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  • In 1942, a mother-daughter duoKatharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myersdeveloped a questionnaire that classified people's personalities into 16 types.

    1942 年,Katherine Cook Briggs 和 Isabel Briggs Myers 這對母女制定了一份問卷,將人們的性格分為 16 種類型。

  • Called the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, or MBTI, it would go on to become one of the world's most widely-used personality tests.

    被稱為邁爾斯-布里格斯性格分類指標(或稱 MBTI)的測驗後來成為世界上使用最廣泛的人格測試之一。

  • Today, personality testing is a multi-billion-dollar industry used by individuals, schools, and companies.


  • But none of these tests, including the MBTI, the Big Five, the DiSC assessment, the Process Communication Model, and the Enneagram, actually reveal truths about personality.

    但這些測試,包括 MBTI、五大性格特質、DiSC 性格測驗、PCM 心理測驗,實際上都沒有揭示真正的性格真相。

  • In fact, it's up for debate whether personality is a stable, measurable feature of an individual at all.


  • Part of the problem is the way the tests are constructed.


  • Each is based on a different set of metrics to define personality.


  • The Myers-Briggs, for instance, focuses on features like introversion and extroversion to classify people into personality "types" while the Big Five scores participants on five different traits.

    例如,MBTI 注重內向和外向等特點,並把人分為不同的性格 「類型」, 而 「五大性格特質」則根據五個不同的特質對參與者進行打分。

  • Most are self-reported, meaning the results are based on questions participants answer about themselves, so, it's easy to lie.


  • But even with the best intentions, objective self-evaluation is tricky.


  • Take this question from the Big Five:


  • How would you rate the accuracy of the statement, "I am always prepared"?

    你如何評價 「我時刻準備著 」這句話的準確性?

  • There's a clear favorable answer here, which makes it difficult to be objective.


  • People subconsciously aim to please.


  • When asked to agree or disagree, we show a bias toward answering however we believe the person or institution asking the question wants us to answer.


  • Here's another question:


  • "What do you value more, justice or fairness?"


  • "What about harmony or forgiveness?"


  • You may well value both sides of each pair, but the MBTI would force you to choose one.


  • And while it's tempting to assume the results of that forced choice must somehow reveal a true preference, they don't.


  • When faced with the same forced-choice question multiple times, the same person will sometimes change their answer.


  • Given these design flaws, it's no surprise that test results can be inconsistent.


  • One study found that nearly half of people who take the Myers-Briggs a second time only five weeks after the first get assigned a different type.


  • And other studies on the Myers-Briggs have found that people with very similar scores end up being placed in different categories, suggesting that the strict divisions between personality types don't reflect real-life nuances.

    而其他關於MBTI的研究也發現,得分非常相似的人最終卻被歸入不同的類別,顯示就算人格類型之間有嚴格的劃分, 但這並不能反映現實生活中的細微差別。

  • Complicating matters further, the definitions of personality traits are constantly shifting.


  • The Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung who popularized the terms introvert and extrovert defined an introvert as "someone who sticks to their principles regardless of [the] situation" and an extrovert as "someone who molds their self according to circumstance".

    瑞士精神病學家 Carl Jung 將內向和外向這兩個詞普及開來,內向的人被定義為無論如何都會堅持原則的人, 而外向型的人則是根據環境來塑造自己的人。

  • Introversion later came to mean shyness, while an extrovert was someone outgoing.


  • Today, an introvert is someone who finds alone time restorative, an extrovert draws energy from social interaction, and an ambivert falls somewhere between these two extremes.


  • The notion of an innate, unchanging personality forms the basis of all these tests.


  • But research increasingly suggests that personality shifts during key periods, like our school years or when we start working.


  • Though certain features of a person's behavior may remain relatively stable over time, others are malleable, molded by our upbringing, life experiences, and age.


  • All of this matters more or less depending on how a personality test is used.


  • Though anyone using them should take the results with a grain of salt, there isn't much harm in individual use, and users may even learn some new terms and concepts in the process.


  • But the use of personality tests extends far beyond self-discovery.


  • Schools use them to advise students what to study and what jobs to pursue.


  • Companies use them decide who to hire and for what positions.


  • Yet the results don't predict how a person will perform in a specific role.


  • So, by using personality tests this way, institutions can deprive people of opportunities they'd excel at or discourage them from considering certain paths.


  • So, what about the infamous Rorschach inkblot test?


  • How does the test work?


  • And does it really work at all?


  • Find out where the test comes from and how psychologists use it with this video.


In 1942, a mother-daughter duoKatharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myersdeveloped a questionnaire that classified people's personalities into 16 types.

1942 年,Katherine Cook Briggs 和 Isabel Briggs Myers 這對母女制定了一份問卷,將人們的性格分為 16 種類型。

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2022 年 08 月 19 日