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  • This is Goliath, the krill.

    這是歌利亞,磷蝦。

  • Don't get too attached.

    不要太執著。

  • Today this 1 centimeter crustacean

    今天這隻1釐米的甲殼動物

  • will share the same fate as 40 million of his closest friends:

    將與他最親近的4000萬朋友分享同樣的命運。

  • a life sentence in the belly of the largest blue whale in the world.

    在世界上最大的藍鯨的肚子裡被判終身監禁。

  • Let's call her Leviatha.

    我們叫她利維塔吧。

  • Leviatha weighs something like 150 metric tons,

    利維塔重約150公噸。

  • and she's the largest animal in the world.

    她是世界上最大的動物。

  • But she's not even close to being the largest organism by weight,

    但按重量來說,她還算不上是最大的生物體。

  • which is estimated to equal about 40 Leviatha's.

    據估計,這相當於約40個利維塔的。

  • So where is this behemoth?

    那麼這個龐然大物在哪裡呢?

  • Here, in Utah.

    這裡,在猶他州。

  • Sorry, that's too close.

    對不起,太近了。

  • Here.

    給你

  • This is Pando, whose name means “I spread out.”

    這就是潘多,其名字的意思是 "我攤開了"。

  • Pando, a quaking aspen, has roughly 47,000 genetically identical clone trunks.

    潘多,一棵顫抖的白楊,大約有47000個基因相同的克隆樹幹。

  • Those all grow from one enormous root system,

    這些都是從一個巨大的根系中生長出來的。

  • which is why scientists consider Pando a single organism.

    這也是為什麼科學家認為潘多是一個單一的生物體。

  • Pando is the clear winner of world's largest organism by weight

    潘多是世界上重量最大的生物體的明顯贏家------。

  • an incredible 6 million kilograms.

    令人難以置信的600萬公斤。

  • So how did Pando get to be so huge?

    那麼,潘多多是如何做到如此巨大的呢?

  • Pando is not an unusual aspen from a genetic standpoint.

    從遺傳學的角度看,潘多不是一棵尋常的白楊。

  • Rather, Pando's size boils down to three main factors:

    確切地說,潘多多的規模歸結為三大因素。

  • its age, its location, and aspens' remarkable evolutionary adaptation

    它的年齡,它的位置,以及白楊樹顯著的進化適應性。

  • of self-cloning.

    的自我克隆。

  • So first, Pando is incredibly expansive because it's incredibly old.

    所以,首先,潘多多因為歷史非常悠久,所以擴張性非常強。

  • How old exactly?

    到底多大年紀?

  • No one knows.

    沒有人知道。

  • Dendrochronologist estimates range from 80,000 to 1 million years.

    樹齡學家估計從8萬年到100萬年不等。

  • The problem is, there's no simple way to gauge Pando's age.

    問題是,沒有簡單的方法來衡量潘多的年齡。

  • Counting the rings of a single trunk will only account for up to 200 years or so,

    計算一個樹幹的環數,最多隻能說明200年左右。

  • as Pando is in a constant cycle of growth, death, and renewal.

    因為潘多在不斷的成長、死亡、更新的循環中。

  • On average, each individual tree lives 130 years,

    平均來說,每棵樹的壽命為130年。

  • before falling and being replaced by new ones.

    在落下並被新的取代之前。

  • Second: location.

    第二:位置。

  • During the last ice age, which ended about 12,000 years ago,

    在大約12000年前結束的上一個冰河時代。

  • glaciers covered much of the North American climate

    冰川覆蓋了北美地區的大部分氣候。

  • friendly to aspens.

    對白楊樹友好。

  • So if there were other comparably sized clonal colonies,

    所以如果有其他規模相當的克隆菌群。

  • they may have perished then.

    他們當時可能已經死了。

  • Meanwhile, Pando's corner of Utah remained glacier-free.

    與此同時,潘多的猶他州一角依然沒有冰川。

  • The soil there is rich in nutrients that Pando continuously replenishes;

    那裡的土壤富含豐富的營養物質,潘多不斷補充。

  • as it drops leaves and trunks,

    當它落葉和樹幹時。

  • the nutrients return to nourish new generations of clones.

    的養分回來滋養新一代的克隆。

  • Which brings us to the third cause of Pando's size: cloning.

    這也就有了潘多多體型的第三個原因:克隆。

  • Aspens are capable of both sexual reproduction

    白楊既能進行有性繁殖---------------------------。

  • which produces a new organism

    其中產生了一個新的組織----

  • and asexual reproductionwhich creates a clone.

    和無性繁殖--這就產生了一個克隆體。

  • They tend to reproduce sexually when conditions are unfavorable

    當條件不利時,它們往往會進行有性繁殖。

  • and the best strategy for survival is to move elsewhere.

    而生存的最佳策略就是轉移到其他地方。

  • Trees aren't particularly mobile, but their seeds are.

    樹木不是特別好動,但它們的種子卻很好動。

  • Like the rest of us, sexual reproduction is how Pando came into the world

    和我們一樣,性繁殖是潘多來到這個世界上的方式。

  • in the first place all those tens or hundreds of thousands of years ago.

    最早在幾萬年或幾十萬年前。

  • The wind or a pollinator carried pollen from the flower of one of its parents

    風或授粉者將花粉從其親本的花上帶了下來

  • to the other, where a sperm cell fertilized an egg.

    到另一個,精子細胞受精卵的地方。

  • That flower produced fruit, which split open,

    那花結出了果實,果實裂開了。

  • releasing hundreds of tiny, light seeds.

    釋放出數百顆細小而輕盈的種子。

  • The wind carried one to a wet spot of land in what is now Utah,

    風把人帶到了現在猶他州的一塊溼地。

  • where it took root and germinated into Pando's first stem.

    在那裡,它生了根,發了芽,成為潘多的第一根莖。

  • A couple of years later, Pando grew mature enough to reproduce asexually.

    幾年後,潘多長大成熟,可以進行無性繁殖。

  • Asexual reproduction, or cloning,

    無性繁殖,即克隆。

  • tends to happen when the environment is favorable to growth.

    往往發生在環境有利於成長的時候。

  • Aspens have long roots that burrow through the soil.

    白楊樹的根很長,能鑽進土壤。

  • These can sprout shoots that grow up into new trunks.

    這些可以長出嫩枝,長成新的樹幹。

  • And while Pando grew and spread out, so did our ancestors.

    在潘多發展壯大的同時,我們的祖先也在發展壯大。

  • As Hunter-gatherers who made cave paintings, survived an ice age,

    作為製作洞穴畫的獵人採集者,度過了一個冰河時代。

  • found their way to North America, built civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia,

    在埃及和美索不達米亞建立了文明。

  • fought wars, domesticated animals, fought wars, formed nations,

    打過仗,馴化過動物,打過仗,組建過國家。

  • built machines,

    造的機器。

  • and invented the internet, and always newer ways to fight wars.

    併發明瞭互聯網,和總是更新的打仗方式。

  • Pando has survived many millennia of changing climates and encroaching ice.

    潘多經歷了幾千年的氣候變化和冰雪侵蝕而倖存下來。

  • But it may not survive us.

    但它可能無法在我們身上存活。

  • New stems are growing to maturity much more slowly than they need to

    新莖的生長成熟比它們需要的要慢得多。

  • in order to replace the trunks that fall.

    以便更換掉落的樹幹。

  • Scientists have identified two main reasons for this.

    科學家們發現,這主要有兩個原因。

  • The first is that we've deprived Pando of fire.

    第一是我們剝奪了潘多的火候。

  • When a fire clears a patch of forest, Aspen roots survive,

    當大火清除了一片森林,白楊樹的根部就會存活下來。

  • and send shoots bursting up out of the ground by the tens of thousands.

    並把筍子從地裡迸發出來,數以萬計。

  • And secondly, grazers like herds of cattle and mule deer

    其次,像牛群和騾鹿這樣的食草動物

  • whose natural predators we've hunted to the point of local elimination

    我們已經將它們的天敵獵殺得一乾二淨...

  • are eating Pando's fresh growth.

    正在吃潘多拉的新鮮生長。

  • If we lose the world's largest organism, we'll lose a scientific treasure trove.

    如果我們失去了世界上最大的生物體,我們將失去一個科學寶庫。

  • Because Pando's trunks are genetically identical,

    因為潘多多的軀幹在基因上是相同的。

  • they can serve as a controlled setting for studies

    它們可以作為研究的控制環境

  • on everything from the tree microbiome

    樹木微生物組等所有方面

  • to the influence of climate on tree growth rates.

    到氣候對樹木生長速度的影響。

  • The good news is, we have a chance to save Pando,

    好消息是,我們有機會拯救潘多。

  • by reducing livestock grazing in the area

    減少該地區的牲畜放牧;

  • and further protecting the vulnerable young saplings.

    並進一步保護脆弱的幼苗。

  • And the time to act is today.

    而行動的時間就是今天。

  • Because as with so many other marvels of our natural world,

    因為正如我們自然界的許多其他奇蹟一樣,

  • once they're gone it will be a very, very long time before they return.

    一旦他們走了,它將是一個非常,非常長的時間之前,他們回來。

This is Goliath, the krill.

這是歌利亞,磷蝦。

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B2 中高級 中文 繁殖 生物體 猶他州 樹木 生長 動物

世界上最大的生物體--亞歷克斯-羅森塔爾。 (The world’s largest organism - Alex Rosenthal)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 12 月 07 日
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