧秘在於,製造的時候有精細的計算。

  • into the way it makes things. So this little thing here, polymerase,

    這邊這個小東西是聚合酶,

  • is essentially a supercomputer designed for replicating DNA.

    本質上是一部專門複製DNA的超級電腦。

  • And the ribosome here is another little computer

    而核醣體是另一部小型電腦

  • that helps in the translation of the proteins.

    可幫助蛋白質的合成。

  • I thought about this

    我常常在想

  • in the sense that it's great to build in biological materials,

    在某方面來說用生物材料來建造是很棒的,

  • but can we do similar things?

    但我們能夠做類似的事情嗎?

  • Can we get self-replicating-type behavior?

    我們可以有自我複製的行為嗎?

  • Can we get complex 3D structure automatically assembling

    我們可以有複雜三維結構的自我合成嗎?

  • in inorganic systems?

    而且是在非生物的系統裡?

  • Because there are some advantages to inorganic systems,

    因為在非生物系統裡有很好的優勢

  • like higher speed semiconductors, etc.

    例如,更高速的半導體等等。

  • So, this is some of my work

    所以這就是我的工作,

  • on how do you do an autonomously self-replicating system.

    研究如何去建立一個可以自行複製的系統。

  • And this is sort of Babbage's revenge.

    這有點像是巴貝奇最初設計的計算機

  • These are little mechanical computers.

    這些是小型的機械電腦,

  • These are five-state state machines.

    這是五狀態的狀態機,

  • So, that's about three light switches lined up.

    有三個並排的電燈開關,

  • In a neutral state, they won't bind at all.

    在中性狀態下,他們不會自然接合。

  • Now, if I make a string of these, a bit string,

    但假如我做了一串這樣的東西,一個位元字串

  • they will be able to replicate.

    他們就能自行複製。

  • So we start with white, blue, blue, white.

    我們以白、藍、藍、白開始,

  • That encodes; that will now copy. From one comes two,

    他們經過編碼,之後就可以自行複製。從一到二,

  • and then from two comes three.

    再從二到三,

  • And so you've got this sort of replicating system.

    所以就得到了這樣的複製系統。

  • It was work actually by Lionel Penrose,

    這最初是由Lionel Penrose發現的,

  • father of Roger Penrose, the tiles guy.

    也就是Roger Penrose的父親。

  • He did a lot of this work in the '60s,

    他在六零年代做了很多這樣的東西,

  • and so a lot of this logic theory lay fallow

    但他很多關於邏輯的理論並沒有被重視

  • as we went down the digital computer revolution, but it's now coming back.

    現在因為有了數位計算機革命,這理論又有可能發光發熱。

  • So now I'm going to show you the hands-free, autonomous self-replication.

    現在我要給大家看的是不經過人工干預且全自動的自行複製過程。

  • So we've tracked in the video the input string,

    輸入的開始狀態是

  • which was green, green, yellow, yellow, green.

    綠色,接著是綠、黃、黃、綠。

  • We set them off on this air hockey table.

    我們把它放在桌上的冰球遊戲上。

  • You know, high science uses air hockey tables --

    很多科學家都愛玩這遊戲。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • -- and if you watch this thing long enough you get dizzy,

    如果你看太久你會感到頭昏,

  • but what you're actually seeing is copies of that original string

    但你實際上看到的是原來字串的複製,

  • emerging from the parts bin that you have here.

    這都是以零件集裏面出來的。

  • So we've got autonomous replication of bit strings.

    到此,我們看到了位元字串的自行複製。

  • So, why would you want to replicate bit strings?

    所以,為何你會想要複製位元字串?

  • Well, it turns out biology has this other very interesting meme,

    因為生物有個模仿特性,

  • that you can take a linear string, which is a convenient thing to copy,

    你拿一個很容易自行複製的線性字串,

  • and you can fold that into an arbitrarily complex 3D structure.

    就可以將它折疊成複雜的三維結構。

  • So I was trying to, you know, take the engineer's version:

    所以我想,用工程師的想法:

  • Can we build a mechanical system in inorganic materials

    我們能夠用非生物的材料來建造一個機械系統

  • that will do the same thing?

    而且能執行同樣的過程嗎?

  • So what I'm showing you here is that we can make a 2D shape --

    我現在要給你們看的是我們能夠做一個二維形狀

  • the B -- assemble from a string of components

    圖上的B--它是由一串的零件

  • that follow extremely simple rules.

    依照極簡單的規則組合起來的。

  • And the whole point of going with the extremely simple rules here,

    而我們之所以要用極簡單的規則

  • and the incredibly simple state machines in the previous design,

    和前一代極簡單的狀態機,

  • was that you don't need digital logic to do computation.

    是因為我們不需用數位邏輯來計算。

  • And that way you can scale things much smaller than microchips.

    而借此我們可以建構規模比微型晶片更小的東西。

  • So you can literally use these as the tiny components in the assembly process.

    所以你可以用這些微小零件來組合。

  • So, Neil Gershenfeld showed you this video on Wednesday, I believe,

    Neil Gershenfeld 在星期三展示這影片給你們看過了,

  • but I'll show you again.

    但我要讓你們再看一遍。

  • This is literally the colored sequence of those tiles.

    這是有色的瓷磚的序列。

  • Each different color has a different magnetic polarity,

    每一種不同的顏色有不同的磁極,

  • and the sequence is uniquely specifying the structure that is coming out.

    這序列獨特地說明了接下來要出現的結構。

  • Now, hopefully, those of you who know anything about graph theory

    假如你們懂一點圖形理論的話,

  • can look at that, and that will satisfy you

    可以看看這裡,你會感到很舒服,

  • that that can also do arbitrary 3D structure,

    因為它還能演化為任意的三維結構,

  • and in fact, you know, I can now take a dog, carve it up

    事實上我可以拿一條狗來,切開來

  • and then reassemble it so it's a linear string

    然後將它重組成一個線性的長串,

  • that will fold from a sequence. And now

    然後它會從序列折疊。

  • I can actually define that three-dimensional object as a sequence of bits.

    我還能將三維的物體定義成一串字元。

  • So, you know, it's a pretty interesting world

    當你用不同的角度去看這世界,

  • when you start looking at the world a little bit differently.

    這些事很會變得很有趣。

  • And the universe is now a compiler.

    宇宙是一台編輯器。

  • And so I'm thinking about, you know, what are the programs

    於是我在想,那些給實體宇宙執行的

  • for programming the physical universe?

    程式是什麼?

  • And how do we think about materials and structure,

    我們如何能將材料與結構的問題

  • sort of as an information and computation problem?

    變成資訊和計算的問題?

  • Not just where you attach a micro-controller to the end point,

    不只是把微小的控制器連接到終端,

  • but that the structure and the mechanisms are the logic, are the computers.

    而是把結構和機制當成是運算的邏輯,是一部電腦。

  • Having totally absorbed this philosophy,

    完全了解這哲學後,

  • I started looking at a lot of problems a little differently.

    我開始以不同的角度去看待很多問題。

  • With the universe as a computer,

    將宇宙視為一個電腦,

  • you can look at this droplet of water

    你可以把一滴水

  • as having performed the computations.

    看成為執行計算的結果。

  • You set a couple of boundary conditions, like gravity,

    你設定一些臨界條件,像重力,

  • the surface tension, density, etc., and then you press "execute,"

    表面張力,濃密度等而你按壓執行鍵,

  • and magically, the universe produces you a perfect ball lens.

    很神奇地,宇宙就幫你製造一個完美的球鏡。

  • So, this actually applied to the problem

    所以,這個可以應用到一些問題,

  • of -- so there's a half a billion to a billion people in the world

    例如,在這世界有五到十億的人,

  • don't have access to cheap eyeglasses.

    無法取得便宜的眼鏡。

  • So can you make a machine

    你可以製造一個機器

  • that could make any prescription lens very quickly on site?

    以極快的速度且在任何地點做出人們需要的鏡片嗎?

  • This is a machine where you literally define a boundary condition.

    在這一台機器上你要去設定它的臨界條件,

  • If it's circular, you make a spherical lens.

    如果它是圓的,你可以做成球形鏡片

  • If it's elliptical, you can make an astigmatic lens.

    如果它是橢圓的,你可以做出一個散光鏡片。

  • You then put a membrane on that and you apply pressure --

    之後把薄膜放在上面,你還可以施加壓力,

  • so that's part of the extra program.

    這一部分就需要另外的程式。

  • And literally with only those two inputs --

    事實上只要有兩個輸入:

  • so, the shape of your boundary condition and the pressure --

    臨界條件的形狀和壓力,

  • you can define an infinite number of lenses

    就可以定義出無限種可能的鏡片,

  • that cover the range of human refractive error,

    可涵蓋人類全部的反射缺限,

  • from minus 12 to plus eight diopters, up to four diopters of cylinder.

    從負十二和正八的屈光度,

  • And then literally, you now pour on a monomer.

    而後將其澆灌到一個單體上。

  • You know, I'll do a Julia Childs here.

    我現在來學Julia Childs (著名法國菜廚師)

  • This is three minutes of UV light.

    這是三分鐘的紫外綫。

  • And you reverse the pressure on your membrane

    再換薄膜的另一面受壓,

  • once you've cooked it. Pop it out.

    加熱好了後,敲一敲,給他打出來。

  • I've seen this video, but I still don't know if it's going to end right.

    我看過這段影片,但我不知道結果會不會成功

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So you reverse this. This is a very old movie,

    你把它翻轉過來,這是一部老片了,

  • so with the new prototypes, actually both surfaces are flexible,

    在新的設計裏,事實上兩面表面都是有彈性的,

  • but this will show you the point.

    現在重點來了。

  • Now you've finished the lens, you literally pop it out.

    這鏡片作好了,把它拿出來,

  • That's next year's Yves Klein, you know, eyeglasses shape.

    這會是明年的Yves Klein,鏡片型的作品,

  • And you can see that that has a mild prescription of about minus two diopters.

    你可以看到它有一個很小的負二屈光度。

  • And as I rotate it against this side shot, you'll see that that has cylinder,

    當我以側面旋轉的時倏,你會看到有一個圓柱形

  • and that was programmed in --

    這也是預先程式設計就有考慮到的,

  • literally into the physics of the system.

    可以將系統的物理特性設計好。

  • So, this sort of thinking about structure as computation

    這種將結構視為計算、

  • and structure as information leads to other things, like this.

    還有將結構視為資訊的想法可帶出其他的東西,像這個。

  • This is something that my people at SQUID Labs

    這是我在SQUID的朋友做的,

  • are working on at the moment, called "electronic rope."

    叫電子繩。

  • So literally, you think about a rope. It has very complex structure in the weave.

    談到繩子你會想到很複雜的纖維結構

  • And under no load, it's one structure.

    當不受到外力的時候它是一種結構。

  • Under a different load, it's a different structure. And you can actually exploit that

    在不同的外力下會有不同的結構。你可以利用這個特性,

  • by putting in a very small number of

    加上一小量的

  • conducting fibers to actually make it a sensor.

    導電纖維使它變成一個感應器。

  • So this is now a rope that knows the load on the rope

    所以這是一個能感應外力的繩子

  • at any particular point in the rope.

    在繩子的各個點上都能感應。

  • Just by thinking about the physics of the world,

    想想這世界的物理特性,

  • materials as the computer,

    把材料當成電腦,

  • you can start to do things like this.

    你可以開始做類似這樣的東西。

  • I'm going to segue a little here.

    現在我將轉換到這個圖。

  • I guess I'm just going to casually tell you the types of things

    我將要概略地介紹幾種

  • that I think about with this.

    我正在思考的這類東西。

  • One thing I'm really interested about this right now is, how,

    我現在很感興趣的一點是

  • if you're really taking this view of the universe as a computer,

    利用這種將宇宙視為電腦的觀點,

  • how do we make things in a very general sense,

    我們如何製造一般的東西,

  • and how might we share the way we make things in a general sense

    還有我們如何分享我們製造東西的方法和過程,

  • the same way you share open source hardware?

    能否像分享開放性硬體一樣簡單?

  • And a lot of talks here have espoused the benefits

    這裏很多的演講支持

  • of having lots of people look at problems,

    讓很多人一起看問題、

  • share the information and work on those things together.

    分享資訊和一同工作所帶來的好處。

  • So, a convenient thing about being a human is you move in linear time,

    作為一個人我們都是在線性的時間裡移動的,

  • and unless Lisa Randall changes that,

    除非Lisa Randall 能改變這個事實

  • we'll continue to move in linear time.

    不然我們會一直以線性的時間移動。

  • So that means anything you do, or anything you make,

    這意味著,做任何事、任何東西,

  • you produce a sequence of steps --

    你都會產生一連串的步驟,

  • and I think Lego in the '70s nailed this,

    Lego 在1970年代看到了這一點,

  • and they did it most elegantly.

    並以最優雅的方式展現這一點。

  • But they