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  • If you watch the news during a presidential election,

    如果你在總統選舉期間看新聞。

  • you'll hear a lot of this:

    你會聽到很多這個。

  • What do the national polls look like?”

    "全國的民調是什麼樣子的?"

  • Hillary Clinton's national lead…”

    "希拉里-克林頓的全國領先優勢..."

  • Nationally, Joe Biden is currently ahead.”

    "在全國範圍內,喬-拜登目前領先。"

  • But these national polls don't actually tell you who's going to win.

    但這些全國性的民調其實並不能告訴你誰會贏。

  • Throw the national polls out the window, they don't matter at all.

    "把全國性的民調扔到窗外,它們根本不重要。

  • What matters are those swing states.”

    重要的是那些搖擺州。"

  • Ah yes. The swing states.

    啊,是的。搖擺州。

  • Most democracies around the world elect their head of state with a popular vote:

    世界上大多數民主國家的國家元首都是由民選產生的。

  • So, whoever gets the most votes wins.

    所以,誰的票數多誰就贏。

  • But in America we do it a little differently.

    但在美國,我們的做法有些不同。

  • The US is the only country that picks its president

    美國是唯一一個挑選總統的國家。

  • using something called the Electoral College.

    使用一種叫做選舉團的東西。

  • It's made up of delegates from each US state.

    它是由美國各州的代表組成的。

  • When Americans vote for president, what they're actually voting for,

    當美國人投票給總統的時候,他們到底在投什麼。

  • is who their state will vote for.

    是他們國家會投給誰。

  • This is why, every so often, someone wins the presidency

    這就是為什麼每隔一段時間,就會有人贏得總統職位的原因

  • without winning the popular vote.

    在沒有贏得民眾投票的情況下,。

  • That's happened twice in just the past 20 years.

    這在過去20年裡就發生了兩次。

  • The majority of Americans do not like this system, and haven't for a long time.

    大多數美國人不喜歡這種制度,而且很長時間以來都不喜歡。

  • Both political parties have made attempts to get rid of it.

    兩個政黨都曾試圖擺脫它。

  • So why does the US still use the Electoral College?

    那麼,為什麼美國還在使用選舉團?

  • And who actually benefits from it?

    那到底是誰從中受益呢?

  • The Electoral College is based on how people are represented in Congress:

    選舉團是基於人民在國會中的代表方式。

  • where each state has a number of representatives based on its population,

    其中,每個州根據其人口有一定數量的代表。

  • and every state also gets two senators.

    而每個州也有兩個參議員。

  • So, for example, let's look at Texas, which has a huge population,

    那麼,舉個例子,我們看看人口眾多的德州。

  • and Vermont, which has a really small one.

    和佛蒙特州,它有一個非常小的。

  • Texas has 36 representatives in Congress. Vermont only gets one.

    德州在國會有36名代表。佛蒙特州只有一名。

  • Representatives in both states each represent

    兩個州的代表分別代表

  • roughly the same number of people.

    大致相同數量的人。

  • In the Electoral College, a state gets the same number of delegates

    在選舉團中,每個州獲得相同數量的代表。

  • as their Congressional representatives, plus twofor each senator.

    作為他們的國會代表,再加上兩個----每個參議員。

  • So Texas has 38 electoral votes. Vermont has 3.

    所以德州有38張選舉人票佛蒙特州有3張

  • But this combination makes the number of people each delegate represents

    但這樣的組合使得每個代表所代表的人數是

  • way different between states:

    各州之間的不同方式。

  • In Texas, one electoral delegate represents three times the amount of people

    在得克薩斯州,一名選舉代表代表著三倍的人口數量。

  • as one in Vermont.

    作為佛蒙特州的一個。

  • And that makes each individual person's vote in Vermont a lot more influential.

    而這也使得每個人在佛蒙特州的選票影響力大增。

  • The Electoral College creates discrepancies like this all over the country.

    選舉團在全國各地製造這樣的差異。

  • A voter in Wyoming is worth three and a half times as much as a voter in California.

    一個懷俄明州的選民的價值是加州選民的三倍半。

  • The winner of the presidential election is the candidate who gets 270 or more

    總統選舉的獲勝者是獲得270票以上的候選人。

  • of these Electoral College votes.

    在這些選舉團票中,。

  • These are the results of the 2016 election, by state.

    這些是2016年各州的選舉結果。

  • You're probably more familiar with this version of it: a map of red states, and blue states.

    你可能更熟悉這個版本:一張紅州、藍州的地圖。

  • But this chart tells a different story. You can see that no state is actually all-red or all-blue.

    但這張圖告訴我們一個不同的故事。你可以看到,其實沒有一個州是全紅或全藍的。

  • But almost every state awards its electoral votes the same way:

    但幾乎每個州都以同樣的方式頒發選舉票。

  • The candidate who gets the most votes in a state, gets ALL its electoral votes.

    在一個州獲得最多選票的候選人,獲得所有選舉人票。

  • If they win the state by 1%, they win 100% of the electoral votes.

    如果他們以1%的優勢贏得該州,他們就能贏得100%的選舉人票。

  • In 2016, more than 4 million people voted for Donald Trump in California.

    2016年,加州有400多萬人投票給唐納德-特朗普。

  • In fact, more people voted for him there than in any other state except for two.

    事實上,除了兩個州外,那裡投給他的人比其他任何州都多。

  • But it didn't matter. Hillary Clinton got more votes there,

    但這並不重要。希拉里-克林頓在那裡得到了更多的選票。

  • so she got all 55 of its electoral votes.

    所以她得到了所有55張選舉票。

  • Clinton never even campaigned in California. Polling showed she'd easily win the state.

    克林頓甚至從未在加州進行過競選活動。民調顯示她很容易贏得該州。

  • Trump only visited Texas once; he knew he basically had that state's electoral votes locked.

    特朗普只去了一次德克薩斯州,他知道自己基本鎖定了該州的選舉人票。

  • But they both visited Florida, 35 or more times.

    但他們都去過佛羅里達,35次或更多。

  • That's because Florida is usually a “swing state”:

    這是因為佛羅里達州通常是一個 "搖擺州"。

  • Polls show that the vote there could swing to one party or another in nearly every election.

    民調顯示,那裡的選票幾乎在每次選舉中都可能搖擺到一個政黨或另一個政黨。

  • Trump only won it in 2016 by 100,000 votes, out of more than 9 million.

    特朗普在2016年僅以10萬票的優勢,從900多萬票中勝出。

  • Swing states have changed over time, thanks to shifting demographics and political views.

    由於人口結構和政治觀點的變化,搖擺州已經隨著時間的推移發生了變化。

  • And it's states like these where presidential candidates

    正是在這樣的州,總統候選人們

  • spend most of their time campaigning.

    把大部分時間花在競選上。

  • It also means these states have way more influence over the election than these ones.

    這也意味著這些州對選舉的影響力比這些州大得多。

  • A study found that voters in Michigan had 51 times the amount of influence on the 2016 election

    一項研究發現,密歇根州的選民對2016年大選的影響力是其51倍。

  • as someone from a state like Utah.

    作為一個來自猶他州的人。

  • Voters in states like California, or Missouri, mattered very little.

    加利福尼亞州或密蘇里州等州的選民關係不大。

  • Swing states are where the election actually takes place.

    搖擺州是選舉實際發生的地方。

  • They get the attention and the influence.

    他們得到了關注和影響。

  • And they only exist because of the Electoral College.

    而他們之所以存在,只是因為選舉團。

  • It doesn't seem very fair.

    這似乎不太公平。

  • But the Electoral College has always shifted power

    但選舉團一直在轉移權力。

  • away from some people and towards others.

    遠離一些人,走向另一些人。

  • It's how it was designed.

    這就是它的設計。

  • Back when there were just a few states, not 50,

    當年只有幾個州,不是50個州。

  • they had to get all the states to agree on the Constitution.

    他們必須讓所有的州同意憲法。

  • One problem: The Northern states, which were largely anti-slavery,

    有一個問題:北方各州,基本上都是反奴隸制的。

  • wanted only free people to count in the population towards electoral votes.

    希望只有自由民才能被計算在人口中,以獲得選舉票。

  • Which they had more of.

    他們有更多的。

  • The pro-slavery Southern states were worried that they would be constantly outvoted,

    支持奴隸制的南方各州擔心他們會不斷被淘汰。

  • and wanted enslaved people to count in determining the population.

    並希望在確定人口時將被奴役的人計算在內。

  • As a compromise, they settled on something called thethree-fifths clause.“

    作為一種妥協,他們決定採用一種叫做 "五分之三條款 "的東西。

  • It established that an enslaved person would only count as 3/5 of a person.

    它規定,被奴役的人只能算作一個人的3/5。

  • In 1800, Pennsylvania, a northern state, and Virginia, a southern one,

    1800年,北方的賓夕法尼亞州和南方的弗吉尼亞州。

  • had about the same number of free people living there.

    有大約相同數量的自由人生活在那裡。

  • But Virginia was also home to hundreds of thousands of enslaved people,

    但弗吉尼亞州也是幾十萬被奴役者的家園。

  • who had no freedom, let alone a vote,

    誰沒有自由,更不用說投票了。

  • and ended up with more votes in the Electoral College than Pennsylvania.

    並最終在選舉團中獲得了比賓夕法尼亞州更多的選票。

  • That year, those extra electoral votes gave the candidate from Virginia just enough to win.

    那一年,這些額外的選舉人票讓來自弗吉尼亞州的候選人剛剛好贏得了勝利。

  • Even after the US finally abolished slavery,

    即使在美國最終廢除了奴隸制之後。

  • and eventually gave Black Americans the right to vote,

    並最終給予美國黑人投票權。

  • White Southern leaders found ways to keep them from voting,

    南方白人領袖想方設法阻止他們投票。

  • like with discriminating laws like poll taxes, and acts of violence.

    像人頭稅這樣的歧視性法律,以及暴力行為。

  • This meant they continued to have overrepresentation in the Electoral College

    這意味著他們在選舉團中的代表性仍然過高。

  • on behalf of a large population that couldn't vote.

    代表大量無法投票的民眾。

  • The first time Congress attempted to replace the Electoral College with a simple popular vote

    國會首次嘗試用簡單的民眾投票取代選舉團。

  • was back in 1816.

    是早在1816年。

  • But senators from Southern states blocked it,

    但來自南方各州的參議員們阻止了這一做法。

  • saying it would bedeeply injuriousto them.

    說,這將對他們造成 "極大的傷害"。

  • In 1969, Congress came even closer:

    1969年,國會更加接近。

  • replacing the Electoral College had support in both parties,

    取代選舉團的方案得到了兩黨的支持。

  • and even passed the House.

    甚至通過了眾議院。

  • But it was blocked again by Southern senators.

    但又遭到南方參議員的阻撓。

  • A senator from Alabama wrote,

    一位來自阿拉巴馬州的參議員寫道:

  • The Electoral College is one of the South's few remaining political safeguards.

    "選舉團是南方僅存的幾個政治保障之一。

  • Let's keep it.”

    讓我們保持它。"

  • Why change a system that historically had, and still was benefiting White Southerners?

    為什麼要改變一個歷史上曾經而且現在仍在造福南方白人的制度?

  • Today, the states that the Electoral College benefits have changed,

    如今,選舉團受益的州已經發生了變化。

  • but it's still making some voters more powerful than others.

    但它仍然使一些選民比其他選民更強大。

  • If we look at the states with a lot of electoral votes, for not a lot of people,

    如果我們看一下選舉人票數多的州,對於不多的人。

  • and the states with a little electoral votes, for a lot of people,

    和有一點選舉人票的州,對很多人來說。

  • these states are a lot whiter and less diverse than the rest of America.

    這些州比美國其他地區要白得多,也不那麼多樣化。

  • And many of these states are Republican strongholds.

    而其中很多州都是共和黨的大本營。

  • These tend to vote Democratic.

    這些人傾向於投票給民主黨。

  • That's one reason the two most recent Republican presidents

    這也是最近兩任共和黨總統的一個原因。

  • have won the Electoral College without winning the popular vote.

    在沒有贏得民選票的情況下贏得了選舉團。

  • And since it's currently Democrats that are primarily disadvantaged by the Electoral College,

    而由於目前主要是民主黨人在選舉團中處於劣勢。

  • they're the ones leading the charge to replace it with a popular vote.

    他們是那些領先的充電 取而代之的大眾投票。

  • Get rid of the Electoral College, and every vote counts.”

    "取消選舉團,每一票都很重要。"

  • But as politics have changed, the people most critical of the Electoral College have, too.

    但隨著政治的變化,最責備選舉團的人也變了。

  • In the 1948 presidential election, New York ended up being the major swing state.

    在1948年的總統選舉中,紐約最終成為主要的搖擺州。

  • A Congressman from Texas said, “I have no objection to the Negro in Harlem voting.

    一位來自德克薩斯州的議員說:"我不反對哈林區的黑人投票。

  • But I do resent the fact that his vote is worth a hundred times as much...

    但我確實不喜歡他的票值一百倍的事實......。

  • as the vote of a white man in Texas.”

    作為德克薩斯州一個白人的選票。"

  • Swing states change.

    搖擺狀態變化。

  • What doesn't, is that the Electoral College gives certain people more power to pick the president.

    沒有的,是選舉團給了某些人更多的權力來挑選總統。

  • And its biggest defenders have always been those who benefit the most from it.

    而其最大的維護者始終是那些從中受益最大的人。

If you watch the news during a presidential election,

如果你在總統選舉期間看新聞。

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解釋選舉團 (The Electoral College, explained)

  • 7 1
    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 10 月 31 日
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