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  • There's a good chance that the bits and bytes that make up this video have traveled

    有一個很好的機會,位和字節,使這個視頻已經旅行了

  • to you through a fiber optic submarine cable running along the ocean floor. These cables

    通過沿著海底的光纖海底電纜向你傳輸。這些電纜

  • are part of the infrastructure that transmits almost all internet data around the world.

    是傳輸全球幾乎所有互聯網數據的基礎設施的一部分。

  • And as everyone and everything becomes increasingly reliant on the internet to function, who owns,

    而當每個人、每件事都越來越依賴互聯網來運作時,誰擁有。

  • builds and ultimately controls this network will be more critical than ever.

    構建並最終控制這個網絡將比以往任何時候都更加重要。

  • Internet adaptation has steadily increased over the last couple of decades. Despite its

    在過去的幾十年裡,互聯網適應性穩步提高。儘管它

  • creation in the late 1960s, the internet was only widely adopted in 1989 after the invention

    創立於20世紀60年代末,互聯網在1989年發明後才被廣泛採用。

  • of the world wide web, revolutionizing the way we communicate.

    的世界性網絡,徹底改變了我們的交流方式。

  • Before the rise of mobile devices, internet access was largely limited to expensive and

    在移動設備興起之前,互聯網的訪問主要限於昂貴的和。

  • inconvenient desktop computers. But today, it's an indispensable part of our lives.

    不方便的臺式電腦。但如今,它已經成為我們生活中不可缺少的一部分。

  • So, here's how it works.

    所以,這就是它的工作原理。

  • When you send an email, tweet or post a photo online, that data is sent through cables or

    當你在網上發送電子郵件、推特或發佈照片時,這些數據會通過電纜或其他方式發送。

  • more commonly radio waves to a router or cell phone tower. From there, these signals are

    更常見的是將無線電波傳到路由器或手機塔。從那裡,這些信號是

  • sent through a series of fiber optic cables in the form of pulses of light to an internet

    通過一系列光纜以脈衝光的形式發送到互聯網上

  • exchange, which acts like a sorting office. Most data from users in a local area network

    交換機,它的作用就像一個分揀辦公室。局域網中用戶的大部分數據

  • pass through these hubs in order to connect to other networks. For networks and data centers

    通過這些集線器,以便連接到其他網絡。對於網絡和數據中心

  • on the other side of the world, this journey will likely traverse the seabed.

    在世界的另一邊,這段旅程很可能會穿越海底。

  • These submarine cables crisscross the ocean before arriving at an anonymous looking building

    這些海底電纜縱橫交錯地穿過海洋,然後到達一個看起來不知名的建築。

  • like this. It's called a landing station and it's the end of the line for the submarine

    像這樣的。這叫登陸站,是潛艇的終點站。

  • cable before the data begins its journey overland again.

    在數據再次開始其陸上旅程之前,電纜。

  • To lay a cable across any ocean is a significant feat but it's not a modern innovationit's

    鋪設一條橫跨任何海洋的電纜是一項重大的壯舉,但這並不是一項現代的創新,它是

  • been happening for more than 160 years.

    160多年來一直在發生。

  • As soon as the cable is passed under the bows the crew take charge of it.

    當纜繩從船頭下穿過後,船員們就會負責。

  • The invention and widespread use of the electric telegraphwhich could carry the dots and

    電報機的發明和廣泛使用--它可以傳遞點和。

  • dashes of morse codeled to the first transatlantic telegraph cable between the

    摩爾斯電碼的破折號--導致了第一條橫跨大西洋的電報電纜在美國和歐洲之間的使用。

  • U.S. and Britain in 1858.

    1858年,美英兩國。

  • By the early 20th century, the dominance of the telegraph was replaced by telephone technology

    到了20世紀初,電報的主導地位被電話技術所取代。

  • that allowed voices to be carried over wires through electrical signals. Soon, submarine

    讓聲音通過電信號在電線上傳遞。很快,潛水艇

  • cables were carrying telephone traffic, which were laid worldwide, mostly by telecommunication

    鋪設在世界各地的電話電纜,主要由電信公司鋪設。

  • monopolies such as the British Post Office and the American Telephone and Telegraph, or AT&T.

    壟斷企業,如英國郵政局和美國電話電報公司,即AT&T。

  • Amidst the dotcom bubble in the 1990s, international consortiums began to invest in submarine cables too.

    在上世紀90年代的網絡保麗龍中,國際大財團也開始投資海底電纜。

  • 35km of fiber optics connects this one dealing room.

    35公里的光纖連接這一個交易室。

  • These private companies sold or leased the bandwidth to other commercial entities which

    這些私營公司將帶寬出售或出租給其他商業實體,而這些商業實體則將帶寬出售或出租給其他商業實體。

  • needed more capacity.

    需要更多的能力。

  • The last ten years have seen a rapid expansion of the network to keep up with the demand

    在過去的十年裡,網絡迅速擴張,以滿足需求。

  • for internet services. As of early 2020, there were 406 submarine cables that totaled around

    為互聯網服務。截至2020年初,共有406條海底電纜,總長度約為

  • 750,000 miles in length, enough to go around the world 30 times. Some lines are relatively

    75萬英里的長度,足夠繞地球30圈。有些線路比較

  • short, like the 81-mileCeltixConnectcable between Ireland and the United Kingdom, while

    短,比如愛爾蘭和英國之間81英里的"■▄▄■▓CeltixConnect"■▄▄■▓,而。

  • others, such as the Asia America Gatewaycable, which runs across the Pacific Ocean, is 12,427 miles long. 

    其他如橫跨太平洋的亞美大通道"■▄▄■▓,全長12427英里。

  • Packed within these cables are fibre optic strands that transmit data at speeds of more

    這些電纜中裝有光纖股,其數據傳輸速度超過了1.5倍。

  • than 100,000 miles/second, and they carry more than 95% of international data. That's

    超過10萬英里/秒,而且它們承載了95%以上的國際數據。那就是

  • because undersea cables are still the fastest, most reliable and least costly way to transmit

    因為海底電纜仍然是最快、最可靠、成本最低的傳輸方式。

  • information over vast distances.

    遙遠的資訊。

  • While the infrastructure on land and underwater is vulnerable to the occasional curious rat

    雖然陸上和水下的基礎設施很容易受到偶爾好奇的老鼠的攻擊。

  • or shark, the biggest threat to submarine cables is human activity. In 2011, internet

    或鯊魚,對海底電纜最大的威脅是人類活動。2011年,互聯網

  • access to the whole of Armenia was severed after an elderly Georgian woman damaged an

    在一名格魯吉亞老婦人破壞了亞美尼亞全境的道路後,亞美尼亞的交通被切斷。

  • underground cable while scavenging for copper, while in 2016, a ship dragging its anchor

    地下電纜而挖銅,而在2016年,一艘拖著錨的船。

  • in the English Channel cut three undersea internet cables.

    在英吉利海峽切斷三條海底網線。

  • In some circumstances, though, satellites are needed to deliver the internet. Very remote

    不過在某些情況下,需要衛星來傳送互聯網。非常偏遠的

  • areas don't have the population density to make an economic case for cabling, so satellites

    地區的人口密度不高,無法為佈線提供經濟依據,所以衛星的數量是有限的。

  • are the preferred option. For security reasons, many governments and their military also rely

    是首選。出於安全考慮,許多國家政府及其軍隊也依靠

  • on satellites. Google's parent company Alphabet has also set their sights on internet balloons

    衛星上。谷歌的母公司Alphabet也將目光投向了互聯網氣球上

  • to beam the internet to unconnected parts of the world.

    以將互聯網傳送到世界上沒有連接的地方。

  • But even as the web has grown, it has also narrowed in some respects. The rise of the

    但即便是在網絡發展的同時,它也在某些方面有所收窄。崛起的

  • American tech giants in the 21st century meant that Silicon Valley had a reason to invest

    21世紀的美國科技巨頭,意味著硅谷有了投資的理由。

  • in these strategic assets.

    在這些戰略資產中。

  • Today, content providers such as Google, Facebook, Amazon and Microsoft own or lease more than

    如今,谷歌、Facebook、亞馬遜和微軟等內容提供商擁有或租賃的內容超過了

  • half of the global undersea bandwidth. As of 2020, Google has invested in 16 cables

    佔全球海底帶寬的一半。截至2020年,谷歌已投資16條電纜

  • that traverse most of the world, Facebook has stakes in 12 that cross both the Pacific

    在橫跨全球大部分地區的公司中,Facebook在12個橫跨太平洋的公司中都有股份。

  • and Atlantic Oceans, while Microsoft and Amazon have funded five cables each.

    和大西洋,而微軟和亞馬遜則各出資5條電纜。

  • As the tech giants expand their global network of data centers, these cables will be essential

    隨著科技巨頭們擴大其全球數據中心網絡,這些電纜將是必不可少的。

  • to meet the demand for their services such as cloud computing and streaming, which require

    以滿足其雲計算和流媒體等服務的需求,這就需要有一個好的解決方案。

  • minimal delay and lots of bandwidth.

    最小的延遲和大量的帶寬。

  • But the ownership of these submarine cables is drawing scrutiny from governments due to

    但由於這些海底電纜的所有權正在引起各國政府的審查。

  • security concerns. Some analysts believe it's the latest frontier in the geopolitical battle

    的安全擔憂。一些分析人士認為,這是地緣政治戰役的最新戰線

  • between China and the U.S.

    中美之間

  • In 2018, Australia prevented Chinese tech company Huawei from laying a cable between

    2018年,澳洲阻止了中國科技公司華為在兩國之間鋪設電纜。

  • the country and the Solomon Islands over concerns that it would give the Chinese government

    中國和所羅門群島,因為擔心這會給中國

  • access to its networks.

    進入其網絡。

  • In June, a U.S. national security panel objected to an 8,000-mile cable being built by Facebook

    6月,美國國家安全小組反對Facebook建設一條8000英里的電纜。

  • and Google connecting Hong Kong and the U.S., arguing that it would offer 'unprecedented

    和谷歌連接香港和美國,認為這將提供 "前所未有的"。

  • opportunities' for Chinese government espionage by capturing internet traffic.

    通過捕捉互聯網流量,為中國政府的間諜活動提供機會。

  • Many analysts believe that Huawei's growing involvement in the construction and repair

    不少分析人士認為,華為越來越多地參與到建設和修

  • of submarine cables worldwide could even allow China to disrupt internet links between nations,

    的全球海底電纜,甚至可以讓中國破壞國家間的互聯網鏈接。

  • echoing strategies employed during World War I. Then, the United Kingdom's dominance

    然後,英國的主導地位也被打破了,這也是第一次世界大戰期間的策略。

  • of the international telegraph infrastructure allowed it to cut off almost all of Germany's

    的國際電報基礎設施,使它能夠切斷德國幾乎所有的。

  • communication with the outside world.

    與外界的交流。

  • Likewise, the U.S. had an espionage program in the 1970s to tap Russian undersea communication cables.

    同樣,美國在上世紀70年代也有一個間諜計劃,竊聽俄羅斯的海底通信電纜。

  • Having multiple submarine cables covering the same route acts as a buffer in the event

    在同一路線上鋪設多條海底電纜,在發生事故時起到緩衝作用。

  • a cable is damaged. However, building more cables won't necessarily improve connectivity

    電纜損壞。然而,建設更多的電纜並不一定能改善連接性。

  • or internet speeds for everyone.

    或網速為大家。

  • For instance, despite having the second largest online market globally, half of the Indian

    例如,儘管印度擁有全球第二大在線市場,但一半的印度

  • population still don't have internet access. Africa is also a significantly underserviced

    的人口仍然沒有互聯網接入。非洲也是一個服務嚴重不足的地區。

  • region, with 871 million people lacking access to the internet.

    地區,有8.71億人無法上網。

  • Reasons include the lack of data centers, last-mile infrastructure and unaffordable

    原因包括缺乏數據中心、最後一公里基礎設施和難以負擔的費用。

  • costs for end-users that won't be solved by increased undersea bandwidth.

    終端用戶的成本,並不能通過增加海底帶寬來解決。

  • However, as these markets open up and more people come online, demand for faster internet

    然而,隨著這些市場的開放和越來越多的人上網,對更快的互聯網的需求。

  • speeds will continue to rise. It's unlikely, then, that the submarine cable race between

    速度將繼續上升。那麼,海底電纜的競賽不太可能在美國和歐洲之間進行。

  • the big tech companies is going to slow down. With billions of dollars of revenue at stake,

    的大科技公司要放慢腳步了。與數十億美元的收入有關。

  • more money will continue to be invested in these expensive subsea projects.

    更多的資金將繼續投入到這些昂貴的海底項目中。

  • Hi guys, thanks for watching our video. If you're wondering why we're standing on this beach

    嗨,夥計們,感謝你們觀看我們的視頻。如果你想知道為什麼我們會站在這個海灘上。

  • well under the water over there is a submarine cable that runs from the west coast of England

    在那邊的水底有一條從英國西海岸延伸過來的海底電纜。

  • to the east coast of America, about 3,500 miles away. We'll see you next time.

    到美國東海岸,大約3500英里遠。我們下次再見。

There's a good chance that the bits and bytes that make up this video have traveled

有一個很好的機會,位和字節,使這個視頻已經旅行了

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爭奪互聯網的海底之戰|CNBC解讀 (The fight over the internet, under the sea | CNBC Explains)

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    Summer 發佈於 2020 年 10 月 30 日
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