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  • Transcriber: TED Translators Admin Reviewer: Rhonda Jacobs

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Amanda Zhu

  • I am a tree hugger.

    我是個抱樹人(環保人士)。

  • I spent much of my childhood

    我童年總是待在

  • on the great lower limb of a massive copper beech,

    一棵紫葉歐洲山毛櫸底下的主枝上,

  • alternately reading and looking up at the sky through its branches.

    一會兒閱讀,一會兒抬頭 從樹枝間看向天空。

  • I felt safe and cared for

    我感到安全、被照顧著,

  • and connected to something infinitely larger than myself.

    且和某種比我更偉大的 存在連結在一起。

  • I thought the trees were immortal, that they would always be here.

    我以為樹木是不朽的, 永遠都會在那裡。

  • But I was wrong.

    但我錯了。

  • The trees are dying.

    樹木正在不斷死亡。

  • Climate change is killing the cedars of Lebanon

    氣候變遷正在殺害黎巴嫩的西洋杉

  • and the forests of the American West.

    以及美國西部的森林。

  • And it's not just the trees.

    且不只是樹木。

  • Since 1998, extreme heat has killed more than 160,000 people,

    1998 年起,

  • and unchecked climate change could kill millions more.

    極高溫就造成了十六萬人死亡,

  • How did we get here?

    如果氣候變遷不受控制, 還會再造成數百萬人死亡。

  • There are many reasons, of course,

    我們怎麼會走到這一步?

  • but one of the most important

    當然有很多原因,

  • is that we let capitalism morph into something monstrous.

    但最重要的原因之一,

  • I'm a huge fan of capitalism at its best.

    就是我們讓資本主義變身成大怪物。

  • After all, I'm an economist and a business school professor.

    我很崇尚完美運作的資本主義。

  • I think genuinely free and fair markets

    畢竟,我是經濟學家及商學院教授。

  • are one of the great inventions of the human race.

    我認為真正自由公平的市場

  • But here's the catch:

    是人類最偉大的發明之一。

  • markets only work their magic when prices reflect real costs.

    但有個問題,

  • And right now, prices are badly out of whack.

    唯有在價格反映出真正的成本時,

  • We're letting the firms who sell fossil fuels,

    市場才能發揮它的功力。

  • and indeed anyone who emits greenhouse gases,

    而目前,價格非常不相稱。

  • cause enormous damage for which they do not have to pay.

    我們容許販售化石燃料的公司

  • And that is hardly fair.

    以及排放溫室氣體的任何人

  • Imagine for a moment

    招致巨大的損害, 卻不用為此付出代價。

  • that my hands are filled with a cloud of electrons,

    那實在說不上是公平。

  • 10 dollars' worth of coal-fired electricity

    想像一下,

  • that could power your cell phone for more than 10 years.

    我的手上有一團電子雲,

  • That probably sounds like a pretty good deal.

    燃煤發電產生的電力,價值十美金,

  • But it's only so cheap

    能供電給你的手機長達十年。

  • because you're not paying for the harm that it causes.

    聽起來是個挺好的交易。

  • Burning coal sends poisons like mercury and lead into the air,

    但它之所以這麼便宜,

  • increasing healthcare costs by billions of dollars

    是因為你不用為 它所造成的傷害付費。

  • and causing the death

    燃燒煤碳會將汞和鉛 這些有毒物質排放到空氣中,

  • of hundreds of thousands of people every year.

    導致健康照護的成本 增加數十億美金,

  • It also emits huge quantities of carbon dioxide.

    且每年還會造成數十萬人死亡。

  • So another part of the real cost of coal

    燃燒煤碳也會釋放大量的二氧化碳。

  • is the climate damage it will cause and is already causing.

    所以,煤碳的真實成本當中有一部分

  • More than a million acres burned in California this summer,

    就是它將會也已經造成的氣候破壞。

  • and massive floods put a third of Bangladesh under water.

    今年夏天,加州有超過 一百萬英畝的地被燒光,

  • Hundreds of studies have tried to put a number on these costs.

    孟加拉共和國有三分之一 國土被大洪水淹沒。

  • My sense of this work,

    有數百個研究計畫 都在嘗試估算這些成本。

  • and here I'm relying on my colleagues in the School of Public Health

    我的判斷是,

  • and my friends in economics,

    且這是仰賴我在公共健康學院的同事

  • is that generating 10 dollars' worth of coal-fired electricity

    及經濟學的朋友所做的判斷,

  • causes at least eight dollars' worth of harm to human health

    我認為產生出價值十美金的燃煤電力

  • and at least another eight dollars' worth of climate damage

    會對人類健康造成 至少價值八美金的傷害,

  • and probably much more.

    另外還會造成至少 八美金的氣候損害,

  • So the true cost of this handful of electrons?

    可能還更多許多。

  • It's not 10 dollars.

    所以,我手上這些電子的 真正成本是多少?

  • It's something more like 26.

    不是十美金。

  • The hidden costs of doing things like burning oil and gas

    比較可能是二十六美金。

  • and eating beef are similarly enormous and just as unfair.

    其他活動,如燃燒石油 和天然氣以及吃牛肉,

  • Everyone who's trying to build a clean economy

    背後隱藏的成本 也同樣巨大且同樣不公平。

  • has to compete with firms that are heavily subsidized

    所有試圖努力打造乾淨經濟的人

  • by the destruction of our health and the degradation of our climate.

    都得和這些破壞我們的健康和氣候

  • This is not the capitalism I signed up for.

    來獲益的公司競爭,

  • This is not a market that is either free or fair.

    這不是我支持的那種資本主義。

  • So ...

    這個市場既不自由又不公平。

  • What do we do?

    所以……

  • The "easy" answer is that governments should insist

    我們能怎麼做?

  • that anyone who emits greenhouse gases pay for the damage that they cause.

    「簡單」的答案是政府應該要堅持

  • However, at the moment,

    排放溫室氣體的人就一定要 為他們所造成的損害付出代價。

  • there's not much sign that governments are up for this,

    然而,目前看不出 政府有這麼做的打算,

  • partly because the fossil fuel companies have spent the last 20 years

    有部分原因是化石燃料公司 在過去二十年間

  • using their heavily subsidized profits

    把他們賺來的大量利潤

  • to deny the reality of climate change

    用在否認氣候變遷的事實,

  • and to shower the politicians,

    並用錢收買應該要管制他們的政客。

  • who should be regulating them, with money.

    所以我有個瘋狂的點子。

  • So here's my crazy idea.

    我認為企業應該站出來。

  • I think business should step up.

    我認為企業應該要修復資本主義。

  • I think business should fix capitalism.

    我知道。(笑)

  • I know. (Laughs)

    有人可能在想:「最好有可能啦!」

  • Some of you are probably thinking, "Fat chance."

    我剛不是說過公司會否認科學、

  • Didn't I just say that companies are the ones denying the science,

    扭曲市場、遊說政客嗎?

  • distorting the market and lobbying the politicians?

    我說過。

  • I did.

    但處理這個問題也正好 和私人企業的利益有關。

  • But fixing this is squarely in the private sector's interest.

    事實是,

  • The truth is business is screwed if we don't fix climate change.

    如果我們不處理好 氣候變遷,企業就完蛋了。

  • It's going to be hard to make money

    將來會很難賺錢,

  • when the great coastal cities are under water

    因為海岸的大城市會在水底,

  • and millions of angry people are migrating north as the harvests fail.

    還有數百萬憤怒的人在作物 歉收的情況下向北遷徙。

  • It's going to be tough to keep free enterprise alive

    自由企業會很難繼續生存,

  • if most people believe the rich and the white

    因為大家相信是有錢人和白人

  • are using it to trash the planet for their own benefit.

    為了自己的利益而毀了地球。

  • So let me tell you what this looks like on the ground.

    所以讓我來告訴各位, 這個點子要如何實際運用。

  • My friend Erik Osmundsen left a cushy job in private equity

    我的朋友艾瑞克奧斯蒙森 放棄了私人股權投資的輕鬆工作,

  • to become the CEO of a garbage company.

    成為垃圾公司的執行長。

  • That sounds like a slightly odd idea.

    這聽起來是個奇怪的想法。

  • But Erik wanted to make a difference,

    但艾瑞克想要有所作為,

  • and changing the way that trash is handled

    改變處理垃圾的方式

  • could reduce emissions by billions of tons.

    能夠減少數十億公噸的排放。

  • Right away, he ran into a massive problem:

    他馬上就遇到了一個大問題:

  • the industry was thoroughly corrupt.

    這個產業完全腐敗了。

  • Firms were cutting costs by dumping waste illegally,

    公司會違法丟棄廢棄物來減少成本,

  • the regulations were poorly enforced

    規定也沒有確實執行,

  • and the fines for violation were tiny.

    且違法的罰金非常低。

  • Erik announced he was going to run clean

    艾瑞克宣佈,他要 採用乾淨的方式營運,

  • and to raise prices to cover the costs of doing so.

    並提高價格, 才能負擔相對應的成本。

  • Many of his senior team thought he was crazy.

    他的資深團隊成員多半認為他瘋了。

  • Half of them quit.

    有一半的人辭職。

  • So did many of his customers.

    他的許多客戶也離開了。

  • His competitors denounced him for bringing the industry into disrepute,

    他的競爭對手指責他 破壞這個產業的聲譽,

  • and he started to receive personal threats.

    他還開始收到針對他個人的恐嚇。

  • But corruption works best when it's hidden.

    但腐敗要在背地裡才行得通。

  • As soon as Erik went public, people started to step up.

    當艾瑞克公開之後,開始有人站出來,

  • A few customers were willing to pay more.

    少數客戶願意付更高的價格。

  • His investors agreed that taking the high road could pay off.

    他的投資者認同採取 積極的態度有可能會成功。

  • Those of his employees who remained loved the idea of taking a stand

    他公司裡留下的員工 喜愛他採取堅定立場的做法,

  • and found all kinds of legal ways to cut costs.

    努力去找各種合法的 方式來降低成本。

  • Erik persuaded several of his competitors

    艾瑞克說服了幾位競爭者加入他,

  • to join him in refusing to dispose of garbage illegally,

    拒絕以非法方式處理廢棄物,

  • and it got much tougher for regulators to stay on the sidelines.

    而管理機關也更難袖手旁觀。

  • Today, Erik's company, Norsk Gjenvinning,

    現今,艾瑞克的公司 Norsk Gjenvinning

  • is one of the largest recycling companies in Scandinavia.

    是斯堪地那維亞 最大的回收公司之一。

  • Let me generalize.

    讓我歸納一下。

  • These are the four pillars of change:

    改革有四根支柱:

  • Build a business that can set the right price

    創建一家能公平定價的企業,

  • and still be profitable.

    且還要能獲利。

  • Persuade your competitors to do the same thing.

    說服你的競爭者跟進。

  • Make sure that investors understand there's money to be made.

    確保投資者了解會有錢可賺。

  • And push governments to put the right price into law

    敦促政府將公平價格納入到法律中,

  • so that bottom-feeders can't survive.

    讓行為可鄙者無法生存。

  • I'm not telling you we've got this nailed.

    我並不是說我們已經搞定了。

  • Things are pretty desperate.

    情況十分危急。

  • But there are thousands of businesspeople like Erik,

    但有數千名像艾瑞克這樣的商人,

  • and there are millions of people like us.

    還有數百萬名像我們這樣的人。

  • And we are customers, employees, investors and citizens.

    我們代表的是客戶、員工、

  • Instead of giving up on capitalism, let's fix it

    投資者以及公民。

  • by making sure that markets are truly fair and truly free,

    別放棄資本主義,咱們來把它修復,

  • and that no one can dump garbage on us

    要做的是確保市場 能真正公平、真正自由,

  • and walk away without paying for it.

    且沒有人能把垃圾往我們身上倒

  • We have the resources and the technology to solve climate change.

    而不用付出代價。

  • Together, we can save the trees

    我們有解決氣候變遷 所必要的資源和科技。

  • and each other.

    同心協力,我們就能拯救樹木

  • Thank you.

    以及彼此。

Transcriber: TED Translators Admin Reviewer: Rhonda Jacobs

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Amanda Zhu

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To save the climate, we have to reimagine capitalism | Rebecca Henderson

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