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  • Hi, everybody.

    嗨,大家好。

  • I'm Esther.

    我是以斯帖。

  • In this video, I will introduce the past perfect tense.

    在這個視頻中,我將介紹過去的完美時態。

  • This tense is used to describe an action that took place at a specific time in the past.

    這個時態用來描述過去某個特定時間發生的動作。

  • This tense can be a little tricky, but don't worry I will guide you through it.

    這個時態可能會有點小麻煩,但別擔心,我會指導你完成它。

  • There's so much to learn and it's a very important tense.

    要學的東西太多了,這是一個很重要的時態。

  • So keep watching.

    所以請繼續關注。

  • Let's take a look at the first usage of the past perfect tense.

    我們來看一下過去完成時的第一種用法。

  • This tense can be used to describe an action in the past

    這個時態可以用來描述過去的一個動作。

  • that happened before another action in the past.

    在過去的另一次行動之前發生的。

  • Here are some examples.

    下面是一些例子。

  • 'I have visited China before I moved there.'

    '我在搬到中國之前,已經去過中國了'。

  • No matter what the subject you follow with 'had',

    不管是什麼主題你都用'了'來跟。

  • So that's easy.

    所以這很容易。

  • 'I had' 'Steve had'

    "我有""史蒂夫有

  • 'The plane had' and 'We had'.

    '飛機有'和'我們有'。

  • Then, we follow with the past participle of the verb.

    然後,我們接著用動詞的過去分詞。

  • In this case, it's 'visited'.

    在這種情況下,它的'訪問'。

  • 'I had visited China.'

    '我曾去過中國。

  • Now you'll notice that the second verb is in the past simple tense.

    現在你會注意到,第二個動詞是過去簡單時態。

  • 'I moved there.'

    '我搬到那裡去了'。

  • And I'll talk about that a little bit more later on.

    我稍後再談這個問題。

  • 'Steve had bought the book.'

    '史蒂夫已經買了這本書。

  • Again, 'subject', 'had' and 'past participle'.

    同樣是 "主語"、"曾 "和 "過去分詞"。

  • In this case, the verb is 'buy'.

    在這種情況下,動詞是'買'。

  • 'Steve had bought the book before he read it.'

    '史蒂夫還沒看書就買了這本書'。

  • Again, we have the simple tense of 'read' which is 'read'.

    同樣,我們有'讀'的簡單時態,就是'讀'。

  • And finally, 'The plane had left by the time I got to the airport.'

    最後,'我到機場的時候,飛機已經離開了'。

  • Again, the first part of this sentence is in the past perfect tense.

    同樣,這句話的第一部分是過去完成時。

  • 'The plane had left'.

    '飛機已經離開了'。

  • This is the past participle of 'leave'.

    這是 "離開 "的過去分詞。

  • The second verb says, 'I got to the airport.'

    第二個動詞說,'我到了機場'。

  • 'got' is the past tense of 'get'.

    '得'是'得到'的過去式。

  • Now what these three sentences have in common is that you'll see, 'before'.

    現在這三句話的共同點是,你會看到,"之前"。

  • 'before' or 'by the time'.

    '之前'或'到時'。

  • They all mean the same thing.

    它們的意思都是一樣的。

  • The verb that is in the past perfect tense happened first.

    過去完成時的動詞先發生。

  • The verb that's in the past simple tense happen after.

    過去簡單時態的動詞發生後。

  • So again, for the first example.

    所以,同樣是第一個例子。

  • 'before I move there' That happened later.

    "在我搬到那裡之前",那是後來發生的。

  • Before that, 'I had already visited China.'

    在此之前,'我已經去過中國了'。

  • Do you understand how that works?

    你明白這是怎麼回事嗎?

  • Let's take a look at the last example.

    我們來看看最後一個例子。

  • 'When they arrived, we had already started the game.'

    '當他們到達時,我們已經開始了遊戲。

  • So maybe they were late or something had happened.

    所以,也許他們遲到了,或者發生了什麼事。

  • But 'When they arrived', this is the past simple tense.

    但'當他們到達時',這是過去的簡單時態。

  • So this happened second.

    所以這事發生在第二。

  • 'We had already started the game.'

    '我們已經開始比賽了。

  • This action had already started.

    這個行動已經開始了。

  • It started before this action.

    在這次行動之前就開始了。

  • Let's move on.

    讓我們繼續前進。

  • Earlier I mentioned that the past perfect tense can be used to describe an action

    前面我提到,過去完成時可以用來描述一個動作

  • that happened in the past before another action in the past.

    在過去的另一個行動之前發生的事情。

  • We can do the same thing but also emphasize the duration.

    我們可以做同樣的事情,但也要強調持續時間。

  • How long that first action happened.

    第一次行動發生了多長時間。

  • We do this by using four and a duration.

    我們通過使用四個和一個持續時間來實現。

  • Let's take a look.

    讓我們一起來看看。

  • 'I had owned my computer for two months before it broke.'

    '我的電腦擁有了兩個月才壞掉'。

  • This is very similar to the first usage.

    這與第一種用法非常相似。

  • 'I had' and the past participle of the verb.

    '我曾'和動詞的過去分詞。

  • This part shows the action that happened earlier in the past.

    這一部分顯示的是過去較早發生的行動。

  • The second part, 'it broke'.

    第二部分,'它壞了'。

  • The past simple tense verb shows the action in the past

    過去簡單時態動詞表示過去的動作

  • that happened later than the first action.

    比第一次行動晚發生的。

  • However, you'll notice that this sentence has a duration, 'for two months'.

    但是,你會發現,這句話有一個期限,"兩個月"。

  • 'I had owned my computer for two months before it broke.'

    '我的電腦擁有了兩個月才壞掉'。

  • All I'm doing here is showing how long the first action had been true.

    我在這裡所做的一切,都是為了表明第一個動作的真實時間。

  • Let's take a look at the next example.

    我們來看看接下來的例子。

  • 'Jim had been lonely for a long time until he got a puppy.'

    '吉姆孤獨了很久,直到他養了一隻小狗。

  • Again, we have subject 'had', past participle.

    同樣,我們有主語'了',過去分詞。

  • And then we have the past simple 'he got a puppy'.

    然後我們還有過去簡單的'他有一隻小狗'。

  • All we're doing here is emphasizing how long first action had been true.

    我們在這裡所做的一切,都是在強調第一次行動的時間有多長。

  • He had been lonely for a long time.

    他已經寂寞了很久。

  • That is until the later action, 'he got a puppy.'

    直到後來的動作,'他養了一隻小狗'。

  • And finally, 'She and I had been friends for many years before she became my wife.'

    最後,'在她成為我的妻子之前,我和她是多年的朋友。

  • The first part of the sentence is the past perfect.

    句子的第一部分是過去完成時。

  • It happened before she became my wife.

    這事發生在她成為我妻子之前。

  • But I want to explain how long that had been true for many years.

    但我想解釋一下,這已經是多少年的事實了。

  • Let's move on.

    讓我們繼續前進。

  • Now I'll introduce how to form the negative in the past perfect tense.

    現在我就來介紹一下如何在過去的完全時態中形成否定式。

  • Take a look at the board.

    看一下板子。

  • The first sentence says, 'I had not eaten at the restaurant before I went yesterday.'

    第一句話說:'昨天去之前,我還沒有在飯店吃過飯。

  • Again, we have the past perfect tense here and the past simple tense here.

    同樣,我們這裡有過去的完全時態和過去的簡單時態。

  • This one is the action that happened earlier in the past

    這個是之前發生在過去的行動

  • And this one over here is the action that happened later in the past.

    而這邊這個就是後來發生在過去的行動。

  • However, because this is the negative, what I'm going to do is add a 'not' between

    但是,因為這是否定的,所以我要做的是在 "不 "與 "不 "之間加一個 "不 "字。

  • the 'had' and the past participle of the verb.

    的'了'和動詞的過去分詞。

  • So I say, 'I have not eaten'.

    所以我說:'我沒有吃過飯'。

  • Or I can use the contraction

    或者我可以用收縮詞

  • and say, 'I hadn't eaten at the restaurant before I went yesterday.'

    並說:"我昨天去之前沒有在餐廳吃過飯。

  • The next sentence is very similar.'

    下一句話很相似'。

  • 'She had not been to the circus before she went last week.'

    '她上週去之前,還沒有去過馬戲團。

  • Here's the action that happened earlier in the past,

    這是過去早些時候發生的行動。

  • and here's the action that happened later in the past.

    而這是過去後來發生的行動。

  • However, again, because it's negative,

    然而,又因為是負數。

  • I put a 'not' between 'had' and the past participle of the verb.

    我在'了'和動詞的過去分詞之間加了一個'不'字。

  • Also, I can use the contraction and say, 'She hadn't been to the circus.'

    另外,我還可以用收縮的方式說:"她沒有去過馬戲團"。

  • The next sentence says,

    下句說。

  • 'The cat hadn't chased the bird for very long before it flew away.'

    '貓追了沒多久,鳥就飛走了。

  • Remember, we can show duration,

    記住,我們可以顯示持續時間。

  • or how long the first action was true.

    或者說第一個動作的真實時間有多長。

  • by using 'for' and a duration.

    通過使用'for'和一個持續時間。

  • Because this is the negative form,

    因為這是負面的形式。

  • again, I use 'had not' after the subject and before the past participle of the verb

    同樣,我在主語後和動詞的過去分詞前都用了 "had not"。

  • In this case, the contraction 'hadn't' is already there for you.

    在這種情況下,收縮詞 "沒有 "已經為你準備好了。

  • 'We hadn't known each other for three months before we married.'

    '我們結婚前三個月都不認識對方。

  • That's a pretty short time.

    時間真短啊

  • It shows the duration by saying 'for', How long?

    它通過說 "for "來顯示持續時間,多長時間?

  • 'three months'

    "三個月

  • Let's move on.

    讓我們繼續前進。

  • Now, let's take a look at questions using 'had' in the past perfect tense.

    現在,我們來看看在過去完成時態中使用'had'的問題。

  • Take a look at the first sentence.

    看看第一句話。

  • It says, 'She had eaten lunch by noon.'

    上面寫著:'她中午吃過午飯了'。

  • Now, to turn this into a question is quite easy.

    現在,要把這個問題變成一個問題是很容易的。

  • All you have to do is change the order of the first two words.

    你要做的就是改變前兩個字的順序。

  • So instead of 'she had', we say 'Had she'.

    所以我們不說 "她有",而說 "有她"。

  • 'Had she eaten lunch by noon?'

    '她中午吃過午飯了嗎?

  • You can say, 'Yes, she had.'

    你可以說:"是的,她有。

  • or 'No, she hadn't.'

    或 "不,她沒有。

  • The next sentence says, 'It had rained before they left.'

    下一句說:'他們出發前下過雨'。

  • Again simply switched the order of the first two words.

    同樣只是調換了前兩個字的順序。

  • Instead of 'It had', say 'Had it' to make a question.

    不說'It had',而說'Had it'來做題。

  • 'Had it rained before they left?'

    '他們走之前是不是下過雨?

  • To reply you can say, 'Yes, it had.'

    回答時你可以說:"是的,它有"。

  • or 'No, it hadn't.'

    或 "不,沒有"。

  • Let's move on now.

    現在我們繼續前進。

  • I'll go into how to form 'WH' questions in the past perfect tense.

    下面我就來介紹一下如何用過去的完全時態來構成'WH'問題。

  • Let's take a look.

    讓我們一起來看看。

  • Here we see at the beginning of each question a 'WH' word.

    在這裡我們看到每道題的開頭都有一個 "WH "字。

  • 'where', 'who', 'what', and 'how'.

    '哪裡'、'誰'、'什麼'和'如何'。

  • Let's take a look at the first question.

    我們來看看第一個問題。

  • 'Where had he traveled before?'

    '他以前在哪裡旅行過?

  • You'll notice that after each 'WH' word, we have 'had'.

    你會注意到,在每個 "WH "字後面,我們都有 "了"。

  • And then the subject and then the past participle of the verb.

    然後是主語,然後是動詞的過去分詞。

  • 'Where had he traveled before?'

    '他以前在哪裡旅行過?

  • The next question says, 'Who had she talked to before?'

    下一個問題說:"她以前和誰談過?"。

  • This is the same thing the 'WH' word

    這和 "WH "這個詞是一樣的。

  • 'had she' and then the past participle.

    '了她',然後是過去分詞。

  • You'll notice here that we have the word 'before', but we didn't write a specific point in time.

    你會發現,這裡我們有 "之前 "這個詞,但我們沒有寫出具體的時間點。

  • If you see that it simply means before now.

    如果你看到它只是指現在之前。

  • The next question says, 'What had he eaten before lunch?'

    下一題說:"午飯前他吃了什麼?

  • Again we follow the same formula, however, here it says 'lunch for you'.

    同樣我們按照同樣的公式,不過,這裡說的是 "為你準備午餐"。

  • The last one says,

    最後一個說。

  • 'How long had she known him before she dated him?'

    '她和他交往前認識多久了?

  • Again how long 'had' + 'subject' and then the past participle.

    同樣是多長的'了'+'主語',然後是過去分詞。

  • Let's take a look at how to answer these questions.

    我們來看看如何回答這些問題。

  • 'Where had he traveled before?'

    '他以前在哪裡旅行過?

  • 'He had traveled to Europe.'

    '他曾到過歐洲。

  • is one possible answer.

    是一種可能的答案。

  • 'Who had she talked to before?'

    '她之前和誰聊過?

  • Here I can say, 'She had talked to her brother.'

    在這裡,我可以說:"她曾和她的哥哥談過。

  • 'What had he eaten before lunch?'

    '他午飯前吃了什麼?

  • 'He had eaten sushi before lunch.'

    '他午飯前吃了壽司。

  • And finally, 'How long had she known him before she dated him?'

    最後,'她和他交往前認識多久了?

  • 'She had known him for three years.'

    '她與他相識三年。

  • That is one possible answer.

    這是一個可能的答案。

  • Let's move on.

    讓我們繼續前進。

  • Now let's take a look at some practice exercises for the basic usage of the past perfect tense.

    現在我們來看看過去完成時的基本用法的一些練習。

  • Take a look at the first sentence.

    看看第一句話。

  • 'I blank for six hours before I had a break.'

    '我空白了六個小時,才休息了一下。

  • The verb here is 'work'.

    這裡的動詞是 "工作"。

  • Remember, we need to say 'I had'.

    記住,我們要說 "我有"。

  • No matter what the subject is, say 'had'.

    不管是什麼主題,都要說'了'。

  • And then, you take the past participle of the verb.

    然後,你把動詞的過去分詞。

  • In this case, we would say 'worked'.

    在這種情況下,我們會說 "工作"。

  • 'I had worked for six hours before I had a break.'

    '我足足工作了六個小時才得以休息。