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  • How does a sea snail catch a fish?

    海螺怎麼抓魚?

  • I mean, it's a snail, so it's slow,

    我的意思是,它是一隻蝸牛,所以它很慢。

  • and the fish is not.

    而魚則不然。

  • But yet, this happens.

    但是,卻發生了這樣的事情。

  • Hidden under the sand is a cone snail.

    沙子下面藏著一隻錐螺。

  • And that orange thing you see is kind of like a tongue.

    而你看到的那個橙色的東西有點像舌頭。

  • We call it a proboscis.

    我們稱它為 "長鼻"。

  • It uses that to track and subdue this unsuspecting fish.

    它利用這一點來追蹤並制服這條不懷好意的魚。

  • In this predator-prey interaction,

    在這種捕食者與獵物的互動中。

  • these are clearly not your garden variety escargots.

    這些顯然不是你的花園品種蝸牛。

  • These are assassins of the sea.

    這些都是海上的刺客。

  • And their weapon of choice is venom.

    而他們選擇的武器是毒液。

  • Venom, like the venom you find in venomous snakes and scorpions,

    毒液,就像你在毒蛇和蠍子身上找到的毒液。

  • these sea snails, they use their venom to subdue fish, worms

    這些海蝸牛用它們的毒液來制服魚和蟲子

  • and other snails.

    和其他蝸牛。

  • And the venom of these snails,

    還有這些蝸牛的毒液。

  • it's not just one thing,

    這不僅僅是一件事。

  • it's actually a cocktail of toxic molecules

    其實是有毒分子的混合體

  • that are packaged and delivered through a false tooth called a radula.

    通過稱為 "根管 "的假牙進行包裝和輸送。

  • You can think of the radulas as hypodermic needles.

    你可以把放射線看作是皮下注射針。

  • Now, no need to worry,

    現在,不用擔心了。

  • these snails are practicing good needle habits,

    這些蝸牛都是在練習良好的用針習慣。

  • because each radula is only used once.

    因為每個radula只用一次。

  • Now from your own knowledge about venomous organisms,

    現在從自己對毒物生物的瞭解。

  • and the keep-you-up-at-night fish-killing video that I just showed you,

    還有我剛剛給你看的那個讓你徹夜不眠的殺魚視頻。

  • you might think that venom is dangerous and all bad.

    你可能會認為毒液是危險的,所有的壞事。

  • Well, yes and no.

    嗯,是的,也不是。

  • A more accurate way of thinking of venom

    對毒液更準確的思考方式

  • is to think of it as both a supervillain and a superhero.

    就是把它既當做一個超級大壞蛋,又當做一個超級英雄。

  • In my lab, we study the evolution of venom in these sea snails

    在我的實驗室裡,我們研究這些海蝸牛毒液的進化

  • as a force for good.

    作為一種善的力量。

  • Sounds like a stretch,

    聽起來好像很誇張。

  • or maybe even snake oil,

    甚至可能是蛇油。

  • but actually,

    但實際上。

  • while there are snakes involved, the product is legit.

    雖然有蛇的參與,產品是合法的。

  • One reason the venom product is so successful

    毒液產品如此成功的原因之一

  • is that it transforms a physical warfare into a biochemical one.

    是它將物理戰轉化為生化戰。

  • Where usually the predator-prey interaction is one of brute force,

    通常捕食者與獵物之間的互動是一種蠻力。

  • venom takes it to a molecular scale.

    毒液把它帶到了分子尺度。

  • And it's not size that matters,

    而重要的不是尺寸。

  • but the mixture of your venom arsenal.

    但你的毒液武器庫的混合物。

  • The chemistry of the toxins in your arsenal

    你的武器庫中的毒素的化學成分。

  • is what's going to enable David to conquer Goliath.

    是讓大衛能夠征服歌利亞的原因。

  • And in our scenario, David is clearly the snail.

    而在我們的方案中,大衛顯然就是那隻蝸牛。

  • Another feature of venom that makes it so successful

    毒液的另一個特點使它如此成功

  • is that the toxins work with the precision of a Swiss Army knife.

    是毒素的作用就像瑞士軍刀一樣精準。

  • And so these toxins,

    所以這些毒素。

  • they come for strongholds that help an organism to function.

    它們是為了幫助生物體運作的據點而來。

  • So they target blood, brain and membranes.

    所以他們的目標是血液、大腦和膜。

  • Whether it's snail venom or snake venom,

    不管是蝸牛毒還是蛇毒。

  • they each have components that can do things

    它們都有可以做的事情的組件

  • like cause your blood to clot,

    就像導致你的血液凝固。

  • what we call "hemotoxic."

    我們稱之為 "血毒"。

  • Or they cause neurons in your brains to not function normally,

    或者導致你大腦中的神經元不能正常工作。

  • what we call "neurotoxic."

    我們稱之為 "神經毒物"。

  • Or they have toxins that will poke holes into the membranes of your cells,

    或者它們有毒素,會在你的細胞膜上嫖妓。

  • causing them to rupture and, basically, explode,

    導致它們破裂,基本上,爆炸。

  • what we call "cytotoxic."

    我們稱之為 "細胞毒"。

  • Cellular explosion, people.

    手機爆炸,人。

  • Now, if that is not all powerful and all present,

    現在,如果不是全能、全現。

  • nothing is.

    沒有什麼是。

  • Now a little about me,

    現在說說我吧

  • and why I'm so obsessed with venom.

    以及為什麼我對毒液如此著迷。

  • I grew up in New York City

    我是在紐約長大的

  • with forced access to the Natural History Museum.

    強行進入自然歷史博物館;

  • I say "forced access,"

    我說 "強行進入"

  • because I'm one of five kids,

    因為我是五個孩子中的一個

  • and my parents used museums as a form of childcare.

    而我的父母把博物館作為一種育兒方式。

  • There were two rules:

    有兩個規則。

  • Don't lose anybody

    不要失去任何人

  • and meet Mom and Dad at the African elephants

    並在非洲大象那裡見到爸爸媽媽。

  • at 5:30, when the museum closes.

    5點半,博物館閉館的時候。

  • Those totally unsupervised days running through the halls of the museum

    那些完全沒有人看管的日子,在博物館的大廳裡奔跑著

  • were full of adventure and exploration.

    充滿了冒險和探索。

  • And that's how I feel when I'm studying venom.

    這就是我研究毒液時的感覺。

  • It's a scientific adventure.

    這是一場科學的冒險。

  • We're boldly exploring this entity that connects nature and humanity.

    我們正在大膽地探索這個連接自然和人類的實體。

  • Another reason that I'm obsessed with venom

    我迷戀毒液的另一個原因是

  • is because of its duality.

    是由於它的雙重性。

  • When you inject the components of a venom arsenal into an organism,

    當你把毒液武庫的成分注射到生物體內。

  • it can kill or it can cure.

    它可以殺人,也可以治病。

  • At a molecular level, several things can happen.

    在分子水準上,有幾種情況會發生。

  • You saw one thing, paralysis in the fish.

    你看到了一件事,魚的麻痺。

  • Now that was happening because the toxins in the venom

    現在發生這種情況是因為毒液中的毒素。

  • were attacking how the fish's cells communicate with each other,

    攻擊魚的細胞之間的交流方式。

  • preventing it from swimming away.

    防止它遊走。

  • Are there other things that I would like to use venom to attack?

    還有其他的東西,我想用毒液來攻擊嗎?

  • For sure.

    當然了

  • And one of those is cancer.

    而其中之一就是癌症。

  • Cancer tumors are cells.

    癌症腫瘤是細胞。

  • And like all cells,

    和所有細胞一樣。

  • they communicate with themselves and their environment around them.

    他們與自己和周圍的環境溝通。

  • So we would like to find venom components

    所以我們想找到毒液的成分

  • that are very good at disrupting how the tumor cells communicate.

    擅長破壞腫瘤細胞的交流方式。

  • Similar to how the venom disrupted how the fish cells communicated

    類似於毒液如何擾亂了魚細胞的交流方式

  • and the fish couldn't swim away.

    而魚兒卻遊不走。

  • In my lab, we study cancer as a channelopathy.

    在我的實驗室裡,我們把癌症作為一種通道病來研究。

  • What this means is, basically, we're looking for venom components

    這意味著,基本上,我們要找的是毒液的成分。

  • that will target channels that are overexpressed in tumor cells

    將針對腫瘤細胞中過度表達的通道。

  • versus normal cells.

    與正常細胞。

  • The cancer that we're most focused on right now

    我們現在最關注的癌症。

  • is liver cancer.

    是肝癌。

  • And that's because since the 1980s,

    而這是因為自上世紀80年代以來。

  • the death rate of liver cancer has doubled,

    肝癌的死亡率增加了一倍。

  • and it's an emerging threat in the US.

    而且是美國的一個新興威脅。

  • In a screen in which we had cervical,

    在一個螢幕中,我們有宮頸。

  • neuroblastoma, prostate and liver cancer cells,

    神經母細胞瘤、前列腺和肝癌細胞。

  • we found a compound from a terebrid snail

    我們發現了一種蒺藜的化合物

  • that seems to attack liver cancer cells,

    似乎可以攻擊肝癌細胞。

  • and only liver cancer cells, and none of the others that were tested.

    且只有肝癌細胞,其他被檢測的細胞都沒有。

  • And then, when we took this compound and we injected it into mouse models

    然後,當我們把這種化合物和我們注射它 小鼠模型

  • that were expressing liver cancer cells,

    是表達肝癌細胞的。

  • it significantly inhibited the growth of the tumors.

    它能顯著抑制腫瘤的生長。

  • We're not quite sure how this works yet,

    我們還不太清楚這怎麼用。

  • we're still investigating the mechanism

    我們還在研究其中的奧祕

  • and how we can make this compound more effective,

    以及我們如何讓這種化合物更加有效。

  • so you can't rush out to the pharmacy

    這樣你就不能急著去藥房了

  • and order up a killer snail liver-cancer therapy treatment.

    並訂購了殺手鐗蝸牛肝癌治療方法。

  • Not yet.

    還沒有

  • Basically, what we think is happening

    基本上,我們認為正在發生的事情

  • is that the compound is blocking a specific channel,

    是該化合物阻斷了一個特定的通道。

  • prohibiting the transmission of a specific chemical

    禁止傳播特定化學品

  • that leads to downstream signaling

    導致下游的信號傳導

  • that enables the tumor to multiply and draw blood to itself.

    使得腫瘤能夠繁殖,併為自己吸血。

  • What we're doing in studying the components of venom

    我們在研究毒液的成分時做了什麼?

  • to find treatments for human diseases and disorders,

    尋找人類疾病和失調的治療方法;

  • is not new,

    不是新的。

  • it's what we call natural products drug discovery,

    這就是我們所說的天然產品藥物發現。

  • and it's been happening for centuries,

    而且這種情況已經發生了好幾個世紀了。

  • and in cultures all over the world.

    和世界各地的文化中。

  • Venoms are not only giving us cool new compounds,

    毒液不僅給我們帶來了很酷的新化合物。

  • but they're also giving us new ways of thinking

    但它們也給我們提供了新的思考方式。

  • about how we treat human diseases and disorders.

    關於我們如何治療人類疾病和失調。

  • And I'll give you three examples.

    我給你舉三個例子。

  • The first is from killer snails, of course.

    當然,第一種是殺手蝸牛的。

  • And so the first drug from these snails that is on the market

    所以這些蝸牛的第一種藥物,已經上市了

  • is called ziconotide, or Prialt,

    被稱為齊科諾肽,或Prialt。

  • and it's used to treat chronic pain in HIV and cancer patients.

    並用於治療艾滋病毒和癌症患者的慢性疼痛。

  • Prialt is a nonaddictive pain therapy.

    Prialt是一種非成癮性疼痛療法。

  • Three magic words when you think about how we're treating pain currently.

    當你想到我們目前如何治療疼痛時,三個神奇的詞。

  • We're using things that have a huge cost of addiction.

    我們使用的東西,有巨大的成癮成本。

  • So think of morphine

    所以想想嗎啡

  • or think of any of your favorite opioid out there.

    或者想出你最喜歡的阿片類藥物來

  • What the snails have done

    蝸牛做了什麼

  • is they've shown us a way to treat pain without the addiction,

    是他們給我們展示了一種治療疼痛而不上癮的方法。

  • which is huge.

    這是巨大的。

  • The next example comes from the Brazilian pit viper.

    接下來的例子來自巴西的蝮蛇。

  • From these snakes, we've derived a compound called captopril.

    從這些蛇身上,我們衍生出一種叫卡託普利的化合物。

  • Captopril is used to treat high blood pressure,

    卡託普利用於治療高血壓。

  • and captopril is a breakthrough drug.

    而卡託普利是一種突破性的藥物。

  • But not only in and of itself,

    但不僅是本身。

  • but because it advanced a whole class of drugs,

    但因為它推進了一整類藥物。

  • what we know as ACE inhibitors,

    我們知道的ACE抑制劑。

  • which are the most commonly [prescribed] for treating hypertension

    哪些是治療高血壓最常用的[處方]?

  • and heart failure.

    和心力衰竭。

  • The last example is from the Gila monster.

    最後一個例子是來自吉拉怪獸。

  • And this is a really exciting example of understanding the ecology

    而這是一個非常令人興奮的例子 瞭解生態學

  • of these organisms,

    這些生物的。

  • and pairing it with efficient drug discovery.

    並與高效的藥物發現相配合。

  • And Gila monsters are binge eaters.

    而吉拉怪獸是暴飲暴食的。

  • So when they bite into a large meal,

    所以當他們咬著大餐。

  • they release things in their venom that lower blood sugar.

    它們在毒液中釋放的東西會降低血糖。

  • So what's the drug that you think we found from the Gila monster?

    你覺得我們從吉拉怪獸身上找到的是什麼藥?

  • A compound that is used to lower the blood sugar in diabetic patients.

    一種用於降低糖尿病患者血糖的化合物。