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  • 99.9% of what our brains process is unconscious.

    我們的大腦所處理的99.9%都是無意識的。

  • And without a doubt, somewhere in there are biases.

    而毫無疑問,這裡面的某個環節是有偏差的。

  • Biases about women in the workplace.

    工作場所對婦女的偏見;

  • Biases about people of different races.

    對不同種族的人有偏見。

  • And all these biases are things

    而所有這些偏見都是東西

  • companies like Google, Starbucks, and even Insider

    谷歌、星巴克、甚至Insider等公司。

  • have been trying to train out of their workforce for years.

    多年來一直在努力培養出自己的勞動力。

  • But is it working?

    但這有用嗎?

  • Calvin Lai: We don't know. We really don't know.

    Calvin Lai我們不知道,我們真的不知道。我們真的不知道。

  • Narrator: And a lot of that uncertainty

    旁白:很多不確定因素

  • has to do with our understanding

    與我們的理解有關

  • of implicit bias in general.

    的隱性偏見一般。

  • So, what do we know?

    那麼,我們知道什麼?

  • Implicit biases are stereotypes

    隱性偏見是指定型觀念。

  • that we form about certain groups of people.

    我們對某些群體形成的。

  • Every day, your amygdala processes

    每天,你的杏仁核都會處理

  • and categorizes billions of stimuli.

    並將數十億的刺激物進行分類。

  • And because of this, almost all of it

    正因為如此,幾乎所有的

  • is happening automatically.

    正在自動發生。

  • Every experience you have, every bit of socialization,

    你的每一段經歷,每一點社交。

  • every piece of media is processed and stored

    每一塊媒體都經過處理和存儲

  • by a stereotyping neural network,

    由定型神經網絡。

  • creating a database of shortcuts

    創建快捷鍵數據庫

  • that your brain can pull from.

    你的大腦可以從。

  • And while it's helpful to see a big metal box with wheels

    雖然看到一個帶輪子的大金屬盒子很有幫助

  • and immediately know it's a car,

    並立即知道這是一輛車。

  • categorizing people in the same way is harmful.

    把人歸為一類是有害的。

  • And that's where the implicit association test comes in.

    而這就是隱性關聯測試的作用。

  • The IAT is part of many implicit bias trainings.

    IAT是許多隱性偏見培訓的一部分。

  • It's supposed to establish a baseline

    它應該建立一個基線

  • for each participant's unconscious biases by measuring them.

    通過測量每個參與者的無意識偏見。

  • The problem is, we don't actually know if it does that.

    問題是,我們其實並不知道它是否會這樣做。

  • Lai: I think that the implicit association test

    賴:我認為隱性關聯測試

  • is an imperfect measure.

    是一種不完善的措施。

  • It's been incredibly useful for researchers

    它對研究人員來說非常有用

  • to understand how the mind works

    以瞭解心智的運作

  • in ways that are not self-reported.

    以非自我報告的方式。

  • But if you want to use it as a diagnostic measure

    但是,如果你想把它作為一個診斷的措施

  • of how racist or sexist you are or something like that,

    你是多麼的種族主義或性別歧視或類似的東西。

  • it's not gonna tell you that.

    它不會告訴你。

  • Narrator: A psychological test is usually measured

    旁白:心理測試通常是測量

  • in two ways: reliability and validity.

    在兩個方面:可靠性和有效性。

  • Test-retest reliability means that people should be able

    測試-複試的可靠性是指人們應該能

  • to take the test over and over again

    屢試不爽

  • and get nearly the same results each time.

    並每次得到幾乎相同的結果。

  • A perfect reliability score is a one,

    可靠性滿分是一。

  • but a test is solid if it scores at least 0.7.

    但如果考試成績在0.7分以上,就是實心的。

  • But studies have put the race IAT's reliability at 0.44

    但研究認為,比賽IAT的可靠性為0.44

  • and the IAT overall at 0.5, well below acceptable standards.

    和IAT整體為0.5,遠低於可接受的標準。

  • This means when a person takes the test multiple times,

    這意味著當一個人多次參加考試。

  • they get notably different results.

    他們得到的結果明顯不同。

  • And experts can't say for sure

    而專家們也不能確定

  • whether that's because the test is a bad tool

    是否因為測試是一個糟糕的工具?

  • or if the concept of implicit bias actually fluctuates.

    或隱性偏見的概念是否真的有波動。

  • Lai: So, one of the theoretical ambiguities right now

    賴。所以,現在理論上的一個模糊地帶

  • about the nature of implicit bias

    關於隱性偏見的性質

  • is the extent to which it reflects something deep

    是指它在多大程度上反映了一些深層次的

  • about a personality or an enduring attitude

    風骨

  • versus something that is more fickle,

    與更易變的東西。

  • something more like an emotional state or a mood.

    更像是一種情緒狀態或心情。

  • Narrator: Either way, this discrepancy

    旁白:無論如何,這種差異

  • makes it difficult to rely on the results of the test.

    使得檢測結果難以靠譜。

  • Which leads us to validity:

    這就導致了我們的有效性。

  • Does the test actually predict what it says it does?

    這個測試是否真的能預測到它所說的作用?

  • The IAT was intended to and is currently used in a way

    獨立行政法庭的目的和目前的使用方式是:

  • that is supposed to link implicit bias to behaviors.

    應該是把隱性偏見和行為聯繫起來的。

  • At least four different meta-analyses

    至少有四項不同的元分析。

  • between 2007 and 2015 looked at this exact thing.

    2007年到2015年之間,看的就是這個事情。

  • And all of them suggest that the IAT

    而所有這些都表明,IAT

  • doesn't really predict behaviors that well.

    並不能很好地預測行為。

  • Lai: It turns out that predicting discrimination

    賴:原來,預測歧視

  • is just difficult, full stop.

    就是很難,完全停止。

  • Narrator: But even if the IAT was conclusively valid

    旁白:但即使IAT是絕對有效的... ...

  • and reliable, implicit bias trainings still have a problem:

    和可靠的,隱性偏差培訓還是有問題的。

  • Acknowledging your bias does not mean

    承認自己的偏見並不意味著......。

  • you're gonna act less racist.

    你要去行動 少種族主義。

  • At least one study found that recognizing a bias

    至少有一項研究發現,承認偏見

  • is a necessary step to getting rid of it,

    是擺脫它的必要步驟。

  • but it won't solve the problem on its own.

    但它本身並不能解決這個問題。

  • Lai: You want to make people feel enough motivation,

    賴:你要讓大家感受到足夠的動力。

  • maybe something like enough guilt or shame

    也許是足夠的內疚或羞愧

  • to be actually motivated to do something

    奮發有為

  • about the problem of bias or discrimination.

    關於偏見或歧視的問題;

  • Narrator: And some studies suggest that the trainings

    旁白:一些研究表明

  • can even make the problem worse.

    甚至會使問題更加嚴重。

  • They have the potential to dredge up stereotypes

    他們有可能挖出一些陳舊的觀念。

  • and make a person act on them more.

    並使人更加行動起來。

  • So, how do we make sure that

    那麼,我們如何確保

  • implicit bias trainings are effective?

    隱性偏見培訓有效嗎?

  • Standardizing the programs is a start.

    標準化的方案是一個開始。

  • Lai: I've seen ones where the IAT is never mentioned,

    賴:我見過的都是從來不提IAT的。

  • let alone used in any way.

    更不要說用於任何方面了。

  • I've seen ones where they put a measurement of bias

    我見過有的人把測量的偏差

  • in the middle of the thing,

    中的事情。

  • and they do it as a group activity.

    他們把它作為一個團體活動來做。

  • Some of them are just purely just a collection

    有的只是單純的收藏而已

  • of PowerPoint slides with nothing else attached.

    的PowerPoint幻燈片,沒有任何其他附件。

  • Narrator: One 2016 meta-analysis

    敘述者:2016年的一項元分析

  • of over 40 years of diversity-training data

    40多年的多樣性培訓數據

  • found that the programs were successful

    發現這些方案是成功的

  • if they focused on skill development

    如果他們專注於技能發展

  • and were conducted over a long period of time.

    並進行了長時間的。

  • Many trainings end up being reactionary,

    很多培訓最後都是反動的。

  • half-day or shorter events that end up

    半天或更短的活動,最後

  • being more performative than impactful.

    更多的是表現而不是影響。

  • It's like using a Band-Aid to treat a broken bone

    就像用Ok繃來治療骨折一樣

  • instead of a comprehensive treatment plan.

    而不是一個全面的治療計劃。

  • Lai: Exactly!

    阿來就是這樣!

  • You might not be so certain

    你可能不那麼肯定

  • that any individual initiative works,

    任何個人的舉措都是有效的。

  • but we know that, generally,

    但我們知道,一般來說,。

  • when firms or companies have more of them,

    當企業或公司擁有更多。

  • their diversity and inclusion outcomes tend to be better.

    其多樣性和包容性成果往往更好。

  • Narrator: Harvard Business Review

    旁白:哈佛商業評論

  • found that a combination of things

    發現

  • like college recruitment, mentoring programs,

    比如高校招生、導師計劃。

  • self-managed teams, and task forces

    自我管理的團隊和工作隊

  • have increased diversity.

    增加了多樣性。

  • Diversity task forces alone

    僅僅是多樣性工作隊

  • boosted Black women in management by 23%.

    將黑人婦女在管理層的地位提高了23%。

  • Instead of focusing on the thoughts of individual employees,

    而不是關注員工個人的想法。

  • these tactics address the bigger, systemic issues

    這些策略可以解決更大的系統性問題。

  • that make bias a problem in the first place.

    使得偏見首先成為一個問題。

  • So, just because we don't know for sure

    所以,只是因為我們不確定

  • if implicit bias trainings work doesn't mean they can't.

    如果隱性偏見培訓有效,並不意味著他們不能。

  • We should be asking ourselves

    我們應該問自己

  • what we do know we can do differently

    知易行難

  • in order to ensure lasting change.

    以確保持久的變化。

  • I just want to be very clear that the information

    我只是想非常清楚地表明,這些資訊。

  • we're presenting here has to do with implicit bias trainings

    我們在這裡介紹的是關於隱性偏見的培訓。

  • and their effect on diversity

    及其對多樣性的影響

  • and inclusion within companies.

    和公司內部的包容。

  • Bias is very much real, and it's something

    偏見是非常真實的,它的東西。

  • that we as individuals need to continue

    我們作為個人需要繼續

  • being aware of, checking, and unlearning.

    覺察、檢查、解除學習。

  • So, please, continue the conversation in the comments below

    所以,請大家在下面的評論中繼續對話。

  • and in real life, and subscribe for more "Deep Science."

    並在現實生活中,並訂閱更多 "深度科學"。

99.9% of what our brains process is unconscious.

我們的大腦所處理的99.9%都是無意識的。

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B1 中級 中文 偏見 培訓 旁白 多樣性 測試 有效

關於隱性偏見培訓,每個人都搞錯了什麼? (What Everyone Gets Wrong About Implicit Bias Trainings)

  • 4 2
    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 10 月 24 日
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