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  • How do you know what's happening in your world?

    你如何得知世上所發生的事?

  • The amount of information just a click away may be limitless, but the time and energy we have to absorb and evaluate it is not.

    雖然只要按一下滑鼠就可以接收無止盡的資訊,但我們吸收資訊、評論它們的時間和精力卻不是如此 。

  • All the information in the world won't be very useful unless you know how to read the news.

    只有當你知道如何「讀」新聞後,這些四面八方的資訊才會是有用的。

  • To your grandparents, parents, or even older siblings, this idea would have sounded strange.

    對你的祖父母、父母甚至較年長的兄姊來說,這個想法聽來也許有些怪異。

  • Only a few decades ago, news was broad-based.

    新聞僅僅是在數十年前才開始廣泛傳播。

  • Your choices were limited to a couple of general interest magazines and newspapers of record,

    當時的選擇僅限於一些主流雜誌和較具權威的報紙,

  • and three or four TV networks where trusted newscasters delivered the day's news at the same reliable time every evening.

    以及三或四個由可靠的新聞主持人所播報的電視頻道,每晚在固定時間報導著當日新聞 。

  • But the problems with this system soon became apparent as mass media spread.

    但這個系統的弊病在大眾傳媒擴增後很快地浮現。

  • While it was known that authoritarian countries controlled and censored information, a series of scandals showed that democratic governments were also misleading the public, often with media cooperation.

    儘管大家都知道在以前,威權國家會控制和審查資訊,然而一系列的醜聞卻說明了就算是民主國家的政府,也會和媒體合作來誤導大眾。

  • Revelations of covert wars, secret assassinations, and political corruption undermined public faith in official narratives presented by mainstream sources.

    秘密戰事、暗殺計劃,與政治貪污等的醜聞被一一揭露,讓大眾削弱了對官方主導的主流新聞來源的信心。

  • This breakdown of trust in media gatekeepers lead to alternative newspapers, radio shows, and cable news competing with the major outlets and covering events from various perspectives.

    大眾對資訊守門人,也就是媒體,所產生的信任危機使另類的報刊、廣播節目和有線電視頻道得以和主流新聞頻道一爭高下,並從不同角度報導單一新聞事件。

  • More recently, the Internet has multiplied the amount of information and viewpoints, with social media, blogs, and online video turning every citizen into a potential reporter.

    近來,網路的崛起讓各種意見和資訊量倍增,而社群網站、部落格和線上影片則使每個公民都成為潛在的報導者。

  • But if everyone is a reporter, nobody is, and different sources may disagree, not only on opinions, but on the facts themselves.

    但如果人人都是報導者的話,真相便難以追蹤,不同的新聞來源會有出入, 不僅是意見上,還有對於事實的陳述也會有落差。

  • So how do you get the truth, or something close?

    所以,該如何得知真相? 或獲得較為可靠的訊息?

  • One of the best ways is to get the original news unfiltered by middlemen.

    一種最可靠的辦法是獲得尚未被中間人修改過濾過的一手新聞。

  • Instead of articles interpreting a scientific study or a politician's speech, you can often find the actual material and judge for yourself.

    與其閱讀一段早已被人解讀過的科學報告或政治演說,你可以搜尋真實資訊並自行判斷其真偽。

  • For current events, follow reporters on social media.

    對於時事,你可以在社群媒體追蹤報導者。

  • During major events, such as the Arab Spring or the Ukrainian protests, newscasters and bloggers have posted updates and recordings from the midst of the chaos.

    在重大事件的發生期間,比如阿拉伯之春或烏克蘭抗議事件,記者和部落客會在動亂當下更新最新進展與紀錄。

  • Though many of these later appear in articles or broadcasts, keep in mind that these polished versions often combine the voice of the person who was there with the input of editors who weren't.

    雖然這些資訊稍後多會在報章雜誌或電視廣播中出現,但別忘了這些經過修飾的版本通常都夾雜了在場記者與不在場編輯的兩種觀點。

  • At the same time, the more chaotic the story, the less you should try to follow it in real time.

    同時,越是混亂的事件,就越不該盲從於即時報導。

  • In events like terrorist attacks and natural disasters, today's media attempts continuous coverage even when no reliable new information is available, sometimes leading to incorrect information or false accusations of innocent people.

    事件發生的當下,比如天災或恐攻,媒體會試圖不斷地播報該事件,即便他們手上毫無任何可靠的新資訊能報導,而有時候這樣會導致資訊謬誤或嫁禍於無罪之人。

  • It's easy to be anxious in such events, but try checking for the latest information at several points in the day, rather than every few minutes, allowing time for complete details to emerge and false reports to be refuted.

    人們很容易在這種事件中感到焦慮,但請試著在一天內不同的時間點來獲取資訊,讓時間來證明可靠線索,並排除不實的報導,而不是每幾分鐘就刷新資訊。

  • While good journalism aims for objectivity, media bias is often unavoidable.

    儘管好的新聞報導追求客觀事實, 但媒體偏頗仍很難避免。

  • When you can't get the direct story, read coverage in multiple outlets which employ different reporters and interview different experts.

    當無法直接獲知故事來源時,就儘可能地閱讀多種管道的資訊,獲得不同報導者的撰稿以及不同專家的訪談。

  • Tuning in to various sources and noting the differences lets you put the pieces together for a more complete picture.

    探索不同的資訊來源並注意其中的差異,這樣可以讓你拼湊出完整事件的全貌。

  • It's also crucial to separate fact from opinion.

    區分事實與意見也是很重要的。

  • Words like think, likely, or probably mean that the outlet is being careful or, worse, taking a guess.

    像是「想」、「可能」或「也許」這樣的字眼出現時,意謂著這是一份謹慎地提供資訊的報導,或更糟的是,試圖揣測。

  • And watch out for reports that rely on anonymous sources.

    小心那些根據匿名線索所作出的報導。

  • These could be people who have little connection to the story, or have an interest in influencing coverage, their anonymity making them unaccountable for the information they provide.

    這些可能是跟事件本身毫無關聯或一些企圖藉由影響報導而獲益的人士,藉由匿名來對自己提供的資訊不用付下任何責任。

  • Finally, and most importantly, try to verify news before spreading it.

    最後,最重要的是請試著在散播新聞前確認資訊的無誤。

  • While social media has enabled the truth to reach us faster, it's also allowed rumors to spread before they can be verified and falsehoods to survive long after they've been refuted.

    雖然社群網路使真相更為迅速地傳播,它也讓謠言在證實前被到處散佈,並且讓不實資訊在澄清後還依舊被到處討論。

  • So before you share that unbelievable or outrageous news item, do a web search to find any additional information or context you might have missed and what others are saying about it.

    所以,在分享那些不像話或令人憤憤不平的新聞前,請做點查證工作,上網搜尋看看是否有其他遺漏的資訊或脈絡,並了解其他人是怎麼談論這件事的。

  • Today, we are more free than ever from the old media gatekeepers who used to control the flow of information.

    今天,我們比過去任何時刻都要自由,我們免除了舊時代媒體守門人的資訊控制。

  • But with freedom comes responsibility: The responsibility to curate our own experience and ensure that this flow does not become a flood, leaving us less informed than before we took the plunge.

    然而,更多的自由也意謂著更多的責任:當一個負責的資訊傳播者,避免以點代面,就能讓我們免於在資訊不足的情況下就將一切信以為真。

How do you know what's happening in your world?

你如何得知世上所發生的事?

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【資訊】如何正確選擇新聞 (How to Choose Your News)

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    keep seeing 發佈於 2022 年 08 月 22 日
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