字幕列表 影片播放 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 My name is Shari Davis, 譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang and let's be honest, 我是雪莉戴維斯， I'm a recovering government employee. 老實說， And I say that with a huge shout-out to the folks that work in government 我是位正在恢復中的公務員。 and on systems change. 且這句話我是對在政府工作的人 It's hard. 以及從事體制改變的人 大聲喊出來的。 It can be isolating. 很辛苦。 And the work can feel impossible. 感覺很孤獨。 But government is the people that show up. 感覺好像辦不到。 Really, it's the people that can show up 但政府就是出席的人。 and are committed to the promise that public service offers: 真的，政府就是能出席的人， service to people, 且他們努力達成 公共服務所做出的承諾： democracy 服務人民、 and fixing the problems that community members face. 民主， Seventeen years ago, 以及處理社區成員面對的問題。 I walked through city hall for the first time as a staff member. 十七年前， And that walk revealed something to me. 我以幕僚的身分 第一次走進市政廳。 I was a unicorn. 這段經歷讓我知道了一件事。 There weren't many people who looked like me 我就像是獨角獸。 that worked in the building. 在這間大樓中工作的人， 很少有看起來像我這樣子的。 And yet, there were folks committed to addressing hundreds of years 但，那裡有些人投入心力在處理 of systemic inequity 數百年來因為體制不平等 that left some behind and many ignored. 導致有些人被拋棄、 許多人被忽視的問題。 Where there was promise, 有承諾的地方， there was a huge problem. 就會有大問題。 You see, democracy, as it was originally designed, 民主打從最原始的設計上， had a fatal flaw. 就有致命的瑕疵。 It only laid pipeline for rich white men to progress. 它只為富有白種男性 And now, if you're a smart rich white man, 舖設繼續進步的路。 you understand why I say that's a problem. 如果你是聰明、有錢的白種男性， Massive talent has been left off the field. 你就會了解為什麼 我會說那是個問題。 Our moral imaginations have grown anemic. 許多有才能的人被忽視。 Our highest offices are plagued by corruption. 我們的道德想像力很貧乏， We're on the brink of a sort of apathetic apocalypse, 我們的高官十分腐敗， and it's not OK. 我們已經接近某種冷淡麻木 造成的世界末日了， We've got to open the doors 這樣是不行的。 to city halls and schools 我們必須要打開 市政廳及學校的大門， so wide that people can't help but walk in. 且把門開得很大， 讓大家不由自主就會走進去。 We've got to throw out the old top-down processes 由上而下的舊式流程 讓我們走到現在這團糟， that got us into this mess, 我們必須把它丟棄，重新來過， and start over, 讓新面孔也能參與， with new faces around the table, 新聲音也能加入， new voices in the mix, 一路上的每一步， 我們都得要歡迎新的觀點。 and we have to welcome new perspectives every step of the way. 並不是因為這是對的事—— Not because it's the right thing to do -- 雖然的確是—— although it is -- 而是因為唯有這種方式， 才能讓我們所有人一起成功。 but because that's the only way for us to all succeed together. 最棒的消息是， And here's the best news of all. 我知道怎麼做。 I know how to do it. 答案——嗯，其中一個答案， The answer -- well, an answer, 就是參與式預算編制。 is participatory budgeting. 沒錯。 That's right. 參與式預算編制，簡稱 PB。 Participatory budgeting, or "PB" for short. PB 是一個流程， 它能結合民眾與政府， PB is a process that brings community and government together 去形成概念，發展出具體的提案， to ideate, develop concrete proposals 並針對能夠解決真正 社區問題的計畫來進行投票。 and vote on projects that solve real problems in community. 現在我已經知道， 當我開始談論政府預算時， Now I realize that people don't get up and dance 大家並不會跳起來手舞足蹈。 when I start talking about public budgets. 但參與式預算編制 But participatory budgeting 重點其實在於集體、激進的想像力。 is actually about collective, radical imagination. 在 PB 中每個人都有角色 要扮演，且它行得通， Everyone has a role to play in PB, 因為它讓社區中每一份子 and it works, 都要針對真實的問題 想出真實的解決方案， because it allows community members to craft real solutions 它也能為政府的承諾 提供基礎設施。 to real problems 老實說， and provides the infrastructure for the promise of government. 這是我第一次認為 民主有可能行得通。 And honestly, 我記憶猶新。 it's how I saw a democracy actually work for the first time. 2014 年在麻省波士頓， I remember it like it was yesterday. 曼尼諾市長要我 It was 2014 in Boston, Massachusetts, 用一百萬市基金來推出全國第一個 and mayor Menino asked me 以年輕人為主的 PB 計畫。 to launch the country's first youth-focused PB effort 我們並不是從單行項目、限制、 with one million dollars of city funds. 試算表，及公式開始著手。 Now, we didn't start with line items and limits 我們從人開始。 or spreadsheets and formulas. 我們想要確保每個人都能被傾聽。 We started with people. 所以我們從歷史上和傳統上 We wanted to make sure that everyone was listened to. 都被邊緣化的鄰里 找來了一些年輕人， So we brought in young people 找來了酷兒族群的成員， from historically and traditionally marginalized neighborhoods, 找來了先前被關過的青年， members of the queer community 我們同心協力，通常也會 搭配比薩和無糖飲料， and youth that were formerly incarcerated, 一起討論如何讓波士頓變得更好。 and together, often with pizza and a sugar-free beverage, 我們設計出一個流程， 稱為「青年領導改變」。 we talked about how to make Boston better. 在我們想像中的波士頓， And we designed a process that we called "Youth Lead the Change." 年輕人能夠取得讓他們 成長茁壯所必要的資訊。 We imagined a Boston 他們在自己的社區中能感到安全， where young people could access the information 他們能把公共空間轉變成 that they need to thrive. 真正給所有人的生活中心。 Where they could feel safe in their communities, 他們真的就這麼做了。 and where they can transform public spaces into real hubs of life 第一年， for all people. 年輕人分配了九萬美金 And that's exactly what they did. 來讓波士頓公立高中學生 In the first year, 更容易取得和使用科技， young people allocated 90,000 dollars to increase technology access 做法是直接將筆記型電腦 送到波士頓的公立高中， for Boston public high school students, 這麼一來，學生在教室 內外都可以成長。 by delivering laptops right to Boston public high schools, 他們分配了六萬美金打造藝術牆， so that students could thrive inside and outside of the classroom. 讓公共空間亮起來， 這不只是也是比喻，是真的如此。 They allocated 60,000 dollars to creating art walls 但他們處理掉了 一個更重要的問題。 that literally and figuratively brightened up public spaces. 年輕人因為在牆上塗鴨 But they addressed a more important problem. 而被視為罪犯繩之以法。 Young people were being criminalized and pulled into the justice system 因此這個做法讓他們 有個安全的空間發揮技藝。 for putting their art on walls. 他們分配了四十萬美金修復公園， So this gave them a safe space to practice their craft. 讓各種不同身體狀況的人 更容易去使用公園。 They allocated 400,000 dollars to renovating parks, 無可否認， to make them more accessible for all people of all bodies. 這並沒有我們計畫的那麼順利。 Now, admittedly, 就在我們要在公園動工前， this didn't go as smoothly as we had planned. 我們發現公園位在考古地點上方， Right before we broke ground on the park, 因此必須將工程停下來。 we actually found out that it was on top of an archaeological site 我以為我把 PB 搞砸了。 and had to halt construction. 但因為這個城市相當投入這個計畫， I thought I broke PB. 結果並沒有搞砸。 But because the city was so committed to the project, 他們邀請社區進去做挖掘， that's not what happened. 保護那個地點， They invited community in to do a dig, 找到了文物， protected the site, 延伸了波士頓的歷史， found artifacts, 接著才繼續進行修繕。 extended Boston's history 如果那還沒有反映出 政府的激進想像力， and then moved forward with the renovation. 我實在不知道那算什麼了。 If that isn't a reflection of radical imagination in government, 聽起來很簡單， I don't know what is. 事實上卻為相關的人 及社區帶來轉變。 What sounds simple 我看到社區成員 設法改善交通的使用， is actually transformational for the people and communities involved. 改良他們的學校， I'm seeing community members shape transportation access, 甚至將政府大樓轉型， improve their schools 在大樓中設置給他們使用的空間。 and even transform government buildings, 在我們有 PB 之前， so that there is space inside of them for them. 我會看到像我這樣的人， Before we had PB, 和我來自一樣的地方， I would see people who look like me 他們為了這個新動議 and come from where I come from 或者那個新工作群組 而走進政府大樓， walk in to government buildings for this new initiative 接著，我會看著他們再走出來。 or that new working group, 有時，我不會再見到他們。 and then I'd watch them walk right back out. 那是因為他們的長處沒有被重視。 Sometimes I wouldn't see them again. 他們沒有真正參與到過程。 It's because their expertise was being unvalued. PB 則不同。 They weren't truly being engaged in the process. 開始做 PB 時， Put PB is different. 我在城市各處都見過 出色的年輕領導者。 When we started doing PB, 特別是一位搖滾樂巨星， I met amazing young leaders across the city. 十五歲的馬拉凱 · 赫南德茲， One in particular, a rock star, Malachi Hernandez, 他走進社區會議—— 15 years old, 很害羞，很好奇，有點文靜。 came into a community meeting -- 他留下來了， shy, curious, a little quiet. 成為希望能領導 這個計畫的年輕人之一。 Stuck around 把時間快轉幾年。 and became one of the young people hoping to lead the project. 馬拉凱是他的家庭中 第一個上大學的人。 Now fast-forward a couple of years. 幾週前， Malachi was the first in his family to attend college. 他是他們家第一個從大學畢業的人。 A couple of weeks ago, 馬拉凱曾經數次 he was the first in his family to graduate. 出現在歐巴馬的白宮， Malachi has appeared 因為他是「守護我兄弟」 計畫的一份子。 in the Obama White House several times 歐巴馬總統在訪談時 甚至引用馬拉凱的話。 as part of the My Brother's Keeper initiative. 是真的，你可以去查。 President Obama even quotes Malachi in interviews. 馬拉凱參與了，且一直涉入其中， It's true, you can look it up. 正在努力改變我們對於 Malachi got engaged, stayed engaged, 社區領導能力及潛力的看法。 and is out here changing the way we think about community leadership 還有我的朋友瑪莉亞 · 海登， and potential. 她參與了芝加哥的 第一個 PB 流程。 Or my friend Maria Hadden, 接著變成了創始 PB 計畫 who was involved in the first PB process in Chicago. 委員會成員， Then went on to become a founding 最終成為幕僚， participatory budgeting project board member, 接著讓二十八歲的在任者下台， eventually a staff member, 成為芝加哥史上 and then unseated a 28-year incumbent, 第一個酷兒黑人市議員。 becoming the first queer Black alderperson 那是真正的參與。 in Chicago's history. 那是被認真看待。 That's real engagement. 那是將社區領導能力發揚光大。 That's being taken seriously. 那是體制改變。 That's building out and building on community leadership. 且並不只是在美國。 That's system change. PB 於三十年前始於巴西， And it's not just in the US either. 之後便散播到全球七千多個城市。 After starting 30 years ago in Brazil, 在法國巴黎， PB has spread to over 7,000 cities across the globe. 市長將她的預算撥出 5%， In Paris, France, 超過一億歐元， the mayor puts up five percent of her budget, 讓社區成員決定要如何 塑造他們的城市。 over 100 million euros, 在全球各地， for community members to decide on and shape their city. 已經可以看到 PB 改善了公共衛生， Globally, PB has been shown to improve public health, 減少了貪腐， reduce corruption 並增加了對政府的信任。 and increase trust in government. 現在我們知道在現今社會中 要面臨的難題是什麼。 Now we know the challenges that we face in today's society. 我們怎麼可能期望大家會有動力、 How can we expect people to feel motivated, 會去投票？ to show up to the polls 畢竟他們都無法相信政府 when they can't trust that government is run by and for the people. 是由人民運作、為人民運作的。 I argue that we haven't actually experienced 我認為我們尚未真正體驗過 true participatory democracy 真實的參與式民主， in these United States of America just yet. 在美國各州還沒有。 But democracy is a living, breathing thing. 但民主是會呼吸、有生命的。 And it's still our birthright. 且仍然是我們與生俱來的權利。 It's time to renew trust, and that's not going to come easy. 該是重建信任的時候了， 且那不是件容易的事。 We have to build new ways of thinking, 我們必須要為它建立新的思考方式、 of talking, of working, of dreaming, of planning 說話方式、工作方式、 夢想方式、計畫方式。 in its place. 如果每個人都參與， 美國變成什麼樣子的？ What would America look like if everyone had a seat at the table? 如果我們花點時間 重新想像什麼是可能的， If we took the time to reimagine what's possible, 接著問：「我們要如何做到？」 and then ask, "How do we get there?" 我最喜歡的作家 奧克塔維雅 · 巴特勒說得最貼切。 My favorite author, Octavia Butler, says it best. 她的書《撒種的比喻》基本上 算是我的聖經了，書上說： In "Parable of the Sower," basically my Bible, she says, 「凡是你觸碰到的都會被你改變。 "All that you touch You Change. 凡是被你改變的都會改變你。 All that you Change Changes you. 唯一不變的真理就是改變。 The only lasting truth Is Change. 神就是改變。」 God Is Change." 該是這五十州改變的時候了。 It's time for these 50 states to change. 讓我們走到今天這個地步的方式， 不會讓我們達成那個目標。 What got us here sure as hell won't get us there. 我們必須要打破權力的高牆， We've got to kick the walls of power down 種下真正民主的花園。 and plant gardens of genuine democracy in their place. 那就是我們改變體制的方式。 That's how we change systems. 把門開得很大， By opening doors so wide 讓大家不由自主就會走進去。 that people can't help but walk in. 所以，是什麼阻止你 So what's stopping you 把 PB 帶入你的社區？ from bringing participatory budgeting to your community?