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  • This is the first famous photograph of war.

    這是第一張著名的戰爭照片。

  • It's calledThe Valley of the Shadow of Death,” and it was taken by British photographer

    它的名字叫 "死亡陰影谷",是英國攝影師拍的

  • Roger Fenton in 1855.

    1855年,羅傑-芬頓。

  • During the first war to be photographed: the Crimean War.

    在第一次拍攝的戰爭中:克里米亞戰爭。

  • A bloody and confusing three-year conflict fought between Russia and an alliance of the

    一場血腥而混亂的三年衝突在俄羅斯和一個聯盟之間打響。

  • Ottoman Empire, United Kingdom, France, and Sardinia.

    奧斯曼帝國、英國、法國和撒丁島。

  • The photo is part of a large collection taken by Fenton.

    這張照片是芬頓拍攝的一大批照片的一部分。

  • Who was sent to Crimea – a peninsula on the Black Sea in Eastern Europeto bring

    誰被派往克里米亞--東歐黑海上的一個半島--,將。

  • the war to life through photography.

    通過攝影將戰爭推向生活。

  • Most of the images depict camp life and portraits of soldiers.

    畫面大多描繪的是軍營生活和阿兵哥的肖像。

  • But this one is unique.

    但這個是獨一無二的。

  • Not because there's no one in it.

    不是因為裡面沒有人。

  • But because out of the hundreds of photos Fenton took while he was in Crimea...

    但因為在芬頓在克里米亞時拍的數百張照片中... ...

  • it's the only one with a second version.

    這是唯一一個有第二版的。

  • The two photos are almost identicalthey show the same devastated landscape,

    這兩張照片幾乎一模一樣--它們顯示的是同樣的破壞性景觀。

  • from the same tripod position, but with one key difference.

    從相同的三腳架位置,但有一個關鍵的區別。

  • The one that became famous shows cannonballs scattered on the road.

    成名的那張顯示炮彈散落在路上。

  • And in the second photo, they're gone.

    而在第二張照片中,他們已經消失了。

  • Or, is this the second photo?

    還是說,這是第二張照片?

  • Did Fenton clear the cannonballs from the road?

    芬頓有沒有清理路上的炮彈?

  • Or did he put them there himself, as photo historians have alleged?

    還是如照片史學家所稱,是他自己放的?

  • Which photo shows the truth?

    哪張照片顯示了真相?

  • ERROL MORRIS: The fact that there's a pair, by the way, is mysterious in and of itself.

    順便說一句,有一對夫妻的事實本身就很神祕。

  • This is Errol Morris,

    我是埃洛爾-莫里斯

  • Oscar-winning documentary director and collector ofunique taxidermy.

    奧斯卡獲獎紀錄片導演和收藏家... 獨特的動物標本。

  • MORRIS: It's my eyeball collection.

    這是我的眼球收藏。

  • Who went down a rabbit hole of research, a trip across the world, and painstaking photo

    是誰鑽進了研究的兔子洞,橫跨世界的旅行,和艱苦的照片。

  • analysis, just to answer the question:

    分析,只是為了回答這個問題。

  • Which one was taken first?

    哪一個是先拍的?

  • MORRIS: That became the mystery of this pair of photographs.

    莫里斯:這就成了這對照片的謎團。

  • MORRIS: It tortured me.

    它折磨著我。

  • Morris' journey to find the answerwhich he chronicled in a three-part essay in the

    莫里斯尋找答案的歷程--他在《世界新聞報》的一篇三篇文章中記錄了這一歷程。

  • New York Timesstarted with an accusation.

    紐約時報--以指控開始。

  • MORRIS: I first read about them in an essay by Susan Sontag.

    莫里斯:我第一次讀到它們是在蘇珊-桑塔格的一篇文章中。

  • Sontag, an American writer and filmmaker, argued that the famous photo was manipulated

    美國作家、電影製片人桑塔格認為,這張著名的照片是被人操縱的

  • by Fenton.

    由芬頓。

  • That he photographed the scene as he found it, thenoversaw the scattering of cannonballs

    他在發現現場時拍下了照片,然後 "監督炮彈的散落"。

  • on the roadto stage the second image.

    在路上 "上演第二形象。

  • For simplicity, Morris refers to these photos asONandOFF.”

    為了簡單起見,莫里斯將這些照片稱為 "開 "和 "關"。

  • MORRIS: And so the argument is thatONis posed.

    莫里斯:所以爭論的焦點是,"ON "是擺在。

  • MORRIS: And he put them on the road in order to create a more dramatic image.

    莫里斯:他把它們放在路上,是為了創造一個更有戲劇性的形象。

  • MORRIS: But there should be some kind of evidence independent of conjectures about Fenton's

    但應該有一些獨立於對芬頓的猜測的證據。

  • psychology.

    心理學。

  • MORRIS: How from the photographs themselves and from contemporaneous accounts can I decide

    莫里斯:我如何從照片本身和同時代的描述中來判斷?

  • which is which?

    孰是孰非

  • Fenton, in a letter to his wife, says that he took “2 good picturesin the Valley

    芬頓在給妻子的信中說,他在山谷中拍了 "2張好照片"

  • of the Shadow of Death that day.

    的死亡之影,那天。

  • But there's no mention of which came first, or what happened in the span of time between

    但沒有提到哪個先來,也沒有提到在這段時間裡發生了什麼事。

  • the two exposures.

    這兩次曝光。

  • Five interviews with photo historians and museum curators with expert knowledge on Fenton

    採訪了五位攝影史學家和博物館館長,他們對芬頓有專業的瞭解。

  • left Morris with contradictory conclusions about which photo makes more sense to have

    給莫里斯留下了自相矛盾的結論,關於哪張照片更合理,有

  • been taken first.

    已被搶先一步。

  • And whether or not Fenton wanted to add drama to the scene.

    而芬頓是否想在現場增加戲劇性。

  • MORRIS: Well, maybe he did. Maybe he didn't. That doesn't tell me which photograph was

    也許他有。也許他沒有。這並沒有告訴我哪張照片是

  • taken first.

    先採取。

  • MORRIS: Which comes first, “ONorOFF”, “OFForON?”

    "開 "和 "關","關 "和 "開",哪個先來?

  • The answer would have to come from somewhere within the photos themselves.

    答案必須來自於照片本身的某個地方。

  • MORRIS: Well, I tried everything.

    我什麼都試過了。

  • MORRIS: At first I thought that the shadows

    一開始我以為那些影子...

  • Maybe if he could better understand the positions of the shadows around objects in the photos,

    如果他能更好地理解照片中物體周圍陰影的位置,也許就能做到。

  • Morris could determine which one was taken later in the day.

    莫里斯可以確定哪一個是在當天晚些時候拍攝的。

  • So, naturally, he flew to the Crimean peninsula.

    所以,他自然而然地飛到了克里米亞半島。

  • And with the help of a local guide, trekked to the exact spot in the Valley of the Shadow

    並在當地嚮導的幫助下,跋山涉水來到了影子谷的準確地點。

  • of Death where Fenton had stood 150 years earlier.

    死亡的地方,150年前芬頓站過的地方。

  • MORRIS: I actually got a cannonball, and placed the cannonball, photographed it at various

    莫里斯:其實我是找了一個炮彈,把炮彈放在了不同的位置,拍了照片。

  • times of day.

    一天的時間。

  • MORRIS: Hoping the shadows would provide the ultimate clue as to before and after.

    希望影子能提供前後的最終線索。

  • And what did you determine? I mean, you had the ball in your hand, you photographed it,

    你是怎麼確定的?我的意思是,你有球在你的手,你拍下了它。

  • you knew which way he was facing. Did that help?

    你知道他面對的是什麼方向這樣有用嗎?

  • MORRIS: No, it didn't.

    莫里斯:不,它沒有。

  • MORRIS: I could not reliably decide which came first.

    莫里斯:我無法可靠地決定哪個先來。

  • There's just too many variables in the chemical processes required to take photos back then

    那時候拍照所需的化學工藝變數太多。

  • to make a reliable guess about what the lighting conditions were.

    來對光照條件進行可靠的猜測。

  • MORRIS: Going to the Crimea, getting a cannonball, finding the actual place in which these photographs

    去克里米亞,找一個炮彈,找到這些照片的真實地點。

  • were taken.

    採集了。

  • MORRIS: Still no definitive answer.

    莫里斯:還是沒有明確的答案。

  • Morris was right about one thing from the beginning though: the solution to which of

    不過莫里斯從一開始就說對了一件事:解決哪種。

  • these photos was taken first is in the photographs themselves.

    這些照片是先拍的,是在照片本身。

  • He was just looking in the wrong place.

    他只是找錯了地方。

  • Obsessing over the cannonballs made sense, but the solution isn't here.

    執著於炮彈是有道理的,但解決辦法不在這裡。

  • It's here. A friend of Morris's spotted it.

    它在這裡。莫里斯的一個朋友發現了它。

  • These rocks moved, and that revealed something about what happened in the time between the

    這些岩石移動了,這揭示了一些關於在這段時間內發生的事情。

  • two photos being taken.

    正在拍攝的兩張照片。

  • MORRIS: If people are walking in this scene, gravity is going to pull them from a higher

    如果人們在這個場景中行走,重力會把他們從更高的地方拉過來。

  • elevation to a lower elevation.

    標高到較低的標高。

  • MORRIS: And by observing the motion of these rocks. We can decide which came first.

    通過觀察這些岩石的運動...我們可以決定哪個先來

  • These rocks determined that ONthe one with the cannonballs in the roadwas,

    這些石頭決定了ON--就是路上那個炮彈的人--是。

  • in fact, taken second.

    事實上,採取第二。

  • MORRIS: Without even looking at the cannonballs. How irritating!

    連炮彈都不看。真煩人!

  • The photo we now know to be taken second was displayed in London in 1855, along with Fenton's

    我們現在所知道的第二張照片於1855年在倫敦展出,與芬頓的

  • other photographs of the war.

    其他戰爭照片。

  • Press reviews of the exhibit celebrated the new medium of photography, and praised its

    新聞界對此次展覽的評論是對攝影這種新媒體的讚美,並對其進行了讚揚。

  • accuracy in documenting evidence.

    記錄證據的準確性;

  • They singled out The Valley of the Shadow of Death as a must-see.

    他們把《死亡之谷》單列為必看之作。

  • One reviewer said the photo, which isliterally covered with projectilesshowed withterrible

    一位評論家說,這張 "字面上佈滿彈丸 "的照片顯示出了 "可怕的

  • distinctnesswhat British soldiers haddared and encountered.”

    分明 "英國阿兵哥 "所 "敢於和遭遇的"。

  • MORRIS: The relationship between a photograph and reality is complicated.

    莫里斯:照片和現實之間的關係很複雜。

  • MORRIS: Complicated at best.

    莫里斯:最複雜的。

  • After months of investigation, interviews, and dead ends, Morris definitively figured

    經過幾個月的調查、採訪和死衚衕,莫里斯終於搞清楚了......。

  • out the order of these photos.

    出這些照片的順序。

  • OFFcomes beforeON.”

    "OFF "在 "ON "之前。

  • But ultimately, we can't really know why these cannonballs were put on this road.

    但最終,我們無法真正知道這些炮彈為什麼會放在這條路上。

  • Or even know for sure if Fenton is the one who moved them.

    甚至可以確定是否是芬頓動的手。

  • There are accounts of British soldiers picking up cannonballs to fire back at the Russians,

    有關於英國阿兵哥撿起炮彈向俄國人還擊的記載。

  • so maybe that's what was happening here.

    所以也許這就是這裡發生的事情。

  • All we know from the two photos, though, is that somebody moved them, for some reason.

    不過從這兩張照片中,我們只知道有人把它們挪動了,不知道為什麼。

  • MORRIS: Every photograph is essentially a mystery.

    莫里斯:每一張照片本質上都是一個謎。

  • MORRIS: And it's a mystery that asks us to figure it out.

    這是一個謎團,要求我們把它弄清楚。

  • Someone walked through this scene.

    有人走過這一幕。

  • They knocked these rocks downhill as they carried cannonballs to the road.

    他們把這些石頭打下山,因為他們把炮彈運到了路上。

  • And seeing that brings us a little closer to one afternoon in 1855 in the Valley of

    而看到這些,讓我們更接近於1855年的一個下午,在山谷中

  • the Shadow of Death.

    死亡的陰影。

  • Even though these two photos are the only nearly-identical pair in Fenton's Crimea

    儘管這兩張照片是芬頓的《克里米亞》中唯一一對幾乎相同的照片

  • collection, there's another shot he attempted multiple times.

    收藏,還有一個他多次嘗試的鏡頭。

  • It's a self portraitdressed in a Zouave Uniform.

    這是一幅自畫像--身穿祖阿夫制服。

  • The Zouaves were a multinational infantry regiment fighting for the French.

    祖阿夫人是為法國人作戰的多國步兵團。

  • And they were among the groups of soldiers that Fenton photographed in Crimea.

    而他們也是芬頓在克里米亞拍攝的阿兵哥群體中的一員。

  • They originated mostly in Algeria, but also came from other parts of North Africa that

    它們主要起源於阿爾及利亞,但也有來自北非其他地區的。

  • were under French colonial rule.

    處於法國殖民統治之下。

  • Their uniforms were recognizable for their baggy pants and their head coverings, called

    他們的制服是可以識別的寬鬆的褲子和他們的頭套,稱為

  • chéchias.

    費茲。

  • Fenton photographed himself several times dressed in a Zouave uniform he was given

    芬頓多次拍到自己身著祖阿夫制服的照片,他得到的是--。

  • and misleadingly captioned it “a zouavewithout context.

    - 並在沒有背景的情況下,誤導性地將其標題為 "zouave"。

  • For the record, these are actual Zouaves.

    鄭重聲明,這些都是真正的祖阿夫。

  • Also, if you want to read Errol Morris's full essay onThe Valley of the Shadow

    另外,如果你想閱讀埃羅爾-莫里斯關於《影子谷》的完整文章。

  • of Death,” I linked that in the description.

    的死亡,"我在描述中鏈接了。

  • That essay was a huge inspiration when I was first figuring out what Darkroom would look

    當我第一次想出Darkroom的樣子時,那篇文章是一個巨大的靈感。

  • like as a series, so it's really exciting to get to break down these two photos for

    像一個系列,所以它真的很令人興奮的得到分解 這兩張照片為。

  • an episode. And this is the last one of season two.

    一集。而這是第二季的最後一集。

  • Go check out some of the older ones in the playlist if you haven't seen those, and

    如果你沒看過那些,就去看看播放列表裡的一些老片子吧,還有。

  • as always, thanks for watching.

    一如既往,謝謝你的觀看。

This is the first famous photograph of war.

這是第一張著名的戰爭照片。

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這張著名的戰爭照片是上演的嗎?埃羅爾-莫里斯 (Was this famous war photo staged? feat. Errol Morris)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 11 月 18 日
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