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  • The human voice:

    人類的聲音

  • It's the instrument we all play.

    是大家都會使用的樂器

  • It's the most powerful sound in the world, probably.

    這或許是世界上最有力的聲音

  • It's the only one that can start a war

    唯有聲音可以發動戰爭

  • or say "I love you."

    或說「我愛你」

  • And yet many people have the experience

    然而很多人都有類似經驗

  • that when they speak, people don't listen to them.

    沒有人要聽自己說話

  • And why is that?

    爲什麼呢?

  • How can we speak powerfully

    如何說話有力量

  • to make change in the world?

    且強大到可以改變整個世界?

  • What I'd like to suggest, there are

    我想提出幾個建言

  • a number of habits that we need to move away from.

    那就是我們必須先改掉某些習慣

  • I've assembled for your pleasure here

    請容我爲各位蒐集

  • seven deadly sins of speaking.

    說話的七大原罪

  • I'm not pretending this is an exhaustive list,

    我不打算謊稱這是一份完整無缺的清單

  • but these seven, I think, are pretty large

    但我覺得這七大原罪涵蓋的範圍極廣

  • habits that we can all fall into.

    廣大到我們每個人都會掉入陷阱

  • First, gossip,

    第一,八卦

  • speaking ill of somebody who's not present.

    在他人背後說三道四

  • Not a nice habit, and we know perfectly well

    我們都非常清楚這不是好習慣

  • the person gossiping five minutes later

    講別人八卦的人

  • will be gossiping about us.

    五分鐘後就去向別人說我們的八卦

  • Second, judging.

    第二,任意評斷他人

  • We know people who are like this in conversation,

    大家都知道這情況常出現在日常閒聊

  • and it's very hard to listen to somebody

    我們不願去傾聽這種人的想法

  • if you know that you're being judged

    尤其你知道那人正在評論你

  • and found wanting at the same time.

    同時還否定你的能力

  • Third, negativity.

    第三,負面思考

  • You can fall into this.

    如同以下對話

  • My mother, in the last years of her life,

    我母親過去三年來

  • became very, very negative, and it's hard to listen.

    變得極端負面,讓人無法忍受她所說的話

  • I remember one day, I said to her,

    我記得,某天我跟她說

  • "It's October 1 today,"

    「今天是10月1日」

  • and she said, "I know, isn't it dreadful?"

    她竟然說:「對阿,不覺得很讓人沮喪嗎?」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • It's hard to listen when somebody's that negative.

    人們難以傾聽負面思考者的說話方式

  • And another form of negativity, complaining.

    另一種表達負面的方式:抱怨

  • Well, this is the national art of the U.K.

    這可說是英國的傳統

  • It's our national sport. We complain about the weather,

    是全民運動,我們抱怨天氣

  • about sport, about politics, about everything,

    抱怨運動、政治及所有事情

  • but actually complaining is viral misery.

    但抱怨實際上是一種可怕的傳染病

  • It's not spreading sunshine and lightness in the world.

    它不會爲世界帶來陽光和光明

  • Excuses. We've all met this guy.

    藉口,我們都見過這傢伙

  • Maybe we've all been this guy.

    又或許我們就是這傢伙

  • Some people have a blamethrower.

    有些人就是愛推託

  • They just pass it on to everybody else

    他們就只會推卸責任

  • and don't take responsibility for their actions,

    不會爲自己的行為負責

  • and again, hard to listen to somebody who is being like that.

    再一次,我們不想聽這種人說話

  • Penultimate, the sixth of the seven,

    倒數第二,也就是第六原罪

  • embroidery, exaggeration.

    渲染、把事情鬧大

  • It demeans our language, actually, sometimes.

    事實上這有時貶低我們的語言

  • For example, if I see something

    舉例來說,假設我看到

  • that really is awesome,

    一個棒到不行的東西

  • what do I call it?

    我要怎麼形容這玩意?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And then of course this exaggeration becomes lying,

    然後誇飾自然而然演變成說謊

  • out and out lying, and we don't want to listen

    謊話越說越大

  • to people we know are lying to us.

    我們就不想再聽這種人的謊言

  • And finally, dogmatism,

    最後一罪,武斷

  • the confusion of facts with opinions.

    事實摻雜個人見解

  • When those two things get conflated,

    當這兩樣合併

  • you're listening into the wind.

    你就會陷入一團迷霧

  • You know, somebody is bombarding you with their opinions as if they were true.

    當有人一連串向你說出似假還真的言論

  • It's difficult to listen to that.

    這真的難以聽下去

  • So here they are, seven deadly sins of speaking.

    這就是說話的七大原罪

  • These are things I think we need to avoid.

    我認為必須避免上述行為

  • But is there a positive way to think about this?

    但是有正面的說話方式嗎?

  • Yes, there is.

    有的

  • I'd like to suggest that there are four

    容我向各位提出四個

  • really powerful cornerstones, foundations,

    極具影響力的說話之道

  • that we can stand on if we want our speech

    我們可以據此來使我們的演說

  • to be powerful and to make change in the world.

    具備影響力並改變整個世界

  • Fortunately, these things spell a word.

    幸好可以這些東西可以拼成一個字

  • The word is "hail," and it has a great definition as well.

    「Hail」(譯註:冰雹),就如同字面上的意思

  • I'm not talking about the stuff that falls from the sky

    但我指的不是一種從天而降

  • and hits you on the head.

    然後打到頭的物質

  • I'm talking about this definition,

    我在談的是這個定義

  • to greet or acclaim enthusiastically,

    也就是說話要帶有熱誠

  • which is how I think our words will be received

    這也是我認為別人願意聽我們說話

  • if we stand on these four things.

    只要我們遵從這四項原則

  • So what do they stand for?

    它們分別代表什麼呢?

  • See if you can guess.

    猜猜看

  • The H, honesty, of course,

    「H」代表誠實

  • being true in what you say, being straight and clear.

    說話必須坦白、直接、清晰

  • The A is authenticity, just being yourself.

    「A」代表真實,做自己

  • A friend of mine described it as

    我朋友形容該行為指的是

  • standing in your own truth,

    堅持自我信念

  • which I think is a lovely way to put it.

    我覺得這說法極好

  • The I is integrity, being your word,

    「I」代表正直,說到做到

  • actually doing what you say,

    對自己說的話負責

  • and being somebody people can trust.

    務必做到讓其他人信任

  • And the L is love.

    「L」代表愛

  • I don't mean romantic love,

    這裡不是指愛情

  • but I do mean wishing people well, for two reasons.

    而是指衷心爲別人好,有兩個原因

  • First of all, I think absolute honesty

    首先,我認為絕對的誠實

  • may not be what we want.

    或許不是我們要的

  • I mean, my goodness, you look ugly this morning.

    譬如說:「我的天啊!你今天早上看起來醜斃了!」

  • Perhaps that's not necessary.

    我想那種話就別提了

  • Tempered with love, of course, honesty is a great thing.

    說話需語帶體貼,誠實絕對是件好事

  • But also, if you're really wishing somebody well,

    但如果你真的為他人著想

  • it's very hard to judge them at the same time.

    卻要同時批評他人是件很不容易的事

  • I'm not even sure you can do those two things

    我甚至不確定你是否可以同時做到

  • simultaneously.

    這兩點

  • So hail.

    所以這就是「Hail」

  • Also, now that's what you say,

    另外,你要說的話

  • and it's like the old song, it is what you say,

    就像一首老歌《你說的話》

  • it's also the way that you say it.

    還有說話的方式也很重要

  • You have an amazing toolbox.

    你有一個很好的工具箱

  • This instrument is incredible,

    聲音的工具是不可思議的

  • and yet this is a toolbox that very few people have ever opened.

    但極少人曾打開這般美好的工具箱

  • I'd like to have a little rummage in there

    我現在要將一些小工具放進該工具箱

  • with you now and just pull a few tools out

    和各位一起把部份工具拿出來

  • that you might like to take away and play with,

    你可能會想帶走這些工具並把玩著

  • which will increase the power of your speaking.

    這些工具將強化你說話的力道

  • Register, for example.

    以音域為例

  • Now, falsetto register may not be very useful most of the time,

    大多時候,高假音不太能派上用場

  • but there's a register in between.

    但那中間存在著音域

  • I'm not going to get very technical about this

    我不打算講得多專業

  • for any of you who are voice coaches.

    尤其你們之中應該有聲樂老師

  • You can locate your voice, however.

    你卻可以隨意調整發聲的位置

  • So if I talk up here in my nose, you can hear the difference.

    當我用鼻腔說話,你可以聽出其中的差異

  • If I go down here in my throat,

    如果我用喉嚨發聲

  • which is where most of us speak from most of the time.

    我們多數人都用這部位說話

  • But if you want weight,

    但如果你想要說話聲音有厚度

  • you need to go down here to the chest.

    你說話時就要從胸腔發聲

  • You hear the difference?

    聽出兩者間的差異了嗎?

  • We vote for politicians with lower voices, it's true,

    我們投票給聲音低沉的政治人物,這是事實!

  • because we associate depth with power

    因為我們常將低嗓和力量

  • and with authority.

    及權威做聯結

  • That's register.

    這就是我們說的音域

  • Then we have timbre.

    然後是音質

  • It's the way your voice feels.

    音質是指你聲音聽起來的感覺

  • Again, the research shows that we prefer voices

    研究指出我們喜歡的聲音

  • which are rich, smooth, warm, like hot chocolate.

    必須帶有渾厚、平穩、溫暖,就像熱巧可力一樣

  • Well if that's not you, that's not the end of the world,

    如果你的聲音沒有上述的特質,倒也不是世界末日

  • because you can train.

    理由是你可以訓練你的聲音

  • Go and get a voice coach.

    去找一個聲樂老師

  • And there are amazing things you can do

    然後你就可以做許多很美好的事情

  • with breathing, with posture, and with exercises

    比如訓練呼吸、手勢以及練習

  • to improve the timbre of your voice.

    來改善聲音的質感

  • Then prosody. I love prosody.

    再來是我最愛的聲韻學

  • This is the sing-song, the meta-language

    聲韻學是唱歌也是最大的語言

  • that we use in order to impart meaning.

    我們常用聲韻學來透露訊息

  • It's root one for meaning in conversation.

    在日常對話中可是最基本的要素

  • People who speak all on one note

    當人們只用一種音調說話

  • are really quite hard to listen to

    說話內容令人難受

  • if they don't have any prosody at all.

    如果他們完全不用聲韻學

  • That's where the world monotonic comes from,

    就會衍生出無聊世界

  • or monotonous, monotone.

    或是絲毫無變化的,音律單調

  • Also we have repetitive prosody now coming in,

    如詩歌般的反覆單調也是說話的方式之一

  • where every sentence ends as if it were a question

    每句話句尾語調上揚,就好像問問題一樣

  • when it's actually not a question, it's a statement.

    但其實這句話是陳述句而非問句

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And if you repeat that one over and over,

    若你說話的方式不斷使用問句

  • it's actually restricting your ability

    反而限制你運用聲韻學

  • to communicate through prosody,

    來溝通的能力

  • which I think is a shame,

    我覺得這樣蠻可惜的

  • so let's try and break that habit.

    所以讓我們一起試著打破這種習慣

  • Pace. I can get very, very excited

    首先是說話的步調,我可以變得很激動

  • by saying something really, really quickly,

    話說得很快來表示激動的心情

  • or I can slow right down to emphasize,

    也可以放慢速度來強調我想說的話

  • and at the end of that, of course, is our old friend

    最後一點,這點也可說是我們的老朋友

  • silence.

    沉默

  • There's nothing wrong with a bit of silence

    有片刻的沉默從不是壞事

  • in a talk, is there?

    尤其適用於對話,對吧?

  • We don't have to fill it with ums and ahs.

    我們不需要用「嗯」或「啊」來填補沉默時刻

  • It can be very powerful.

    沉默可以是強大的力量

  • Of course, pitch often goes along with pace

    音調時常伴隨著說話的步調

  • to indicate arousal, but you can do it just with pitch.

    這兩者的結合可以強調說話語氣,但你只用音調就能達成目的

  • Where did you leave my keys?

    你把我的鑰匙放在哪裡呢?

  • Where did you leave my keys?

    你把我的鑰匙放在哪裡啊?

  • So slightly