Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

自動翻譯
  • Transcriber: Ivana Korom Reviewer: Krystian Aparta

    謄寫員:伊萬娜-科羅姆 審稿人:克瑞斯蒂安-阿帕爾塔Krystian Aparta

  • This is where I grew up.

    這是我長大的地方。

  • A small village near the city of Rotterdam

    鹿特丹市附近的一個小村莊。

  • in the Netherlands.

    在荷蘭。

  • In the 1970s and 1980s, when I was a teenager,

    在上世紀七八十年代,我還是個少年的時候。

  • this area was still a quiet place.

    這一帶還是一個安靜的地方。

  • It was full of farms and fields and swampland,

    那裡到處是農場、田野和沼澤地。

  • and I spent my free time there, enjoying myself,

    我在那裡度過了我的空閒時間,樂此不疲。

  • painting oil paintings like this one,

    像這樣畫油畫。

  • collecting wildflowers, bird-watching

    採花、觀鳥

  • and also collecting insects.

    並同時收集昆蟲。

  • And this was one of my prized finds.

    這是我的珍貴發現之一。

  • This is a very special beetle,

    這是一隻很特別的甲蟲。

  • an amazing beetle called an ant beetle.

    一種叫做螞蟻甲蟲的神奇甲蟲。

  • And this is a kind of beetle that lives its entire life

    這是一種一生都在生活的甲蟲。

  • inside an ant's nest.

    在螞蟻的巢穴內。

  • It has evolved to speak ant.

    它已經進化到會說螞蟻語。

  • It's using the same chemical signals,

    它使用的是同樣的化學信號。

  • the same smells as the ants do, for communicating,

    和螞蟻一樣的氣味,用於交流。

  • and right now, this beetle is telling this worker ant,

    而現在,這隻甲蟲正在告訴這隻工蟻。

  • "Hey, I'm also a worker ant,

    "嘿,我也是一隻工蟻。

  • I'm hungry, please feed me."

    我餓了,請你餵我。"

  • And the ant complies,

    而螞蟻也遵從了。

  • because the beetle is using the same chemicals.

    因為甲蟲使用的是同樣的化學品。

  • Over these millions of years,

    在這幾百萬年裡。

  • this beetle has evolved a way to live inside an ant society.

    這種甲蟲已經進化出了一種在螞蟻社會中生活的方式。

  • Over the years,

    多年來,。

  • when I was living in that village,

    當我住在那個村子裡的時候。

  • I collected 20,000 different beetles,

    我收集了兩萬只不同的甲蟲。

  • and I built a collection of pinned beetles.

    和我建立了一個釘子甲蟲的集合。

  • And this got me interested, at a very early age, in evolution.

    這讓我很早就對進化論產生了興趣。

  • How do all those different forms, how does all this diversity come about?

    這些不同的形式,這些多樣性是如何產生的?

  • So I became an evolutionary biologist,

    所以我成了一個進化生物學家。

  • like Charles Darwin.

    像查爾斯-達爾文一樣。

  • And like Charles Darwin, I also soon became frustrated

    就像查爾斯-達爾文一樣,我也很快變得沮喪起來

  • by the fact that evolution is something that happened mostly in the past.

    由進化論是主要發生在過去的事情。

  • We study the patterns that we see today,

    我們研究我們今天看到的模式。

  • trying to understand the evolution that took place in the past,

    試圖瞭解過去發生的進化。

  • but we can never actually see it taking place in real time.

    但我們永遠無法真正看到它的實時發生。

  • We cannot observe it.

    我們無法觀察它。

  • As Darwin himself already said,

    正如達爾文自己已經說過的。

  • "We see nothing of these slow changes in progress,

    "我們看不到這些緩慢的進展變化。

  • until the hand of time has marked the lapse of ages."

    直到時間之手標明瞭歲月的流逝。"

  • Or do we?

    還是我們?

  • Over the past few decades,

    在過去的幾十年裡,。

  • evolutionary biologists have come to realize that sometimes,

    進化生物學家已經意識到,有時。

  • evolution proceeds much faster and it can actually be observed,

    進化的速度要快得多,而且實際上可以觀察到。

  • especially when the environment changes drastically

    尤其是當環境發生巨大變化時

  • and the need to adapt is great.

    而需要調整的地方很大。

  • And of course, these days,

    當然,這幾天。

  • great environmental changes are usually caused by us.

    巨大的環境變化通常是由我們造成的。

  • We mow, we irrigate, we plow, we build,

    我們除草,我們灌溉,我們耕種,我們建造。

  • we pump greenhouse gases into the atmosphere

    我們將溫室氣體注入大氣中

  • that change the climate.

    改變氣候的。

  • We release exotic plants and animals

    我們放生外來的動植物

  • in places where they didn't live before,

    在他們以前沒有生活過的地方。

  • and we harvest fish and trees and game for our food and other needs.

    我們收穫魚、樹木和野味來滿足我們的食物和其他需求。

  • And all these environmental changes reach their epicenter in cities.

    而所有這些環境變化的中心都在城市。

  • Cities form a completely new habitat that we have created.

    城市形成了我們創造的全新的棲息地。

  • And we clothe it in brick and concrete and glass and steel,

    我們用磚頭、水泥、玻璃和鋼鐵為它披上衣服。

  • which are impervious surfaces

    屬於不透水錶面

  • that plants can only root in with the greatest difficulty.

    植物只能在最困難的情況下紮根。

  • Also in cities, we find the greatest concentrations

    同樣是在城市,我們發現最集中的是

  • of chemical pollution,

    化學汙染。

  • of artificial light and noise.

    人為的光和噪音。

  • And we find wild mixtures of plants and animals

    我們發現植物和動物的野生混合物

  • from all over the world that live in the city,

    來自世界各地,生活在這個城市的。

  • because they have escaped from the gardening

    因為他們已經從園藝中逃出

  • and aquarium and pet trade.

    以及水族和寵物貿易。

  • And what does a species do

    而一個物種是做什麼的

  • when it lives in a completely changed environment?

    當它生活在一個完全改變的環境中時?

  • Well, many, of course, go, sadly, extinct.

    嗯,當然,很多人都去了,可惜,已經滅絕了。

  • But the ones that don't go extinct,

    但那些沒有滅絕的。

  • they adapt in spectacular ways.

    它們以驚人的方式適應。

  • Biologists these days are beginning to realize

    現在的生物學家們開始意識到

  • that cities are today's pressure cookers of evolution.

    認為城市是當今進化的快鍋,壓力鍋。

  • These are places where wild animals and plants

    這些地方是野生動物和植物

  • are evolving under our eyes very rapidly

    在我們眼皮底下迅速發展

  • to suit these new, urban conditions.

    以適應這些新的城市條件。

  • Exactly like the ant beetle did millions of years ago,

    就像數百萬年前的螞蟻甲蟲一樣。

  • when it moved inside an ant colony.

    當它在蟻群裡面移動時。

  • We now find animals and plants that have moved inside the human colony

    我們現在發現的動物和植物,已經在人類的聚居地內移動了

  • and are adapting to our cities.

    並正在適應我們的城市。

  • And in doing so,

    而在這樣做的時候。

  • we're also beginning to realize

    我們也開始意識到

  • that evolution can actually proceed very fast.

    進化實際上可以進行得非常快。

  • It does not always take the long lapse of ages;

    它不一定要經過漫長的歲月。

  • it can happen under our very eyes.

    它可以在我們的眼皮底下發生。

  • This, for example, is the white-footed mouse.

    比如說,這就是白腳鼠。

  • This is a native mammal from the area around New York,

    這是一種來自紐約周邊地區的在地哺乳動物。

  • and more than 400 years ago, before the city was built,

    而在400多年前,在建城之前。

  • this mouse lived everywhere.

    這隻老鼠無處不在。

  • But these days, they are stuck in little islands of green,

    但如今,他們卻停留在小小的綠島上。

  • the city's parks, surrounded by a sea of tarmac and traffic.

    城市的公園,周圍都是柏油路和車流的海洋。

  • A bit like a modern-day version of Darwin's finches on the Galapagos.

    有點像現代版的達爾文在加拉帕戈斯的雀鳥。

  • And like Darwin's finches,

    而像達爾文的雀。

  • the mice in each separate park have started evolving,

    每個單獨公園裡的老鼠都開始進化了。

  • have started to become different from each other.

    已經開始變得彼此不同。

  • And this is my colleague, Jason Munshi-South,

    這是我的同事,Jason Munshi -South。

  • from Fordham University,

    從福特漢姆大學。

  • who is studying this process.

    誰在研究這個過程。

  • He is studying the DNA of the white-footed mice

    他正在研究白腳鼠的DNA。

  • in New York City's parks,

    在紐約市的公園裡。

  • and trying to understand how they are beginning to evolve

    並試圖瞭解它們是如何開始演變的。

  • in that archipelago of islands.

    在該群島中。

  • And he's using a kind of DNA fingerprinting, and he says,

    他使用的是一種DNA指紋,他說。

  • "If somebody gives me a mouse,

    "如果有人給我一隻老鼠。

  • doesn't tell me where it's from,

    不告訴我它來自哪裡。

  • just by looking at its DNA,

    只要看它的DNA就知道了。

  • I can tell exactly from which park it comes."

    我可以準確地知道它來自哪個公園。"

  • That's how different they have become.

    這就是他們的不同之處。

  • And Jason has also discovered that those changes,

    而傑森也發現,這些變化。

  • these evolutionary changes,

    這些進化變化。

  • are not random, they mean something.

    不是隨機的,而是有意義的。

  • For example, in Central Park,

    例如,在中央公園。

  • we find that the mice have evolved genes

    我們發現,小鼠已經進化出了基因。

  • that allow them to deal with very fatty food.

    使他們能夠處理非常油膩的食物。

  • Human food.

    人類的食物;

  • Twenty-five million people visit Central Park each year.

    每年有2500萬人參觀中央公園。

  • It's the most heavily visited park in North America.

    它是北美遊客最多的公園。

  • And those people leave behind snack food

    還有那些人留下的零食

  • and peanuts and junk food,

    和花生和垃圾食品。

  • and the mice have started feeding on that,

    而老鼠已經開始餵食的。

  • and it's a completely different diet than what they're used to,

    這是一個完全不同的飲食 比他們習慣。

  • and over the years,

    而這些年來,。

  • they have evolved to suit this very fatty, very human diet.

    它們的進化是為了適應這種非常油膩、非常人類的飲食。

  • And this is another city slicker animal.

    而這又是一個城市滑稽動物。

  • This is the European garden snail.

    這就是歐洲花園蝸牛。

  • A very common snail,

    一種很常見的蝸牛。

  • it comes in all kinds of color variations,

    它有各種顏色的變化。

  • ranging from pale yellow to dark brown.

    從淡黃色到深褐色不等。

  • And those colors are completely determined

    而這些顏色是完全決定的

  • by the snail's DNA.

    由蝸牛的DNA。

  • And those colors also determine the heat management of the snail

    而這些顏色也決定了蝸牛的熱量管理問題

  • that lives inside that shell.

    住在那個殼裡的人。

  • For example, a snail that sits in the sunlight,

    比如說,坐在陽光下的蝸牛。

  • in the bright sun,

    在明媚的陽光下。

  • if it has a pale yellow shell,

    如果它的外殼是淡黃色的。

  • it doesn't heat up as much as a snail that sits inside a dark brown shell.

    它不會像蝸牛那樣熱得發燙,因為它坐在一個深褐色的殼裡。

  • Just like when you're sitting in a white car, you stay cooler

    就像你坐在白色的汽車裡,你會保持涼爽一樣

  • than when you're sitting inside a black car.

    比當你坐在一輛黑色的車裡面。

  • Now there is a phenomenon called the urban heat islands,

    現在有一種現象叫城市熱島。

  • which means that in the center of a big city,

    這意味著,在大城市的中心。

  • the temperature can be several degrees higher

    溫度可高達幾度

  • than outside of the big city.

    比大城市外。

  • That has to do with the fact

    這與以下事實有關

  • that you have these concentrations of millions of people,

    你有這些集中的數百萬人。

  • and all their activities and their machineries,

    以及它們的所有活動和機器,

  • they generate heat.

    它們會產生熱量。

  • Also, the wind is blocked by the tall buildings,

    另外,風也被高樓擋住了。

  • and all the steel and brick and concrete absorb the solar heat

    而所有的鋼筋、磚頭和混凝土都會吸收太陽的熱量

  • and they radiate it out at night.

    並在夜間將其輻射出去。

  • So you get this bubble of hot air in the center of a big city,

    所以在大城市的中心,你會得到這個熱空氣的泡泡。

  • and my students and I figured that maybe those garden snails,

    我和我的學生們想,也許那些花園蝸牛。

  • with their variable shells,

    與它們的可變外殼。

  • are adapting to the urban heat islands.

    正在適應城市熱島。

  • Maybe in the center of a city,

    也許在城市的中心。

  • we find that the shell color is evolving

    我們發現,外殼的顏色是不斷變化的

  • in a direction to reduce overheating of the snails.

    的方向,以減少蝸牛的過熱。

  • And to study this, we started a citizen-science project.

    而為了研究這個問題,我們啟動了一個公民科學項目。

  • We built a free smartphone app,

    我們建立了一個免費的智能手機應用程序。

  • which allowed people all over the Netherlands

    這讓荷蘭各地的人們

  • to take pictures of snails in their garden, in their street,

    在他們的花園裡,在他們的街道上拍攝蝸牛的照片。

  • also in the countryside,

    也在農村。

  • and upload them to a citizen science web platform.

    並將其上傳至公民科學網絡平臺。

  • And over a year, we got 10,000 pictures

    一年多來,我們得到了一萬張照片。

  • of snails that had been photographed in the Netherlands,

    的蝸牛,曾在荷蘭拍攝到。

  • and when we started analyzing the results,

    而當我們開始分析結果的時候。

  • we found that indeed, our suspicions were confirmed.

    我們發現,的確,我們的懷疑得到了證實。

  • In the center of the urban heat islands,

    在城市熱島的中心。

  • we find that the snails have evolved more yellow, more lighter-colored shells.

    我們發現,蝸牛已經進化出更多的黃色,更多的淺色外殼。

  • Now the city snail and the Manhattan mouse

    現在城市蝸牛和曼哈頓老鼠

  • are just two examples of a growing list of animals and plants

    只是越來越多的動物和植物中的兩個例子。

  • that have evolved to suit this new habitat,

    為了適應這種新的生境而進化的。

  • this city habitat that we have created.

    我們創造的這個城市人居環境。

  • And in a book that I've written about this subject,

    而在我寫的一本關於這個主題的書中。

  • the subject of urban evolution,

    城市進化的主題。

  • I give many more examples.

    我還舉了很多例子。

  • For example, weeds that have evolved seeds

    例如,已經進化出種子的雜草

  • that are better at germinating on the pavement.

    的,在人行道上更好地發芽。

  • Grasshoppers that have evolved a song

    蚱蜢,已經進化出了一首歌。

  • that has a higher pitch when they live close to noisy traffic.

    當他們生活在嘈雜的交通附近時,就會有更高的音調。

  • Mosquitoes that have evolved to feed on the blood of human commuters

    進化為以人類上班族的血液為食的蚊子。

  • inside metro stations.

    地鐵站內。

  • And even the common city pigeon

    甚至連普通的城市鴿子

  • that has evolved ways to detox themselves

    已經進化出排毒的方法

  • from heavy-metal pollution by putting it in their feathers.

    通過在它們的羽毛中放入重金屬汙染,使其免受重金屬汙染。

  • Biologists like myself, all over the world,

    像我這樣的生物學家,全世界都有。

  • are becoming interested in this fascinating process

    越來越多的人對這一迷人的過程感興趣

  • of urban evolution.

    的城市演變。

  • We are realizing that we're really at a unique event

    我們意識到,我們真的是在一個獨特的事件。

  • in the history of life on earth.

    在地球生命史上。

  • A completely new ecosystem

    一個全新的生態系統

  • that is evolving and adapting to a habitat that we have created.

    正在進化並適應我們創造的棲息地。

  • And not just academics --

    不僅僅是學術界...

  • we're also beginning to enlist the millions of pairs of hands

    我們也開始徵集千千萬萬雙手。

  • and ears and eyes that are present in the city.

    和耳朵和眼睛,存在於城市中。

  • Citizen scientists, schoolchildren --

    公民科學家,學童----

  • together with them,

    與他們一起。

  • we are building a global observation network

    我們正在建立一個全球觀察網絡

  • which allows us to watch this process of urban evolution taking place

    這讓我們可以看到這個城市演變的過程。

  • in real time.

    實時的。

  • And at the same time, this also makes it clear to people

    同時,這也讓人們明白了

  • that evolution is not just some abstract thing

    進化論不是抽象的東西

  • that you need to travel to the Galapagos to study,

    你需要到加拉帕戈斯群島去學習。

  • or that you need to be a paleontologist to understand what it is.

    或者說你需要成為一個古生物學家才能理解它是什麼。

  • It's a very ordinary biological process

    這是一個很普通的生物過程

  • that's taking place all the time, everywhere.

    時刻都在發生,無處不在。

  • In your backyard, in the street where you live,

    在你的後院,在你居住的街道上。

  • right outside of this theater.

    就在這個劇院的外面。

  • But there is, of course, a flip side to my enthusiasm.

    但當然,我的熱情也有反面的一面。

  • When I go back to the village where I grew up,

    當我回到我成長的村莊。

  • I no longer find those fields and swamps that I knew from my youth.

    我已經找不到那些我年輕時就知道的田野和沼澤了。

  • The village has now been absorbed

    現在該村已被吸收

  • by the growing conglomeration of Rotterdam,

    由鹿特丹不斷髮展的集團。

  • and instead, I find shopping malls

    而我卻發現商場

  • and I find suburbs and bus lanes.

    而我發現郊區和公交專用道。

  • And many of the animals and plants that I was so accustomed to

    而許多我習慣的動物和植物...

  • have disappeared, including perhaps that ant beetle.

    已經消失了,也許包括那隻螞蟻甲蟲。

  • But I take comfort in the fact that the children growing up

    但我感到欣慰的是,孩子們在成長過程中

  • in that village today

    如今在該村

  • may no longer be experiencing that traditional nature

    可能不再經歷傳統的自然

  • that I grew up with,

    和我一起長大的。

  • but they're surrounded by a new type of nature,

    但他們被一種新型的自然所包圍。

  • a new type of ecosystem,

    一種新型的生態系統。

  • that, to them, might be just as exciting as the old type was to me.

    對他們來說,可能就像以前的類型對我一樣刺激。

  • They are living in a new, modern-day Galapagos.

    他們生活在一個新的、現代的加拉帕戈斯。

  • And by teaming up with citizen scientists

    而通過與公民科學家合作

  • and with evolutionary biologists like myself,

    並與我這樣的進化生物學家。

  • they might become the Darwins of the 21st century,

    他們可能會成為21世紀的達爾文人。

  • studying urban evolution.

    研究城市演變。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝你了

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

Transcriber: Ivana Korom Reviewer: Krystian Aparta

謄寫員:伊萬娜-科羅姆 審稿人:克瑞斯蒂安-阿帕爾塔Krystian Aparta

字幕與單字
自動翻譯

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 甲蟲 城市 進化 螞蟻 生物學家 達爾文

城市中的動植物是如何進化的? (How animals and plants are evolving in cities | Menno Schilthuizen)

  • 0 0
    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 11 月 02 日
影片單字