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  • In 1942, a mother-daughter duoKatharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myersdeveloped a questionnaire that classified people's personalities into 16 types.

    1942 年,Katherine Cook Briggs 和 Isabel Briggs Myers 這對母女制定了一份問卷,將人們的性格分為 16 種類型。

  • Called the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, or MBTI, it would go on to become one of the world's most widely-used personality tests.

    被稱為邁爾斯-布里格斯性格分類指標(或稱 MBTI)的測驗後來成為世界上使用最廣泛的人格測試之一。

  • Today, personality testing is a multi-billion-dollar industry used by individuals, schools, and companies.

    如今,性格測試已經成為一個價值數十億美元的產業,被個人、學校和公司使用。

  • But none of these tests, including the MBTI, the Big Five, the DiSC assessment, the Process Communication Model, and the Enneagram, actually reveal truths about personality.

    但這些測試,包括 MBTI、五大性格特質、DiSC 性格測驗、PCM 心理測驗,實際上都沒有揭示真正的性格真相。

  • In fact, it's up for debate whether personality is a stable, measurable feature of an individual at all.

    事實上,對於個人而言,關於個性是否是一個穩定且可測量的特徵這件事,還有待商榷。

  • Part of the problem is the way the tests are constructed.

    有部分的問題是測試本身的構造。

  • Each is based on a different set of metrics to define personality.

    每一個都是基於一套不同的指標來定義個性。

  • The Myers-Briggs, for instance, focuses on features like introversion and extroversion to classify people into personality "types" while the Big Five scores participants on five different traits.

    例如,MBTI 注重內向和外向等特點,並把人分為不同的性格 「類型」, 而 「五大性格特質」則根據五個不同的特質對參與者進行打分。

  • Most are self-reported, meaning the results are based on questions participants answer about themselves, so, it's easy to lie.

    而這些大多數是測驗者的自我彙報,意味著結果是基於測驗者對自己的問題的回答,所以說謊很容易。

  • But even with the best intentions, objective self-evaluation is tricky.

    但即使企圖是好的,客觀的自我評價是很棘手的。

  • Take this question from the Big Five:

    拿五大性格特質的這道題來說:

  • How would you rate the accuracy of the statement, "I am always prepared"?

    你如何評價 「我時刻準備著 」這句話的準確性?

  • There's a clear favorable answer here, which makes it difficult to be objective.

    很明顯這題有人們偏好的回答,這就很難讓人做到客觀。

  • People subconsciously aim to please.

    人們下意識地以取悅為目的。

  • When asked to agree or disagree, we show a bias toward answering however we believe the person or institution asking the question wants us to answer.

    當被問及同意或不同意時,我們會對回答表現出一種偏好,無論我們多麽相信問我們問題的人或機構。

  • Here's another question:

    這裡有另一個問題:

  • "What do you value more, justice or fairness?"

    「你更看重什麼?公平還是正義?」

  • "What about harmony or forgiveness?"

    「和諧共處還是原諒寬恕?」

  • You may well value both sides of each pair, but the MBTI would force you to choose one.

    兩邊的答案你可能覺得都會很重要,但MBTI會強迫你選擇一個。

  • And while it's tempting to assume the results of that forced choice must somehow reveal a true preference, they don't.

    雖然我們很容易認為強迫我們做出選擇是在幫助揭露我們真實的偏好,但事實上並非如此。

  • When faced with the same forced-choice question multiple times, the same person will sometimes change their answer.

    當多次面對同樣的強制選擇題時,同一個人有時會改變自己的答案。

  • Given these design flaws, it's no surprise that test results can be inconsistent.

    鑑於這些設計缺陷,測試結果不一致也就不足為奇了。

  • One study found that nearly half of people who take the Myers-Briggs a second time only five weeks after the first get assigned a different type.

    有研究發現,在第一次進行MBTI測試的僅僅五個星期後,近半數人第二次再參加MBTI測試後,得到了和第一次不同的類型。

  • And other studies on the Myers-Briggs have found that people with very similar scores end up being placed in different categories, suggesting that the strict divisions between personality types don't reflect real-life nuances.

    而其他關於MBTI的研究也發現,得分非常相似的人最終卻被歸入不同的類別,顯示就算人格類型之間有嚴格的劃分, 但這並不能反映現實生活中的細微差別。

  • Complicating matters further, the definitions of personality traits are constantly shifting.

    性格特徵定義的不斷變化,讓問題更加複雜。

  • The Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung who popularized the terms introvert and extrovert defined an introvert as "someone who sticks to their principles regardless of [the] situation" and an extrovert as "someone who molds their self according to circumstance".

    瑞士精神病學家 Carl Jung 將內向和外向這兩個詞普及開來,內向的人被定義為無論如何都會堅持原則的人, 而外向型的人則是根據環境來塑造自己的人。

  • Introversion later came to mean shyness, while an extrovert was someone outgoing.

    內向後來是指害羞的人,而外向是指開朗活潑的人。

  • Today, an introvert is someone who finds alone time restorative, an extrovert draws energy from social interaction, and an ambivert falls somewhere between these two extremes.

    如今,內向的人是指那些認為獨處時間是療癒的人,而外向型的人則從和社會互動中汲取能量,而兩個極端間則是中間性格的人。

  • The notion of an innate, unchanging personality forms the basis of all these tests.

    與生俱來的、不變的個性的概念,構成所有這些測試的基礎。

  • But research increasingly suggests that personality shifts during key periods, like our school years or when we start working.

    但研究越來越多地表明,性格會在關鍵時期轉變,比如我們上學的時候,或者開始工作的時候。

  • Though certain features of a person's behavior may remain relatively stable over time, others are malleable, molded by our upbringing, life experiences, and age.

    雖然一個人的某些行為特徵可能會在一段時間內保持相對穩定,但其他部分是可塑的,由我們的成長環境、生活經歷和年齡所塑造。

  • All of this matters more or less depending on how a personality test is used.

    所有這些或多或少都取決於性格測試的使用方式。

  • Though anyone using them should take the results with a grain of salt, there isn't much harm in individual use, and users may even learn some new terms and concepts in the process.

    儘管任何使用這些測試的人們都應該對結果持懷疑態,但這些結果對於測驗者而言無傷大雅,他們甚至可以在這個過程中學習一些新的術語和概念。

  • But the use of personality tests extends far beyond self-discovery.

    但性格測試的用途遠不止於自我發現。

  • Schools use them to advise students what to study and what jobs to pursue.

    學校用它們來建議學生學習什麼,從事什麼工作。

  • Companies use them decide who to hire and for what positions.

    公司用它們來決定僱傭誰和什麼職位。

  • Yet the results don't predict how a person will perform in a specific role.

    然而這些結果並不能預測一個人在特定角色上的表現。

  • So, by using personality tests this way, institutions can deprive people of opportunities they'd excel at or discourage them from considering certain paths.

    所以通過這種方式使用性格測試,機構因此剝奪了人們讓他們從事擅長事物的機會,或阻止他們考慮某些出路。

  • So, what about the infamous Rorschach inkblot test?

    那麼,關於臭名昭著的羅夏墨跡測驗呢?

  • How does the test work?

    那個測驗是如何進行的?

  • And does it really work at all?

    而它真的有用嗎?

  • Find out where the test comes from and how psychologists use it with this video.

    打開這部影片來看看這些測試都是怎麼來,和心理學家都是如何使用它們的。

In 1942, a mother-daughter duoKatharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myersdeveloped a questionnaire that classified people's personalities into 16 types.

1942 年,Katherine Cook Briggs 和 Isabel Briggs Myers 這對母女制定了一份問卷,將人們的性格分為 16 種類型。

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 性格 測試 測驗 內向 外向

性格測試是如何運作的? (How do personality tests work? - Merve Emre)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2022 年 08 月 19 日
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