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  • The Black Death was one of the most

    黑死病是最

  • devastating pandemics in human history.

    人類歷史上毀滅性的大流行病。

  • Between 1347 and 1351, it wiped out 30% to 50%

    1347年到1351年之間,它消滅了30%到50%的人。

  • of the entire population of Europe.

    佔歐洲總人口的。

  • And if there's one animal to blame,

    如果有一個動物要責怪。

  • it's likely infected fleas,

    很可能是感染了跳蚤。

  • making them one of the deadliest insects in history.

    使它們成為歷史上最致命的昆蟲之一。

  • Now, of course, fleas no longer kill millions of people.

    當然,現在,跳蚤已經不再殺死數百萬人。

  • But as it turns out, they still transmit plague,

    但事實證明,他們還是會傳播瘟疫。

  • they're still a nuisance,

    他們仍然是一個麻煩。

  • and they're still incredibly difficult to kill.

    而且他們還非常難殺。

  • Fleas are one of the oldest pests on the planet.

    跳蚤是地球上最古老的害蟲之一。

  • In fact, primitive fleas were dining on dinosaur blood

    事實上,原始的跳蚤是以恐龍血為食的

  • about 165 million years ago.

    約1.65億年前。

  • And they're also one of the most abundant.

    而且它們也是最豐富的一種。

  • Today, there are more than 2,500 species

    今天,有超過2,500個物種。

  • of fleas across the world, like the cat flea.

    的跳蚤,比如貓跳蚤。

  • Those are the ones you're most likely to find

    這些是你最有可能找到的。

  • feasting on your dog or your cat.

    宴請你的狗或貓。

  • And then there are species like the human flea,

    還有像人類跳蚤這樣的物種。

  • which actually seek out human hosts specifically.

    實際上是專門尋找人類宿主的。

  • And seeking is a flea's specialty.

    而尋找是跳蚤的專長。

  • They can sense your breath, your warmth,

    他們能感覺到你的呼吸,你的溫暖。

  • and even the vibrations of your feet.

    甚至是腳的震動。

  • And when they find you, they do what fleas do best:

    當它們找到你的時候,它們會做跳蚤最擅長的事情。

  • jump.

    跳。

  • According to one study, some fleas can jump

    根據一項研究,一些跳蚤可以跳到。

  • nearly 100 times farther than the length of their body,

    比其身體長度遠近100倍。

  • which would be like an average man

    儼然是一個普通人

  • jumping nearly 175 meters into the air.

    跳到近175米的高空。

  • The secret to their spring is a stretchy protein

    他們的春天的祕密是一種彈性蛋白。

  • in their legs called resilin,

    在他們的腿上被稱為resilin。

  • and it works like a rubber band in a slingshot.

    它的工作原理就像彈弓裡的橡皮筋。

  • Elizabeth Warburton: They have kind of a hook-and-latch

    伊麗莎白-沃伯頓They have kind of a hook -and -latch.

  • type of system.

    型的系統。

  • And when the flea lets go of the latch, they just jump.

    當跳蚤放開門閂的時候,它們就會跳下去。

  • Narrator: Now, that makes fleas difficult to capture

    旁白:這使得跳蚤難以捕捉

  • and kill, but it's what they do once they land

    但這是他們落地後要做的事。

  • that makes them a truly terrifying pest.

    這讓他們成為真正可怕的害蟲。

  • First, they use blades in their mouth

    首先,他們用嘴裡的刀片

  • called maxillary laciniae to tear into your flesh.

    稱為上頜裂紋,以撕裂你的肉體。

  • Then they use a straw-like structure

    然後他們用稻草一樣的結構

  • called an epipharynx to slurp it all up.

    稱為上咽部,將其全部嚥下。

  • It's not unlike...

    這並不像...

  • Warburton: If you spilled your drink on a table

    沃伯頓If you spilled your drink on a table

  • and you took a straw and you tried to drink it up.

    你拿著吸管想把它喝光。

  • [slurping]

    [嘖嘖]

  • Narrator: Yum.

    旁白:百勝。

  • Adding insult to injury, fleas have proteins

    雪上加霜的是,跳蚤有蛋白質。

  • in their saliva that keep your blood flowing

    在他們的唾液中,保持你的血液流動。

  • so they have a constant supply of food.

    所以他們有一個穩定的食物供應。

  • And that's actually why they itch so much.

    而這其實也是他們為什麼這麼癢的原因。

  • Your body (or your pet's) is reacting to those proteins.

    你的身體(或寵物的身體)正在對這些蛋白質產生反應。

  • But there's one flea that takes feeding

    但有一隻跳蚤需要餵食。

  • to another, more horrifying level.

    到另一個,更可怕的水準。

  • And, unfortunately, it prefers to prey on humans:

    而且,不幸的是,它更喜歡捕食人類。

  • Tunga penetrans, aka the chigoe flea.

    Tunga penetrans,又名chigoe跳蚤。

  • Instead of drinking blood from the surface of your skin,

    而不是從皮膚表面喝血。

  • the females burrow into you,

    雌性鑽進你的身體。

  • and then they start laying eggs.

    然後他們開始下蛋。

  • Warburton: Most of her is buried into the skin,

    沃伯頓。她的大部分都被埋進了皮膚裡。

  • but kind of the back part, where she's releasing eggs,

    但後面的部分,她在那裡釋放雞蛋。

  • is exposed.

    是暴露。

  • Narrator: And fleas lay a lot of eggs.

    旁白:而且跳蚤會產很多卵

  • Up to 40 each day and as many as 2,000 in their lifetimes.

    每天多達40人,一生中多達2000人。

  • So if your dog brings back a few fleas from the park,

    所以如果你的狗從公園帶回來幾隻跳蚤。

  • you could soon have thousands.

    你很快就會有成千上萬的人。

  • And the truth is they can do a lot worse than make you itch.

    而事實是,他們能做的比讓你發癢更糟糕。

  • You see, even modern fleas can transfer diseases

    你看,即使是現代的跳蚤也會傳染疾病。

  • like typhus, bartonellosis, and, yes, plague.

    比如斑疹傷寒,巴氏桿菌病,還有,是的,瘟疫。

  • In fact, in the summer of 2019,

    事實上,在2019年夏天。

  • the discovery of prairie dogs infected

    感染草原犬的發現

  • by plague-ridden fleas shut down parts of a Denver suburb.

    由瘟疫肆虐的跳蚤關閉了丹佛郊區的部分地區。

  • And in 2015, a teen reportedly died

    而在2015年,據報道,一名少年死

  • from contact with fleas infected with bubonic plague.

    因接觸感染鼠疫的跳蚤而引起的。

  • Now, fortunately, fatal fleas are pretty rare,

    現在,幸運的是,致命的跳蚤非常罕見。

  • and most likely it'll be your pets, not you,

    而且很可能是你的寵物,而不是你。

  • that have to deal with them.

    必須與他們打交道的。

  • But if you do see one or two jumping around,

    但如果你真的看到一兩個跳來跳去。

  • you definitely should try to get rid of them.

    你一定要設法擺脫他們。

  • And here's how.

    而這裡的方法。

  • First, identify the source. And if it's your pet,

    首先,確定源頭。如果是你的寵物。

  • treat them with an insect growth regulator, like Lufenuron.

    用昆蟲生長調節劑處理它們,如Lufenuron。

  • Next, clean your home, though you might want to steer clear

    接下來,清潔你的家,雖然你可能想避開

  • of flea bombs or foggers; they're inconvenient

    跳蚤炸彈或霧化器,它們是不方便的。

  • and don't always reach the nooks and crannies

    不見得就能摸到旮旯裡去

  • where fleas are hanging out.

    跳蚤出沒的地方。

  • Instead, repeatedly vacuum or mop your floors

    反之,反覆吸塵或拖地。

  • and toss any bedding into the washing machine,

    並將任何被褥扔進洗衣機。

  • making sure to dry it at high heat.

    一定要用高溫烘乾。

  • After that, all you can do is sit, wait,

    之後,你能做的就是坐著,等著。

  • and hope that you're flea-free.

    並希望你沒有跳蚤。

The Black Death was one of the most

黑死病是最

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B2 中高級 中文 瘟疫 旁白 寵物 害蟲 人類 身體

為什麼跳蚤這麼難殺? (Why Fleas Are So Hard To Kill)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 10 月 25 日
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