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  • Transcriber: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Camille Martínez

    轉錄者:約瑟夫-傑尼Joseph Geni 審稿人: Camille MartínezCamille Martínez

  • In 1987, a Chilean engineer named Oscar Duhalde

    1987年,一位名叫奧斯卡-杜哈爾德的智利工程師。

  • became the only living person on the planet

    成為地球上唯一的活人

  • to discover a rare astronomical event

    發現罕見天象

  • with the naked eye.

    用肉眼看。

  • Oscar was a telescope operator at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile.

    奧斯卡是智利拉斯坎帕納斯天文臺的一名望遠鏡操作員。

  • He worked with the astronomers who came to the observatory for their research,

    他與前來天文臺進行研究的天文學家們一起工作。

  • running the telescopes and processing the data that they took.

    運行望遠鏡並處理它們採集的數據。

  • On the night of February 24th,

    在2月24日晚。

  • Oscar stepped outside for a break

    奧斯卡走到外面去休息

  • and looked up at the night sky and he saw this.

    抬頭看了看夜空,他看到了這個。

  • This is the Large Magellanic Cloud.

    這就是大麥哲倫雲。

  • It's a satellite galaxy very near our own Milky Way.

    這是一個非常靠近我們銀河系的衛星星系。

  • But on that February night,

    但在那個二月的夜晚。

  • Oscar noticed that something was different about this galaxy.

    奧斯卡發現,這個星系有些不同。

  • It didn't quite look like this.

    它不太像這樣。

  • It looked like this.

    它看起來像這樣。

  • Did you see it?

    你看到了嗎?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • A small point of light had appeared in one corner of this galaxy.

    在這個星系的一角,出現了一個小小的光點。

  • So to explain how amazing it is that Oscar noticed this,

    所以要解釋一下,奧斯卡注意到這一點是多麼的神奇。

  • we need to zoom out a bit

    我們需要放大一點

  • and look at what the southern sky in Chile looks like.

    再看看智利南部的天空是什麼樣子。

  • The Large Magellanic Cloud is right in the middle of that image,

    大麥哲倫雲就在那張圖的中間。

  • but despite its name, it's really small.

    但雖然名字叫 "小",但它真的很小。

  • Imagine trying to notice one single new point of light

    想象一下,試圖注意到一個新的光點。

  • appearing in that galaxy.

    出現在那個星系中。

  • Oscar was able to do this

    奧斯卡能夠做到這一點

  • because he had the Large Magellanic Cloud essentially memorized.

    因為他已經基本記住了大麥哲倫雲。

  • He had worked on data from this galaxy for years,

    他對這個星系的數據進行了多年的研究。

  • poring over night after night of observations

    夜以繼日

  • and doing it by hand,

    並用手做。

  • because Oscar had begun his work in astronomy

    因為奧斯卡已經開始了他的天文學工作。

  • at a time when we stored all of the data that we observed from the universe

    當我們把從宇宙中觀察到的所有數據儲存起來的時候

  • on fragile sheets of glass.

    脆弱的玻璃片上。

  • I know that today's theme is "Moonshot,"

    我知道今天的主題是 "月球","

  • and as an astronomer, I figured I could start us out nice and literally,

    作為一個天文學家,我想我可以開始我們的漂亮和字面意思。

  • so here's a shot of the Moon.

    所以這裡有一張月球的照片。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • It's a familiar sight to all of us, but there's a couple of unusual things

    這是我們大家都很熟悉的景象,但也有幾件不尋常的事情。

  • about this particular image.

    關於這個特殊的形象。

  • For one, I flipped the colors.

    其一,我翻開了顏色。

  • It originally looked like this.

    它原本是這樣的。

  • And if we zoom out, we can see how this picture was taken.

    而如果我們把畫面放大,就可以看到這張照片是如何拍攝的。

  • This is a photograph of the Moon taken in 1894

    這是1894年拍攝的月球照片。

  • on a glass photographic plate.

    在玻璃攝影板上。

  • This was the technology that astronomers had available for decades

    這是幾十年來天文學家所掌握的技術。

  • to store the observations that we took of the night sky.

    來存儲我們對夜空的觀察結果。

  • I've actually brought an example of a glass plate to show you.

    其實我已經帶來了一個玻璃板的例子給大家看。

  • So this looks like a real secure way to store our data.

    所以,這看起來是一個真正安全的方式來存儲我們的數據。

  • These photographic plates were incredibly difficult to work with.

    這些照相板的工作難度非常大。

  • One side of them was treated with a chemical emulsion that would darken

    其中一面用化學乳劑處理,使其變黑。

  • when it was exposed to light.

    當它暴露在光線下時。

  • This is how these plates were able to store the pictures that they took,

    這就是這些盤子能夠存儲他們拍攝的照片的方法。

  • but it meant that astronomers had to work with these plates in darkness.

    但這意味著天文學家必須在黑暗中與這些板塊一起工作。

  • The plates had to be cut to a specific size

    板材必須按照特定的尺寸進行切割

  • so that they could fit into the camera of a telescope.

    以便能裝進望遠鏡的攝像頭。

  • So astronomers would take razor-sharp cutting tools

    所以天文學家們會拿著鋒利的切割工具

  • and slice these tiny pieces of glass,

    並將這些小玻璃片切成片。

  • all in the dark.

    都在黑暗中。

  • Astronomers also had all kinds of tricks that they would use

    天文學家也有各種各樣的技巧,他們會使用

  • to make the plates respond to light a little faster.

    以使板子對光的反應更快一些。

  • They would bake them or freeze them, they would soak them in ammonia,

    他們會把它們烘烤或冷凍起來,他們會把它們泡在氨水裡。

  • or they'd coat them with lemon juice --

    或者他們會用檸檬汁塗抹它們 --

  • all in the dark.

    都在黑暗中。

  • Then astronomers would take these carefully designed plates

    天文學家就會拿著這些精心設計的板子

  • to the telescope

    到望遠鏡

  • and load them into the camera.

    並將其加載到相機中。

  • They had to be loaded with that chemically emulsified side pointed out

    他們必須要裝上化學乳化的一面,指出

  • so that the light would hit it.

    這樣,光就會打到它。

  • But in the dark, it was almost impossible to tell which side was the right one.

    但在黑暗中,幾乎無法判斷哪邊是正確的。

  • Astronomers got into the habit of tapping a plate to their lips,

    天文學家們養成了用盤子敲打嘴脣的習慣。

  • or, like, licking it, to see which side of the plate was sticky

    或者,就像,舔它,看看哪邊的盤子是粘的。

  • and therefore coated with the emulsion.

    並是以塗上乳液。

  • And then when they actually put it into the camera,

    然後,當他們真正把它放入相機。

  • there was one last challenge.

    還有最後一個挑戰。

  • In this picture behind me,

    在我身後的這張照片裡。

  • you can see that the plate the astronomer is holding

    你可以看到,天文學家所持的盤子

  • is very slightly curved.

    是非常輕微的彎曲。

  • Sometimes plates had to be bent to fit into a telescope's camera,

    有時,板子必須彎曲,才能裝進望遠鏡的攝像頭。

  • so you would take this carefully cut, meticulously treated, very babied plate

    所以你會把這個精心切割的,精心處理的,非常寶貝的盤子。

  • up to a telescope, and then you'd just ...

    到望遠鏡,然後你就... ...

  • So sometimes that would work. Sometimes they would snap.

    所以,有時這將工作。有時他們會崩潰。

  • But it would usually end with the [plate] loaded into a camera

    但它通常會以[板]裝入相機而結束

  • on the back of a telescope.

    在望遠鏡的背面。

  • You could then point that telescope

    然後你可以把望遠鏡指向

  • to whatever patch of sky you wanted to study,

    到你想研究的任何一片天空。

  • open the camera shutter,

    打開相機快門。

  • and begin capturing data.

    並開始採集數據。

  • Now, astronomers couldn't just walk away from the camera

    現在,天文學家們不能就這樣離開相機了

  • once they'd done this.

    一旦他們這樣做了。

  • They had to stay with that camera for as long as they were observing.

    他們在觀察的過程中,必須要和那臺攝影機呆在一起。

  • This meant that astronomers would get into elevators

    這意味著,天文學家將進入電梯。

  • attached to the side of the telescope domes.

    連接到望遠鏡穹頂的側面。

  • They would ride the elevator high into the building

    他們會乘坐電梯高高的進入大樓。

  • and then climb into the top of the telescope

    然後爬到望遠鏡的頂部。

  • and stay there all night shivering in the cold,

    並在那裡整晚在寒冷中瑟瑟發抖。

  • transferring plates in and out of the camera,

    將版材移入和移出相機。

  • opening and closing the shutter

    啟閉

  • and pointing the telescope to whatever piece of sky

    並將望遠鏡指向任何一片天空。

  • they wanted to study.

    他們想學習。

  • These astronomers worked with operators who would stay on the ground.

    這些天文學家與操作員一起工作,他們將留在地面上。

  • And they would do things like turn the dome itself

    他們會做一些事情,比如把穹頂本身打開

  • and make sure the rest of the telescope was running.

    並確保望遠鏡的其他部分在運行。

  • It was a system that usually worked pretty well,

    這是一個通常很好用的系統。

  • but once in a while, things would go wrong.

    但偶爾也會出問題。

  • There was an astronomer observing a very complicated plate

    有一個天文學家在觀察一個非常複雜的板塊

  • at this observatory, the Lick Observatory here in California.

    在這個天文臺,加州的李克天文臺。

  • He was sitting at the top of that yellow structure

    他就坐在那座黃色建築的頂部

  • that you see in the dome on the lower right,

    你在右下方的圓頂上看到的。

  • and he'd been exposing one glass plate to the sky for hours,

    而他已經將一塊玻璃板暴露在天空中好幾個小時了。

  • crouched down and cold

    偃旗息鼓

  • and keeping the telescope perfectly pointed

    並保持望遠鏡的完美指向

  • so he could take this precious picture of the universe.

    所以他可以拍下這張珍貴的宇宙照片。

  • His operator wandered into the dome at one point

    他的操作者有一次走進了穹頂

  • just to check on him and see how things were going.

    只是想看看他,看看事情進展如何。

  • And as the operator stepped through the door of the dome,

    而當接線員踏進穹頂的大門。

  • he brushed against the wall and flipped the light switch in the dome.

    他蹭到牆上,打開了穹頂的燈開關。

  • So the lights came blazing on and flooding into the telescope

    於是燈火通明,湧入望遠鏡中

  • and ruining the plate,

    並毀掉盤子。

  • and there was then this howl from the top of the telescope.

    然後,望遠鏡的頂端傳來了這一聲嚎叫。

  • The astronomer started yelling and cursing and saying,

    天文學家開始大喊大叫,罵罵咧咧地說。

  • "What have you done? You've destroyed so much hard work.

    "你都幹了些什麼?你毀了這麼多的苦心經營。

  • I'm going to get down from this telescope and kill you!"

    我要從這個望遠鏡上下來,殺了你!"

  • So he then starts moving the telescope

    所以他就開始移動望遠鏡

  • about this fast --

    關於這個快速 -

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • toward the elevator

    向電梯

  • so that he can climb down and make good on his threats.

    以便他能爬下來,兌現他的威脅。

  • Now, as he's approaching the elevator,

    現在,當他接近電梯的時候。

  • the elevator then suddenly starts spinning away from him,

    電梯突然開始旋轉,遠離他。

  • because remember, the astronomer can control the telescope,

    因為記住,天文學家可以控制望遠鏡。

  • but the operator can control the dome.

    但操作者可以控制穹頂。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And the operator is looking up, going,

    而運營商則是抬頭看,去。

  • "He seems really mad. I might not want to let him down until he's less murdery."

    "他似乎真的瘋了。在他不那麼凶殘之前,我可能不想讓他失望。"

  • So the end is this absurd slow-motion game of chase

    所以最後的結局就是這個荒誕的慢動作追逐遊戲

  • with the lights on and the dome just spinning around and around.

    開著燈,穹頂就這麼轉來轉去。

  • It must have looked completely ridiculous.

    它看起來一定是完全荒謬的。

  • When I tell people about using photographic plates to study the universe,

    當我告訴人們用照相板來研究宇宙的時候。

  • it does sound ridiculous.

    這聽起來確實很可笑。

  • It's a little absurd

    有點荒唐

  • to take what seems like a primitive tool for studying the universe

    以看似原始的工具來研究宇宙。

  • and say, well, we're going to dunk this in lemon juice, lick it,

    並說,好了,我們要去浸泡 在檸檬汁,舔它。

  • stick it in the telescope, shiver next to it for a few hours

    把它插在望遠鏡裡,在旁邊顫抖幾個小時。

  • and solve the mysteries of the cosmos.

    並解開宇宙的奧祕。

  • In reality, though, that's exactly what we did.

    但實際上,我們正是這樣做的。

  • I showed you this picture before

    我之前給你看過這張照片

  • of an astronomer perched at the top of a telescope.

    的天文學家棲息在望遠鏡的頂部。

  • What I didn't tell you is who this astronomer is.

    我沒告訴你的是這個天文學家是誰。

  • This is Edwin Hubble,

    我是埃德溫-哈勃

  • and Hubble used photographic plates

    和哈勃使用的照相板

  • to completely change our entire understanding

    徹底改變我們的整個認識

  • of how big the universe is and how it works.

    的宇宙有多大,它是如何運作的。

  • This is a plate that Hubble took back in 1923

    這是哈勃在1923年拍下的一張照片

  • of an object known at the time as the Andromeda Nebula.

    一個當時被稱為仙女座星雲的天體的。

  • You can see in the upper right of that image

    你可以看到在那張圖的右上方

  • that Hubble has labeled a star with this bright red word, "Var!"

    哈勃給一顆恆星貼上了鮮紅的標籤,"Var!"

  • He's even put an exclamation point next to it.

    他還在旁邊加了一個感嘆號。

  • "Var" here stands for "variable."

    "Var "在這裡代表 "變量"。

  • Hubble had found a variable star in the Andromeda Nebula.

    哈勃在仙女座星雲中發現了一顆變星。

  • Its brightness changed,

    它的亮度發生了變化。

  • getting brighter and dimmer as a function of time.

    隨著時間的推移,越來越亮,越來越暗。

  • Hubble knew that if he studied how that star changed with time,

    哈勃知道,如果他研究那顆恆星是如何隨著時間變化的。

  • he could measure the distance to the Andromeda Nebula,

    他可以測量到仙女座星雲的距離。

  • and when he did, the results were astonishing.

    而當他這樣做的時候,結果是驚人的。

  • He discovered that this was not, in fact, a nebula.

    他發現,這其實不是星雲。

  • This was the Andromeda Galaxy,

    這就是仙女座星系。

  • an entire separate galaxy two and a half million light years

    單獨星系

  • beyond our own Milky Way.

    超越我們的銀河系。

  • This was the first evidence of other galaxies

    這是對其他星系的第一個證據

  • existing in the universe beyond our own,

    存在於我們之外的宇宙中。

  • and it totally changed our understanding of how big the universe was

    它完全改變了我們的理解 宇宙有多大。

  • and what it contained.

    以及它所包含的內容。

  • So now we can look at what telescopes can do today.

    所以現在我們可以看看今天望遠鏡能做什麼。

  • This is a modern-day picture of the Andromeda Galaxy,

    這是一幅現代仙女座星系的圖片。

  • and it looks just like the telescope photos

    它看起來就像望遠鏡的照片。

  • that we all love to enjoy and look at:

    我們都喜歡欣賞和看的。

  • it's colorful and detailed and beautiful.

    它色彩斑斕,細緻美觀。

  • We now store data like this digitally,

    我們現在以數字方式存儲這樣的數據。

  • and we take it using telescopes like these.

    我們用這樣的望遠鏡拍攝。

  • So this is me standing underneath a telescope with a mirror

    所以這是我站在望遠鏡下,拿著鏡子的樣子。

  • that's 26 feet across.

    那是26英尺寬。

  • Bigger telescope mirrors let us take sharper and clearer images,

    更大的望遠鏡可以讓我們拍攝到更清晰的影像。

  • and they also make it easier for us to gather light

    而且它們也讓我們更容易收集光線

  • from faint and faraway objects.

    從微弱而遙遠的物體。

  • So a bigger telescope literally gives us a farther reach

    所以,更大的望遠鏡可以讓我們走得更遠。

  • into the universe,

    到宇宙中。

  • looking at things that we couldn't have seen before.

    看著我們以前看不到的東西。

  • We're also no longer strapped to the telescope

    我們也不再綁在望遠鏡上了。

  • when we do our observations.

    當我們進行觀察時。

  • This is me during my very first observing trip

    這是我第一次觀測時的情景。

  • at a telescope in Arizona.

    在亞利桑那州的一個望遠鏡。

  • I'm opening the dome of the telescope,

    我正在打開望遠鏡的圓頂。

  • but I'm not on top of the telescope to do it.

    但我不在望遠鏡上面做。

  • I'm sitting in a room off to the side of the dome,

    我坐在穹頂邊上的一個房間裡。

  • nice and warm and on the ground

    暖洋洋的,腳踏實地

  • and running the telescope from afar.

    並從遠處運行望遠鏡。

  • "Afar" can get pretty extreme.

    "Afar "可以變得很極端。

  • Sometimes we don't even need to go to telescopes anymore.

    有時候我們甚至不需要再去看望遠鏡。

  • This is a telescope in New Mexico that I use for my research all the time,

    這是新墨西哥州的一個望遠鏡,我一直在用它做研究。

  • but I can run it with my laptop.

    但我可以用我的筆記本電腦運行它。

  • I can sit on my couch in Seattle

    我可以坐在西雅圖的沙發上

  • and send commands from my laptop

    並從我的筆記本電腦上發送命令

  • telling the telescope where to point,

    告訴望遠鏡指向哪裡。

  • when to open and close the shutter,

    何時打開和關閉快門。

  • what pictures I want it to take of the universe --

    我想讓它給宇宙拍什麼照片 --

  • all from many states away.

    都是來自很多州的人。

  • So the way that we operate telescopes has really changed,

    所以,我們操作望遠鏡的方式確實發生了變化。

  • but the questions we're trying to answer about the universe

    但我們想回答的問題 關於宇宙的問題

  • have remained the same.

    一直保持不變。

  • One of the big questions still focuses on how things change in the night sky,

    其中一個大問題還是集中在夜空中事物的變化上。

  • and the changing sky was exactly what Oscar Duhalde saw

    而天空的變化正是奧斯卡-杜哈爾德所看到的。

  • when he looked up with the naked eye in 1987.

    1987年,當他用肉眼看上。

  • This point of light that he saw appearing in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    他看到的這個光點,出現在大麥哲倫雲中。

  • turned out to be a supernova.

    原來是一顆超新星。

  • This was the first naked-eye supernova

    這是第一顆裸眼超新星。

  • seen from Earth in more than 400 years.

    400多年來從地球上看到的。

  • This is pretty cool,

    這是非常酷的。

  • but a couple of you might be looking at this image and going,

    但你們中的一些人可能會看著這幅圖,然後去。

  • "Really? I've heard of supernovae.

    "真的嗎?我聽說過超新星。

  • They're supposed to be spectacular,

    他們應該是壯觀的。

  • and this is just like a dot that appeared in the sky."

    而這就像是天空中出現的一個點。"

  • It's true that when you hear the description of what a supernova is

    當你聽到關於超新星是什麼的描述時,確實是這樣的

  • it sounds really epic.

    這聽起來真的很史詩。

  • They're these brilliant, explosive deaths of enormous, massive stars,

    他們是這些輝煌的,爆炸性的死亡 巨大的,巨大的恆星。

  • and they shoot energy out into the universe,

    它們將能量射向宇宙。

  • and they spew material out into space,

    它們把材料噴向太空。

  • and they sound, like, noticeable.

    他們的聲音,喜歡,注意。

  • They sound really obvious.

    他們聽起來真的很明顯。

  • The whole trick about what a supernova looks like

    關於超新星長相的全部技巧。

  • has to do with where it is.

    與它的位置有關。

  • If a star were to die as a supernova

    如果一顆恆星以超新星的形式死去

  • right in our backyard in the Milky Way, a few hundred light years away --

    就在我們銀河系的後院裡,幾百光年外

  • "backyard" in astronomy terms --

    "後花園

  • it would be incredibly bright.

    它將是令人難以置信的光明。

  • We would be able to see that supernova at night

    我們就能在晚上看到那顆超新星了

  • as bright as the Moon.

    像月亮一樣明亮。

  • We would be able to read by its light.

    我們將能通過它的光來閱讀。

  • Everybody would wind up taking photos of this supernova on their phone.

    每個人都會順手用手機拍下這顆超新星的照片。

  • It would be on headlines all over the world.

    這將是全世界的頭條新聞。

  • It would for sure get a hashtag.

    它肯定會得到一個標籤。