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  • Meet Tony. He's my student.

    我們來認識一下東尼,他是我的學生

  • He's about my age,

    他的年齡跟我差不多,

  • and he's in San Quentin State Prison.

    他在聖昆廷的州立監獄

  • When Tony was 16 years old,

    當東尼16歲時,

  • one day, one moment,

    有一天,一個時刻,

  • "It was mom's gun.

    「 這是媽媽的槍

  • Just flash it, scare the guy. He's a punk.

    只要亮一亮相,嚇嚇那傢伙。他是個小流氓

  • He took some money; we'll take his money. That'll teach him.

    他之前拿了一些錢,我們要拿回來,教訓一下他

  • Then last minute, I'm thinking, 'Can't do this. This is wrong.'

    然後在最後一分鐘,我在想, 『不能這樣做,這是不對的。』

  • My buddy says, 'C'mon, let's do this.'

    我的朋友說:『來吧,讓我們幹場大的。』

  • I say, 'Let's do this.'"

    我說,『讓我們就這樣幹。』

  • And those three words, Tony's going to remember,

    這句話,東尼會記得,

  • because the next thing he knows, he hears the pop.

    因為接下來的事情,便是他聽到砰的一聲

  • There's the punk on the ground, puddle of blood.

    那個小流氓在地面上, 躺在一坑血水之中

  • And that's felony murder ——

    接著是重罪謀殺——

  • 25 to life, parole at 50 if you're lucky,

    25年到終生,如果幸運,在50年後假釋,

  • and Tony's not feeling very lucky.

    但東尼不感覺幸運

  • So when we meet in my philosophy class in his prison

    所以,當我們在獄中哲學課會面時,

  • and I say, "In this class, we will discuss the foundations of ethics,"

    我說,「 在這課程中,我們將會討論道德的基礎,」

  • Tony interrupts me.

    東尼打斷我,

  • "What are you going to teach me about right and wrong?

    問 :「你要教我對與錯的什麼呢?

  • I know what is wrong. I have done wrong.

    因為我知道什麼是錯的,我已經做錯了。

  • I am told every day,

    我每一天,

  • by every face I see, every wall I face, that I am wrong.

    面對每一個人的臉,還有我面著的每一面牆,都告訴我我錯了

  • If I ever get out of here, there will always be a mark by my name.

    如果我有機會離開這裡,我的名字將永遠有一個記號

  • I'm a convict; I am branded 'wrong.'

    我是一個罪犯,我被烙印著『 錯誤』

  • What are you going to tell me about right and wrong?"

    你要告訴我什麼是對與不對? 」

  • So I say to Tony,

    我對東尼說,

  • "Sorry, but it's worse than you think.

    「 很抱歉,但它比你想像還更糟糕

  • You think you know right and wrong?

    你認為你知道對與錯?

  • Then can you tell me what wrong is?

    那你能告訴我什麼是錯嗎?

  • No, don't just give me an example.

    不, 不要只是給我一個例子

  • I want to know about wrongness itself, the idea of wrong.

    我想知道錯的本身,錯的基礎理念

  • What is that idea?

    那概念究竟是什麼?

  • What makes something wrong?

    什麼因素令東西成為錯的呢?

  • How do we know that it's wrong? Maybe you and I disagree.

    我們怎樣知道錯呢? 當你和我意見分歧

  • Maybe one of us is wrong about the wrong.

    也許我們其中之一是錯上加錯

  • Maybe it's you, maybe it's me -- but we're not here to trade opinions;

    也許是你, 也許是我—— 但我們在這裡不是為了要交換意見,

  • everyone's got an opinion.

    每個人都有自己的意見

  • We are here for knowledge.

    我們在這裡是為了知識

  • Our enemy is thoughtlessness. This is philosophy."

    我們的敵人是輕率,而這就是哲學。」

  • And something changes for Tony.

    東尼像是有所領悟

  • "Could be I'm wrong. I'm tired of being wrong.

    「可能是我錯了,我厭倦自己的錯誤

  • I want to know what is wrong.

    我想知道什麼是錯的

  • I want to know what I know."

    我想知道我知道甚麼。 」

  • What Tony sees in that moment is the project of philosophy,

    東尼在那一刻看到的是哲學的議題,

  • the project that begins in wonder ——

    該議題始於奇妙的驚異——

  • what Kant called

    是康德(德國古典哲學創始人))稱為

  • "admiration and awe at the starry sky above and the moral law within."

    「 對頭上的星空和之內的道德律欽佩和敬畏 」。

  • What can creatures like us know of such things?

    我們這樣的生物可以理解像這樣的事情嗎?

  • It is the project that always takes us back to the condition of existence ——

    是這議題總是把我們帶回到存在的條件 ——

  • what Heidegger called "the always already there."

    是海德格(德國哲學家)稱為「 已然存在」。

  • It is the project of questioning what we believe and why we believe it ——

    這學問是要質疑我們相信什麼和為什麼相信——

  • what Socrates called "the examined life."

    蘇格拉底稱為「檢驗的人生」。

  • Socrates, a man wise enough to know that he knows nothing.

    蘇格拉底,有足夠的智慧認清自己的渺小

  • Socrates died in prison,

    他死在獄中,

  • his philosophy intact.

    但他的哲學精神淵遠流長

  • So Tony starts doing his homework.

    因此,東尼開始做他的作業

  • He learns his whys and wherefores, his causes and correlations,

    他探悉了理由和原因,來頭和關連,

  • his logic, his fallacies.

    他的邏輯,他的謬論

  • Turns out, Tony's got the philosophy muscle.

    原來, 東尼具有不少哲學頭腦

  • His body is in prison, but his mind is free.

    他的肉身是在監獄裡,但他的精神是自由的

  • Tony learns about the ontologically promiscuous,

    東尼了解了本體論的混雜,

  • the epistemologically anxious,

    知識論的焦慮,

  • the ethically dubious, the metaphysically ridiculous.

    道德上的可疑,和形而上學的荒謬

  • That's Plato, Descartes, Nietzsche

    也就是柏拉圖,笛卡爾,尼采

  • and Bill Clinton.

    和比爾柯林頓

  • So when he gives me his final paper,

    所以當他給我他最後的論文,

  • in which he argues that the categorical imperative

    其中他認為康德的無上命令

  • is perhaps too uncompromising

    或許對我們日常生活的衝突

  • to deal with the conflict that affects our everyday

    顯得太不近情理時

  • and challenges me to tell him

    他挑戰我要告訴他

  • whether therefore we are condemned to moral failure,

    是否我們因此被譙讓到道德上失敗,

  • I say, "I don't know.

    我說,「 我不知道,

  • Let us think about that."

    讓我們去想想這個議題。」

  • Because in that moment, there's no mark by Tony's name;

    因為在那一刻, 東尼的名字沒有囚犯的標記,

  • it's just the two of us standing there.

    只是我們兩個人站在那裡

  • It is not professor and convict,

    這不是教授和囚徒,

  • it is just two minds ready to do philosophy.

    而是兩個頭腦準備思考哲學

  • And I say to Tony,

    所以我對東尼說:

  • "Let's do this."

    「 讓我們去幹。」

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

Meet Tony. He's my student.

我們來認識一下東尼,他是我的學生

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 東尼 哲學 康德 道德 蘇格拉底

【TED】Damon Horowitz: 監獄裡的哲理 (Damon Horowitz: Philosophy in prison)

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    Colin Lin 發佈於 2017 年 03 月 09 日
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