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  • This small shellfish has a superpower.

    這種小貝類有一種超能力。

  • Not only can oysters make pearls out of grains of sand and taste incredible on the half shell.

    牡蠣不僅可以把沙粒做成珍珠,而且半殼上的味道也是不可思議的。

  • They can also completely transform their environment.

    他們也可以徹底改變自己的環境。

  • One oyster can filter up to 50 gallons of water in a single day, leaving it cleaner and

    一隻牡蠣一天可以過濾50加侖的水,讓水變得更乾淨,更有活力。

  • healthier.

    更健康。

  • These amazing shellfish are like the natural cleaning crew of the ocean.

    這些神奇的貝類就像海洋的天然清潔工。

  • But ocean acidification and other climate-related changes are threatening oyster populations,

    但海洋酸化和其他與氣候有關的變化正在威脅著牡蠣的數量。

  • which could be problematic for their entire ocean ecosystem.

    這可能會給它們的整個海洋生態系統帶來問題。

  • The world's oceans work like a giant sponge soaking in heat energy and carbon dioxide

    世界上的海洋就像一塊巨大的海綿,吸收著熱能和二氧化碳。

  • from the atmosphere.

    來自大氣層的。

  • And while this may actually help to mitigate some of the effects of climate change on land

    雖然這實際上可能有助於減輕氣候變化對土地的一些影響。

  • that extra heat and co2 is affecting the natural chemical balance of the ocean.

    額外的熱量和二氧化碳正在影響海洋的自然化學平衡。

  • And so all that carbon dioxide that we put into the atmosphere, about a third of it goes

    所以所有我們排放到大氣中的二氧化碳,大約有三分之一會被排放出去

  • straight into the ocean.

    直入大海。

  • And that carbon dioxide is fundamentally changing the chemistry of the ocean, and that's the

    二氧化碳從根本上改變了海洋的化學成分,這就是我們要做的

  • phenomenon that we call ocean acidification.

    我們稱之為海洋酸化的現象。

  • And how this acidification or change in the ocean's pH balance is going to impact the

    而這種酸化或海洋酸鹼度平衡的變化將如何影響海洋的酸鹼度。

  • ocean's smallest creatures is a major focus of Dr. Hill's research.

    海洋中最小的生物是希爾博士研究的重點。

  • So what we see in laboratory experiments that we've done here at the Bodega Marine Lab is

    是以,我們看到在實驗室實驗 我們已經做了在這裡博德加海洋實驗室是

  • that the more and more acidic the water gets, the stronger negative response you get from animals.

    水的酸性越強,動物的負面反應就越強。

  • Animals like oysters and mussels tend to grow smaller, thinner shells.

    牡蠣和貽貝等動物往往長出較小、較薄的殼。

  • 25 miles down the road from Dr. Hill's lab, oyster farmer Terry Sawyer was noticing something

    離希爾博士實驗室25英里遠的地方 牡蠣養殖戶特里-索耶注意到了一件事:

  • similar with his oysters - that they were dying at higher rates, and at the deaths were in

    牡蠣的情況也是如此--它們的死亡率較高,而且死亡人數也在不斷增加。

  • correlation with high acidification of the water where they were growing.

    與它們生長的水的高度酸化有關。

  • So when Terry and Dr. Hill met at a conference, something clicked.

    所以當Terry和Hill博士在一次會議上相遇時,就有了一些契機。

  • So Dr. Hill and I were like looking at each other like wait...

    所以希爾醫生和我就像看著對方一樣,等待... ...

  • Dr. Hill is based out of Bodega Laboratory just in the north of here 45 minutes away,

    希爾博士在博德加實驗室工作,就在北邊45分鐘車程的地方。

  • we're here, we're in the water all the time.

    我們在這裡,我們在水中所有的時間。

  • We do a lot of

    我們做了很多

  • thinking about sort of how to translate that work from what we know about the native oyster

    思考如何從我們對在地牡蠣的瞭解中轉化出這項工作

  • to the oysters that they are growing

    牡蠣的生長

  • at the farm.

    在農場。

  • With the resources and daily data Terry and his team are able to gather in the

    通過資源和日常數據,Terry和他的團隊能夠收集到的資源和日常數據在

  • farm, they're able to track in real time how water chemistry is impacting oyster yields,

    養殖場,他們能夠實時跟蹤水化學對牡蠣產量的影響。

  • which obviously benefits Terry's business, but can also lead to a greater understanding

    這顯然對Terry的業務有利,但也可以使人們更好地瞭解他的業務。

  • of the world's marine life.

    世界上的海洋生物。

  • And what that data is showing is that the high carbon dioxide

    而這些數據顯示的是,高濃度的二氧化碳。

  • levels are making it difficult for oysters to grow their shells.

    水準正在使牡蠣難以長出殼來。

  • And if oysters can't grow strong shells many won't survive to maturity, which means a blow

    如果牡蠣不能長出結實的殼,很多牡蠣就不能活到成熟,這就意味著打擊。

  • to the oyster economy, but also to the health of our oceans.

    牡蠣經濟,但也對我們海洋的健康。

  • Lowering of the pH.

    降低pH值。

  • the acidifying of the water is directly related to the amount of co2 that's produced by the

    水的酸化直接關係到二氧化碳的產生量。

  • anthropogenic activities, burning of fossil fuel, co2, greenhouse gases, etc.

    人為活動、燃燒化石燃料、二氧化碳、溫室氣體等。

  • All of these things are being produced by a lot of activities we have.

    這些東西都是由我們的很多活動產生的。

  • What happens is the carbon dioxide mixes into the surface water of the ocean and forms carbonic acid.

    發生的情況是二氧化碳混合到海洋的表層水中,形成碳酸。

  • This then dissolves into bicarbonate and a whole bunch of extra hydrogen ions.

    這就會溶解成碳酸氫鹽和一大堆額外的氫離子。

  • It's these hydrogen ions that cause the real problem here.

    這些氫離子才是真正的問題所在。

  • As animals are trying to build their shell material, they're actually pulling the building

    當動物們試圖建造它們的外殼材料時,它們實際上是在拉動建築物

  • blocks of that shell material out of the water column.

    該貝殼材料的塊狀物從水柱中取出。

  • And so they're building their shell from, for example, a calcium ion and a carbonate ion.

    所以它們在構建自己的外殼,比如說,一個鈣離子和一個碳酸根離子。

  • Marine bivalves like

    海洋雙殼類動物,如

  • oysters combine the calcium ions and the carbonate ions into solid crystals of calcium

    牡蠣將鈣離子和碳酸根離子結合成固體的鈣質晶體。

  • carbonate that they use to form their shells, but hydrogen ions from the dissolved co2 in

    碳酸鹽,它們用它來形成自己的外殼,但氫離子從溶解的co2中。

  • the ocean have a tendency to bond with the carbonate ions, leaving fewer available for

    海洋有一種傾向,即與碳酸鹽離子結合,使可用於碳酸鹽的離子減少。

  • the newly spawned oysters.

    新產的牡蠣。

  • The vulnerable stages of any organism are at the larval stage.

    任何生物的脆弱階段都是在幼蟲階段。

  • And so if you start affecting how hard it is for that organism to live. In this case

    所以如果你開始影響那個生物體的生存難度。在這種情況下

  • for an oyster to build a shell, then that's going to lead to problems with it being able

    牡蠣要建殼,那就會導致它的能力出現問題。

  • to be a viable organism.

    才能成為一個有生命力的生物體。

  • Basically, the more energy the oyster has to waste competing with hydrogen ions for

    基本上,牡蠣在與氫離子競爭的過程中浪費的能量越多

  • shell material, the less energy it has for growing big and strong.

    殼材料,它做大做強的能量就會減少。

  • It can also result in a weaker shell,

    這也會導致外殼較弱。

  • so that shell now is compromised where it's too thin or breaks easily, then it can no

    所以現在的外殼太薄或容易破損,那麼它就不能夠

  • longer seal itself out, seal that that poor water quality out and they will not be viable.

    再把自己封死,把那個差的水質封死,他們就無法生存了。

  • Terry and Dr. Hill are also working together to actually simulate future water conditions

    Terry和Hill博士也在一起合作,實際模擬未來的水情。

  • in the lab, in order to try to predict what may happen to oysters

    在實驗室中,為了嘗試預測牡蠣可能發生的事情。

  • in the coming decades,

    在未來幾十年裡,。

  • We built almost a decade ago, built an experimental setup that kind of operates like a time machine.

    我們在近十年前,建立了一個實驗性的設置,有點像時間機器的操作。

  • We can dial in today's carbon dioxide values in a tank.

    我們可以把今天的二氧化碳值撥到一個罐子裡。

  • And then in the tank next door we can actually ramp it up and maybe put the carbon dioxide

    然後在隔壁的罐子裡,我們可以提高它的速度,也許可以把二氧化碳放進去。

  • concentrations that you'd see in 100 years

    100年後的濃度

  • with acidification levels rising 30% since the Industrial Revolution, it's critical to

    自工業革命以來,酸化水準上升了30%,是以,至關重要的是,必須要有一個良好的環境。

  • be tracking the problem now, and try to work on how to be ready for

    追蹤問題,並努力研究如何準備好迎接

  • the future.

    未來。

  • Oftentimes when you hear about ocean acidification,

    很多時候,當你聽到關於海洋酸化。

  • it seems like this sort of distant chemical problem that the ocean is experiencing.

    好像是海洋正在經歷的這種遙遠的化學問題。

  • And if you go to Hog Island Oyster Company and you have, you know you're sitting at a

    如果你去豬島牡蠣公司,你有,你知道你坐在一個。

  • picnic table and you have lunch sitting in front of you, all the sudden we can talk about

    野餐桌,你有午餐 坐在你的面前,所有的突然,我們可以談論

  • ocean acidification in a way that's about a family business, and a coastal economy,

    海洋酸化的方式,關係到一個家族企業,和沿海經濟。

  • and the food on our plates, and a future that we want for our kids.

    和我們盤子裡的食物,以及我們希望孩子們的未來。

  • This data from the lab and the data collected by instruments placed at the farm itself,

    這些來自實驗室的數據和放置在農場本身的儀器收集的數據。

  • all help Terry address acidification by knowing precisely when the pH differences lead to

    都能幫助Terry解決酸化問題,準確地知道什麼時候pH值差異會導致酸化。

  • high mortality rates.

    死亡率高;

  • From this, he can figure out which oyster strains are more resilient

    由此,他可以算出哪些牡蠣品系的抗逆性更強。

  • than others.

    比別人。

  • But this won't solve the problem outright.

    但這並不能徹底解決這個問題。

  • In the end it all comes down to the carbon dioxide that's blasting nonstop into the atmosphere

    最後,這一切都歸結於二氧化碳,不停地在大氣中爆炸。

  • and getting soaked up by the ocean.

    並被大海浸泡。

  • I think ocean acidification is a problem that we can confront and change the course of the

    我認為海洋酸化是一個我們可以面對的問題,也是一個可以改變航向的問題。

  • problem.

    問題。

  • So, just like the other issues that we are dealing with with climate change, the fundamental

    是以,就像我們正在處理的氣候變化的其他問題一樣,根本的問題是,我們必須要有一個明確的目標。

  • issue is our carbon dioxide emissions.

    問題是我們的二氧化碳排放。

  • More people need to be aware of this and what has change look like.

    更多的人需要意識到這一點,以及變化的樣子。

  • It actually means a lot of changes in our behaviors.

    這其實意味著我們的行為發生了很多變化。

  • And that means everything from efficiencies, on how we run our heating systems to producing

    這意味著從效率,我們如何運行我們的供暖系統到生產。

  • electricity as to how we get around.

    電,因為我們的出行方式。

  • And I think the other part of this is just know that the collective energy would have

    而我認為這其中的另一部分就是知道集體的能量會有。

  • an amazing impact.

    一個驚人的影響。

  • And I think that's really the important part is that there is something that people can do

    我認為這才是真正重要的部分,是人們可以做的事情。

This small shellfish has a superpower.

這種小貝類有一種超能力。

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B2 中高級 中文 牡蠣 海洋 二氧化碳 離子 實驗室 外殼

海洋時間機器實驗預測牡蠣的情況 (What Ocean Time Machine Experiments Predict About Oysters)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 10 月 27 日
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