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  • Hi, everyone.

    嗨,大家好。

  • I'm Esther.

    我是以斯帖。

  • In this video, I'm going to introduce the present perfect tense.

    在這個視頻中,我將介紹現在的完全時態。

  • This tense can be used to talk about an action that happened in the past,

    這個時態可以用來談論過去發生的動作。

  • but when it happened is not very important or it's unknown.

    但什麼時候發生的不是很重要,或者說不知道。

  • It can also be used to talk about an action that started in the past and continues in

    它也可以用來談論一個開始於過去的行動,並繼續在。

  • the present.

    現在的。

  • We really want to emphasize how long that action has been happening.

    我們真的要強調,這種行動已經發生了多長時間。

  • And finally, we use this tense to talk about a recent action.

    最後,我們用這個時態來談論最近的一個動作。

  • There's a lot to learn and a lot of important information, so keep watching.

    要學的東西很多,重要的資訊也很多,請繼續關注。

  • Let's talk about one usage of the present perfect tense.

    我們來談談現在完成時的一種用法。

  • This tense can be used to talk about an action that happened in the past.

    這個時態可以用來談論過去發生的動作。

  • But when it happened is not important or not known.

    但什麼時候發生的並不重要,也不知道。

  • However, this action is important to the conversation right now.

    然而,這個行動對現在的談話很重要。

  • Let's take a look at some examples.

    我們來看看一些例子。

  • The first one says, 'I have been to Canada.'

    第一個說,'我去過加拿大'。

  • What we do here is we start with the subject, 'I'.

    我們在這裡做的是,我們從主語 "我 "開始。

  • For 'I', 'you', 'we', and 'they', we follow with 'have'.

    對於'我'、'你'、'我們'、'他們',我們用'有'跟在後面。

  • After that we use the past participle of the verb.

    之後我們用動詞的過去分詞。

  • In this case, the verb is 'be'.

    在這種情況下,動詞是'被'。

  • And so the past participle is 'been'.

    所以過去分詞是'被'。

  • 'I have been to Canada.'

    '我去過加拿大。

  • The next sentence says, 'My cousins have seen the movie.'

    下句說:'我的表哥們都看過電影了。

  • My cousins is a 'they'.

    我的表妹就是一個 "他們"。

  • And so again, we follow with 'have'.

    所以我們又以'有'為下文。

  • And the past participle of see is 'seen'.

    而see的過去分詞是'看見'。

  • 'They have seen the movie.'

    '他們已經看過電影了。

  • Or 'My cousins have seen the movie.'

    或者 "我的表弟們已經看過電影了"。

  • The next example says, 'Chad has gone home.'

    下一個例子說,'查德已經回家了'。

  • Chad is a 'he'.

    查德是一個 "他"。

  • For 'he', 'she', 'it', we follow with 'has'.

    對於'他'、'她'、'它',我們用'已'跟。

  • Then, the past participle 'gone' is for the verb 'go'.

    那麼,過去分詞'去了'是為動詞'去'服務的。

  • 'Chad has gone home.'

    '查德已經回家了。

  • And finally, 'My phone has been fixed.'

    最後,"我的手機已經修好了"。

  • My phone is an 'it'.

    我的手機是一個 "它"。

  • Therefore, I use 'has'.

    是以,我用 "有"。

  • And then I need the past participle of 'be' – 'been'.

    然後我需要'be'的過去分詞--'been'。

  • 'My phone has been fixed.'

    '我的手機已經修好了'。

  • Let's move on to the next usage.

    我們接著說下一個用法。

  • The present perfect tense is also used to describe an action that started in the past

    現在的完成時也用於描述過去開始的行動。

  • and continues in the present.

    並延續到現在。

  • 'for' and since' are common expressions used with the present perfect tense.

    'for'和since'是常用的現在完成時的表達方式。

  • Let's take a look at these examples.

    我們來看看這些例子。

  • 'I have worked there since 2002.'

    '我從2002年就在那裡工作了。

  • You'll notice we start with the subject.

    你會注意到我們從主題開始。

  • If it's 'I', 'you' or 'we', we have 'have'.

    如果是'我'、'你'或'我們',我們有'有'。

  • Then the past participle of the verb.

    然後是動詞的過去分詞。

  • In this case - 'worked'.

    在這種情況下--"工作"。

  • What you'll notice here is that we also have 'since 2002'.

    在這裡你會注意到的是,我們還有 "自2002年以來"。

  • This shows when the action started, so with the expression 'since', you need to use

    這顯示了動作開始的時間,所以對於表達式 "自",你需要使用

  • a specific point in time.

    某一特定時間點。

  • The next example does the same thing.

    下一個例子也是如此。

  • 'You have had a car since last year.'

    '你從去年開始就有車了'。

  • Again, we use 'since', so we have a specific point in time - 'last year'.

    同樣,我們使用 "自",所以我們有一個具體的時間點--"去年"。

  • Take a look at the next example.

    看看接下來的例子。

  • 'Anna has liked him for weeks.'

    '安娜已經喜歡他好幾個星期了。

  • In this case the subject is 'Anna'.

    在這種情況下,主體是 "安娜"。

  • Which is a 'she', and so we use 'has'.

    這是一個'她',所以我們用'已'。

  • Then the past participle 'liked'.

    然後是過去分詞'喜歡'。

  • However, at the end of the sentence, we see 'for weeks'.

    但是,在句子的最後,我們看到了 "幾周"。

  • Not 'since weeks'.

    不是 "從幾周開始"。

  • When we use 'for', we talk about the duration.

    當我們用 "為 "的時候,我們說的是持續時間。

  • We explain how long this action has been true.

    我們解釋一下這個行動有多長時間了。

  • And finally, 'We have eaten lunch here for 3 months.'

    最後,"我們已經在這裡吃了3個月的午飯了"。

  • Again, the sentence ends with 'for 3 months'.

    同樣,這句話的結尾是'3個月'。

  • So we show the duration.

    所以,我們顯示的是持續時間。

  • Let's move on to the next usage.

    我們接著說下一個用法。

  • In addition, the present perfect tense can be used to describe an action that recently

    此外,現在的完成時態可以用來描述最近的行動。

  • stopped.

    停了下來。

  • Let's take a look at some examples.

    我們來看看一些例子。

  • 'I have just been to the doctor,'

    '我剛剛去看了醫生'。

  • So just like for all the other usages, we start with the subject,

    所以就像其他所有的用法一樣,我們從主題開始。

  • 'have' or 'has', and the past participle.

    '有'或'已',還有過去分詞。

  • But you'll notice here, I used the word 'just' between 'have' and the verb.

    但是你會注意到這裡,我在 "有 "和動詞之間用了 "只是 "這個詞。

  • 'I have just been to the doctor.'

    '我剛剛去看了醫生'。

  • This shows that it happened very recently.

    這說明,這事是最近才發生的。

  • The next example says, 'James has just seen his new baby.'

    下一個例子說:"詹姆斯剛剛看到了他的新寶寶"。

  • Again, just goes in between 'have' or 'has' and the verb.

    同樣,只是在'有'或'已'和動詞之間。

  • Take a look at the next example.

    看看接下來的例子。

  • It says, 'She has already been to China.'

    上面寫著:"她已經去過中國了"。

  • 'already' is another word you can use to show that this action recently happened.

    '已經'是另一個你可以用來表示這個動作最近發生的詞。

  • However, 'already' can also be moved to the end of the sentence.

    不過,'已經'也可以移到句末。

  • So it's perfectly fine to say, 'She has been to China already.'

    所以完全可以說:"她已經去過中國了"。

  • And in the last example, 'We have recently visited Tom.'

    而在最後一個例子中,'我們最近拜訪了湯姆。

  • Again, you can put this word between 'have' or 'has' and the verb.

    同樣,你可以把這個詞放在'有'或'已'和動詞之間。

  • Or you can also put it at the end of the sentence.

    或者你也可以放在句子的最後。

  • 'We have visited Tom recently.'

    '我們最近拜訪了湯姆。

  • Let's move on.

    讓我們繼續前進。

  • Let's take a look at the negative form of the present perfect tense.

    我們來看看現在的完全時態的否定形式。

  • Here are some examples.

    下面是一些例子。

  • The first one says, 'I have not been to Europe.'

    第一個人說:'我沒有去過歐洲'。

  • What you'll notice in the first sentence is that we simply put a 'not' between 'have'

    你會注意到,在第一句話中,我們只是在 "有 "和 "沒有 "之間加了一個 "沒有"。

  • and 'been'.

    和'被'。

  • 'I have not been to Europe.'

    '我沒有去過歐洲。

  • You can also use a contraction and say 'I haven't been to Europe.'

    你也可以用收縮詞,說'我沒去過歐洲'。

  • The next sentence says, 'It has not rained for 3 months.'

    下句說:'三個月沒下雨了'。

  • Again, we put the 'not' between the 'has' and the verb.

    同樣,我們把'不'放在'有'和動詞之間。

  • 'It has not rained for 3 months.'

    '三個月沒下雨了'。

  • Here we have a time expression to show the duration.

    這裡我們有一個時間表達式來顯示持續時間。

  • The next example says, 'Teddy hasn't driven for 2 years.'

    下一個例子說:"泰迪已經2年沒有開車了"。

  • We used the contraction here for 'has' and 'not' – 'hasn't'.

    我們這裡用的是'有'和'沒有'的縮略語--'沒有'。

  • And then we use the time expression 'for 2 years' at the end of the sentence.

    然後我們在句子的末尾使用時間表達'for 2 years'。

  • And finally, the last sentence says, 'My sons haven't played soccer since 2010.'

    最後,最後一句話說:"我的兒子們從2010年開始就沒有踢過足球。

  • We see another contraction here for 'have not' – 'haven't'.

    我們在這裡看到了 "沒有 "的另一個收縮詞--"沒有"。

  • 'My sons haven't played soccer since 2010.'

    '我的兒子們從2010年開始就沒有踢過足球。

  • This time expression uses 'since'.

    這次的表達方式使用'自'。

  • And so we mention a specific point and time.

    所以我們提到一個具體的時間點和時間。

  • Let's move on.

    讓我們繼續前進。

  • Now let's take a look at the 'have' or 'has' question form of the present perfect

    現在我們來看看現在完成時的 "有 "或 "已 "的疑問句形式。

  • tense.

    時態。

  • Take a look at the board.

    看一下板子。

  • The first sentence says, 'Mike has eaten lunch.'

    第一句話說,"邁克吃過午飯了"。

  • That is a statement.

    這是個說法。

  • Now to turn it into a question, it's quite easy.

    現在要把它變成一個問題,很容易。

  • All you have to do is put 'has' at the beginning.

    你要做的就是在開頭加上'已'字。

  • Then you follow with the subject and then the past participle.

    然後你再跟上主語,再跟上過去分詞。

  • You'll notice that the placement of the past participle doesn't change.

    你會發現,過去分詞的位置並沒有改變。

  • We've simply changed the order of the first 2 words.

    我們只是改變了前兩個字的順序。

  • 'Has Mike eaten lunch?'

    '邁克吃過午飯了嗎?

  • 'Has Mike eaten lunch?'

    '邁克吃過午飯了嗎?

  • And you can answer by saying 'Yes, he has.' or 'No, he hasn't.'

    你可以說 "是的,他有。"或 "不,他沒有。

  • The next sentence says, 'They have watched the video.'

    下一句說,'他們已經看了視頻'。

  • This is a statement.

    這是一個聲明。

  • If we want to turn it into a question, again, we change the order of the first two words.

    如果我們想把它變成一個問題,同樣,我們改變前兩個字的順序。

  • 'Have they…?'

    '他們有沒有......'?

  • And the past participle verb stays in the same place.

    而過去分詞動詞停留在同一個地方。

  • 'Have they watched the video?'

    '他們看了視頻嗎?

  • 'Have they watched the video?'

    '他們看了視頻嗎?

  • You can answer this question by saying, 'Yes, they have.'

    你可以回答這個問題,說:'是的,他們有。

  • or 'No, they haven't.'

    或 "不,他們沒有。

  • Good job, guys.

    幹得好,夥計們。

  • Let's move on.

    讓我們繼續前進。

  • Now, I'll briefly introduce how to ask WH questions in the present perfect tense.

    現在,我就簡單介紹一下如何用現在的完全時態來問WH問題。

  • Take a look at the board.

    看一下板子。

  • I have 'where', 'what', 'who', and 'how'.

    我有'哪裡'、'什麼'、'誰'和'如何'。

  • These go at the beginning of the question.

    這些都是在問題的開頭。

  • Let's take a look at the first example.

    我們來看看第一個例子。

  • 'Where has Tim been?'

    '蒂姆去哪了?

  • You'll notice we followed the WH word with 'has' or 'have'.

    你會注意到我們在WH這個詞後面加了 "有 "或 "有"。

  • In this case, I used 'has' because the subject is 'Tim', and Tim is a 'he'.

    在這種情況下,我用了 "已",因為主語是 "蒂姆",而蒂姆是個 "他"。

  • And then we followed that with the past participle of the verb.

    然後我們接著用動詞的過去分詞。

  • 'Where has Tim been?'

    '蒂姆去哪了?

  • And I can answer by saying, 'Tim has been home.'

    我可以回答說:"蒂姆已經回家了。

  • or 'Tim has been on vacation.'

    或 "蒂姆一直在度假。

  • Something like that.

    類似的東西。

  • The next question says, what countries have you visited?

    下一個問題說,你都去過哪些國家?

  • I can answer by saying, 'I have visited China.'

    我可以回答說:"我去過中國"。

  • or 'I have visited Mexico.'

    或 "我去過墨西哥"。

  • You can also use the contraction 'I've'.

    你也可以用 "我已經 "這個收縮詞。

  • 'I've visited China.'

    '我去過中國。

  • The next question says, 'Who has she talked to?'

    下一個問題說:"她和誰談過?

  • You can answer by saying, 'She has talked to her mom.' or 'She has talked to her

    你可以說:"她和媽媽談過了。"或者 "她和媽媽談過了。

  • teacher.'

    老師。

  • The next question says, 'How long have you been married?'

    下一個問題是說:"你結婚多久了?

  • 'I've been married for 3 years.'

    '我已經結婚3年了'。

  • That's one answer that you can give.

    這是你能給出的一個答案。

  • Great job, everybody.

    大家幹得好

  • Let's move on.

    讓我們繼續前進。

  • For this checkup, we'll take a look at the present perfect tense.

    這次檢查,我們就來看看現在的完全時態。

  • Which describes an action that happened at

    哪個描述了發生在

  • an unknown or indefinite time in the past.

    過去的未知或不確定的時間。

  • Let's look at the first sentence.

    我們來看第一句話。

  • 'She _blank_ read that book.'

    '她_blank_讀那本書。

  • The subject in this sentence is 'she'.

    這句話的主語是'她'。

  • For he/she/it, in this tense we say, 'has'.

    因為他/她/它,在這個時態中我們說,"已經"。

  • 'She has'.

    '她有'。

  • Now, take a look at the verb.

    現在,看一下動詞。

  • It looks like 'read'.

    看起來像是 "讀"。

  • But remember we need to use the past participle of the verb.

    但記住我們要用動詞的過去分詞。

  • So It's actually 'read'.

    所以其實是 "讀"。

  • 'read' and 'read' are spelled the same.

    '讀'和'讀'的拼寫是一樣的。

  • 'She has read that book.'

    '她看過那本書。

  • The second sentence says, 'They _blank_ visit China.'

    第二句話說,'他們_空白_訪問中國'。

  • 'visit' is the verb that you want to use here.

    '拜訪'是你要在這裡使用的動詞。

  • For 'I', 'you', 'we' and 'they', we use 'have'.

    對於 "我"、"你"、"我們 "和 "他們",我們用 "有"。

  • Not 'has'.

    不是 "有"。

  • 'They have'

    "他們有

  • Now, what's the past participle of visit?

    現在,訪問的過去分詞是什麼?

  • The answer is 'visited'.

    答案是 "訪問"。

  • 'They have visited China.'

    '他們去過中國。

  • Next, 'We _blank_ see that concert.'

    接下來,"我們_空白_看那場演唱會"。

  • Again, for 'I', 'you', we' and 'they' – we use 'have'.

    同樣,對於 "我"、"你"、"我們 "和 "他們"--我們用 "有"。

  • 'We have'.

    '我們有'。

  • Now, the past participle of 'see' is 'seen'.

    現在,'看'的過去分詞是'看見'。

  • 'We have seen that concert.'

    '我們已經看過那場音樂會了。

  • Now, let's look for the mistake in the next sentence.

    現在,我們來看看下一句話中的錯誤。

  • 'Rick have been to Cuba.'

    "瑞克去過古巴。

  • Take a look at the subject, 'Rick'.

    看看題目,'瑞克'。

  • Rick is a 'he'.

    瑞克是個 "他"。

  • So instead of 'have', we need to change this to 'has'.

    所以,我們要把這個 "有 "改成 "有"。

  • 'Rick has been to Cuba.'

    "瑞克去過古巴。

  • 'Sally and I hasn't finished work.'

    '我和莎莉還沒有完成工作。

  • The subject in this sentence is 'Sally' and 'I'.

    這句話的主語是 "莎莉 "和 "我"。

  • The pronoun for that is 'we'.

    這個代詞是'我們'。

  • 'We hasn't finished work.'

    '我們還沒有完成工作。

  • That still sounds weird, right?

    這聽起來還是很奇怪的,對吧?

  • We have to change this to 'have not' or the contraction 'haven't'.

    我們要把它改成'沒有'或者是收縮詞'沒有'。

  • And finally, 'I did go to the doctor.'

    最後,"我確實去看了醫生"。

  • Now this sentence makes sense, but it's not the present perfect tense.

    現在這句話說得通了,但它不是現在的完成時。

  • We have to change it.

    我們必須改變它。

  • Remember, we use 'have' for the subject, 'I'.

    記住,我們用 "有 "來表示主語 "我"。

  • But we're not done.

    但我們還沒有完成。

  • What is the past participle of 'go'?

    '去'的過去分詞是什麼?

  • It is 'gone'.

    它是'走了'。

  • 'I have gone to the doctor.'

    '我已經去看醫生了。

  • Great job.

    幹得好

  • Let's move on to the next checkup.

    我們繼續進行下一次檢查。

  • In this checkup, we'll talk about the present perfect tense

    在這次檢查中,我們將討論現在的完成時態。

  • and how it can be used to describe an action that started in the past and is still true

    以及如何用它來描述一個始於過去而又仍然真實存在的行動;

  • today.

    今天。

  • The first sentence says, 'I _blank_ known Carly since 1994.'

    第一句話說:"我_空白_從1994年就認識卡莉了。

  • The subject is 'I'.

    題目是'我'。

  • And we already have the past participle of the verb, 'know'.

    而且我們已經有了動詞的過去分詞 "知道"。

  • Which is 'known'.

    這就是'已知'。

  • What are we missing?

    我們還缺什麼?

  • The correct answer is 'have'.

    正確答案是 "有"。

  • For 'I', 'you', 'we' and 'they', we use 'have' after the subject.

    對於 "我"、"你"、"我們 "和 "他們",我們在主語後用 "有"。

  • The next sentence says,

    下句說。

  • 'He has been here _blank_ 2 p.m.'

    '他已經在這裡_空白_下午兩點了'。

  • Now the first part is all there.

    現在第一部分都有了。

  • 'He has been'.

    '他一直在'。

  • However, remember that for the present perfect tense,

    但是,請記住,對於現在的完全時態。

  • we use 'for' or 'since' to talk about how long that action has been true.

    我們用'for'或'since'來談論這個動作有多久了。

  • In this case, we use 'since'.

    在這種情況下,我們使用 "自"。

  • Because 2 p.m. is a specific period in time.

    因為下午兩點是一個特定的時間段。

  • Next it says, 'She _blank_ liked Tom since June.'

    接下來說:"她_空白_喜歡湯姆,從六月開始。

  • The subject is 'she'.

    主體是'她'。

  • And we have the past participle of the verb 'like', which is 'liked'.

    而我們有動詞'喜歡'的過去分詞,就是'喜歡'。

  • What are we missing?

    我們還缺什麼?

  • Again, we need 'have' or 'has'.

    同樣,我們需要'有'或'已'。

  • Because the subject is 'she'...

    因為對象是 "她"... ...

  • Can you figure out which one you need?

    你能搞清楚你需要哪一個嗎?

  • The correct answer is 'has'.

    正確答案是 "有"。

  • 'She has liked Tom since June.'

    '她從六月開始就喜歡湯姆了。

  • Now, I want you to find a mistake in the next sentence.

    現在,我要你找出下一句話中的錯誤。

  • 'I have worked here six months ago.'

    '我半年前就在這裡工作了。

  • Can you find a mistake here?

    你能找到這裡的錯誤嗎?

  • 'I have worked' - that's correct.

    '我曾工作過'--這是正確的。

  • However, in the present perfect tense, we don't use 'ago'.

    但是,在現在的完全時態中,我們不用 "以前"。

  • This is talking about more the past.

    這說的是更多的過去。

  • We want to talk about 'since' or 'for' instead.

    我們要談的是 "自 "或 "為"。

  • Now 'six months' is not a specific time.

    現在'半年'不是一個具體的時間。