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  • What is going to be the future of learning?

    未來的學習是怎樣的?

  • I do have a plan,

    我的確有一個計劃,

  • but in order for me to tell you what that plan is,

    但是爲了告訴你這個計劃是怎樣的,

  • I need to tell you a little story,

    我需要先講一個小故事,

  • which kind of sets the stage.

    來給大家一個背景。

  • I tried to look at

    我曾經嘗試著尋找

  • where did the kind of learning we do in schools,

    我們今天在學校裡的教育方式,

  • where did it come from?

    它究竟是從哪裡來的?

  • And you can look far back into the past,

    這個問題的答案當然可以追溯到很久以前,

  • but if you look at present-day schooling the way it is,

    但是只要你看看今天學校教育的方式,

  • it's quite easy to figure out where it came from.

    你能很容易弄清它來自哪裡。

  • It came from about 300 years ago,

    它來自大約300年前,

  • and it came from the last

    而且它來自地球上最後

  • and the biggest of the empires on this planet. ["The British Empire"]

    且最大的帝國(大不列顛帝國)。

  • Imagine trying to run the show,

    想像一下,

  • trying to run the entire planet,

    在沒有電腦、沒有電話的時代

  • without computers, without telephones,

    要管理整個世界

  • with data handwritten on pieces of paper,

    卻僅僅依靠在紙上寫字,

  • and traveling by ships.

    和在船上航行。

  • But the Victorians actually did it.

    但是維多利亞女王時代的人們做到了。

  • What they did was amazing.

    他們做了一件不可思議的事。

  • They created a global computer

    他們建造了一台環球電腦,

  • made up of people.

    完全由人組成的。

  • It's still with us today.

    甚至今天還在我們身邊

  • It's called the bureaucratic administrative machine.

    這台機器叫做官僚體系

  • In order to have that machine running,

    爲了讓這台機器運行

  • you need lots and lots of people.

    需要大量的人

  • They made another machine to produce those people:

    他們建造了另一台機器來生產這些人 :

  • the school.

    學校。

  • The schools would produce the people

    學校生產出的人,

  • who would then become parts of the

    就是這台官僚機器

  • bureaucratic administrative machine.

    的零件。

  • They must be identical to each other.

    他們必須是完全標準的、可替換的。

  • They must know three things:

    他們必須知道三件事:

  • They must have good handwriting, because the data is handwritten;

    他們必須會寫字,因為數據是手寫的;

  • they must be able to read;

    他們必須會認字;

  • and they must be able to do multiplication,

    他們必須會

  • division, addition and subtraction in their head.

    心算加減乘除。

  • They must be so identical that you could pick one up from New Zealand

    他們必須是完完全全一樣的人

  • and ship them to Canada

    如果你從他們中任挑一個從紐西蘭運到加拿大,

  • and he would be instantly functional.

    他馬上就可以工作。

  • The Victorians were great engineers.

    維多利亞時代是偉大工程師的時代

  • They engineered a system that was so robust

    他們製作的系統是如此強大,

  • that it's still with us today,

    以致我們今天仍在使用,

  • continuously producing identical people

    持續地生產同樣的人,

  • for a machine that no longer exists.

    即便那個控制全球的機器已經不存在了。

  • The empire is gone,

    不列顛帝國已經滅亡了,

  • so what are we doing with that design

    我們該拿

  • that produces these identical people,

    這個製造一模一樣人的機器怎麼辦,

  • and what are we going to do next

    我們下一步該做什麽,

  • if we ever are going to do anything else with it?

    如果我們真的需要做些什麽的話?

  • ["Schools as we know them are obsolete"]

    “我們所知的學校已經過時了”

  • So that's a pretty strong comment there.

    我知道這是一個令人難以接受的觀點。

  • I said schools as we know them now, they're obsolete.

    但是,我只說我們現在所知的學校過時了。

  • I'm not saying they're broken.

    我沒有說學校的教育壞掉了。

  • It's quite fashionable to say that the education system's broken.

    現在很流行說我們的教育體系壞掉了。

  • It's not broken. It's wonderfully constructed.

    它沒有壞掉。它簡直構建地太完美了。

  • It's just that we don't need it anymore. It's outdated.

    只是我們不再需要它了,它過時了。

  • What are the kind of jobs that we have today?

    我們今天的工作都是怎樣的?

  • Well, the clerks are the computers.

    電腦就是我們的職員,

  • They're there in thousands in every office.

    每個辦公室就有幾千部,

  • And you have people who guide those computers

    然後我們有操縱電腦的人,

  • to do their clerical jobs.

    讓電腦去做各種計算

  • Those people don't need to be able to write beautifully by hand.

    他們不需要會寫漂亮的字,

  • They don't need to be able to multiply numbers in their heads.

    他們不需要會心算乘法,

  • They do need to be able to read.

    他們甚至不需要會認字,

  • In fact, they need to be able to read discerningly.

    實際上,他們只要會區分不同的字符就足夠了。

  • Well, that's today, but we don't even know

    而這只是我們現在的工作,

  • what the jobs of the future are going to look like.

    但我們根本不知道未來的工作會變得怎樣。

  • We know that people will work from wherever they want,

    我們知道人們可以在任何地方上班,

  • whenever they want, in whatever way they want.

    任何時間上班,用任何方式上班。

  • How is present-day schooling going to prepare them

    可是,我們現在的學校要怎樣讓學生

  • for that world?

    對未來的工作做好準備?

  • Well, I bumped into this whole thing completely by accident.

    其實我初次思考這個問題完全是湊巧,

  • I used to teach people how to write computer programs

    14年前,我曾經在新德里

  • in New Delhi, 14 years ago.

    教學生寫電腦程式。

  • And right next to where I used to work, there was a slum.

    而緊靠著我工作的地方就有一個貧民窟,

  • And I used to think, how on Earth are those kids

    我曾經想,要究竟怎樣

  • ever going to learn to write computer programs?

    那些貧民窟的孩子才能學會寫電腦程式?

  • Or should they not?

    或者他們就不該學?

  • At the same time, we also had lots of parents,

    同時,我們有很多有錢的家長,

  • rich people, who had computers,

    有錢能買幾台電腦放在家的,

  • and who used to tell me, "You know, my son,

    時不時告訴我:“我那個兒子啊,

  • I think he's gifted,

    真是天才啊,

  • because he does wonderful things with computers.

    他用電腦做了很多很多了不起的事

  • And my daughter -- oh, surely she is extra-intelligent."

    還有我女兒--哦,我肯定她智商超群。”

  • And so on. So I suddenly figured that,

    就像這樣一直講下去。所以我突然就想,

  • how come all the rich people are having

    爲什麽這些天賦過人的孩子

  • these extraordinarily gifted children?

    都生在有錢人的家裡?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • What did the poor do wrong?

    窮人們做錯了什麽?

  • I made a hole in the boundary wall

    我在我的辦公室

  • of the slum next to my office,

    靠貧民窟的牆上挖了一個洞,

  • and stuck a computer inside it just to see what would happen

    然後把一台電腦放進洞裡。我想知道的是,

  • if I gave a computer to children who never would have one,

    如果我把一台電腦給一個不懂英語

  • didn't know any English, didn't know what the Internet was.

    不知道網際網路,且從沒有碰過電腦的孩子,會發生甚麼事。

  • The children came running in.

    孩子們跑了過來,

  • It was three feet off the ground, and they said, "What is this?"

    指著離地三英寸的那台電腦問我:“這是什麽?”

  • And I said, "Yeah, it's, I don't know."

    然後我說:“這個嘛,它是......我也不知道。”

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • They said, "Why have you put it there?"

    他們說:“爲什麽你把它放在那裡?”

  • I said, "Just like that."

    我說:“就是放在這裡。”

  • And they said, "Can we touch it?" I said, "If you wish to."

    他們說:“我們可以碰它嗎?”我說:“如果你們想的碰的話。”

  • And I went away.

    然後我就走開了。

  • About eight hours later,

    大概八小時以後,

  • we found them browsing and teaching each other how to browse.

    我們回到那裡,發現那些孩子在互相教對方怎麼上網。

  • So I said, "Well that's impossible, because --

    我說:“這是不可能的,因為,

  • How is it possible? They don't know anything."

    這怎麼可能?他們什麽都不知道。”

  • My colleagues said, "No, it's a simple solution.

    我的同事說:“不是這樣的,事情很簡單

  • One of your students must have been passing by,

    你的一個學生肯定有從這裡路過,

  • showed them how to use the mouse."

    告訴了他們怎麼用滑鼠。”

  • So I said, "Yeah, that's possible."

    我說:“沒錯,這很有可能。”

  • So I repeated the experiment. I went 300 miles out of Delhi

    所以我重複了這個實驗。 我來到離德里300英里遠的地方,

  • into a really remote village

    在一個真正的窮鄉僻壤,

  • where the chances of a passing software development engineer

    在那裡有一個軟體開發工程師路過的機率,

  • was very little. (Laughter)

    很小很小(笑)

  • I repeated the experiment there.

    我在那裡做了同樣的實驗

  • There was no place to stay, so I stuck my computer in,

    那裡沒有地方可以長住,所以我把電腦嵌到牆裡,

  • I went away, came back after a couple of months,

    就離開了,並在幾個月以後才回來,

  • found kids playing games on it.

    並發現孩子們在用電腦玩遊戲,

  • When they saw me, they said,

    當他們看見我,他們說,

  • "We want a faster processor and a better mouse."

    “我們想要一個更快的處理器和更好的滑鼠。”

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • So I said, "How on Earth do you know all this?"

    所以我說:“你們到底是怎麼知道這些的?”

  • And they said something very interesting to me.

    他們的回答很有趣,

  • In an irritated voice, they said,

    他們用一種惱怒的口吻說

  • "You've given us a machine that works only in English,

    “你給了我們一台只能顯示英文的機器,

  • so we had to teach ourselves English in order to use it." (Laughter)

    所以我們不得不先自學英語再來用它。”

  • That's the first time, as a teacher,

    這是我作為一個老師

  • that I had heard the word "teach ourselves" said so casually.

    第一次聽到“自學”這個詞被說得這樣輕鬆。

  • Here's a short glimpse from those years.

    這有一段來自那些時候的影片剪輯,

  • That's the first day at the Hole in the Wall.

    這是牆裡有洞的第一天,

  • On your right is an eight-year-old.

    右邊是一個八歲的孩子,

  • To his left is his student. She's six.

    他的左邊是他的學生。她只有六歲。

  • And he's teaching her how to browse.

    而小男孩在教小女孩怎麼上網。

  • Then onto other parts of the country,

    接著我在印度的其它地方,

  • I repeated this over and over again,

    不斷地重複這個實驗,

  • getting exactly the same results that we were.

    得到完全一樣的結果。

  • ["Hole in the wall film - 1999"]

    “電影:牆裡有洞-1999”

  • An eight-year-old telling his elder sister what to do.

    一個八歲的小男孩在教他的姐姐要怎麼做,

  • And finally a girl explaining in Marathi what it is,

    最後一個女孩用馬拉地語解釋了它是什麽,

  • and said, "There's a processor inside."

    她說:“裡面有一個處理器。”

  • So I started publishing.

    然後我開始發表我的發現。

  • I published everywhere. I wrote down and measured everything,

    我在各處發表論文。我衡量並寫下所有事情。

  • and I said, in nine months, a group of children

    然後我說,在九個月內

  • left alone with a computer in any language

    給任何一群孩子一台任意語言的電腦

  • will reach the same standard as an office secretary in the West.

    他們可以做到如同西方辦公室職員的水準。

  • I'd seen it happen over and over and over again.

    我已經看到這樣的事一而再再而三地發生。

  • But I was curious to know, what else would they do

    但是我還是好奇,他們還能達到什麽樣的程度,

  • if they could do this much?

    既然他們已經可以做這麼多的話?

  • I started experimenting with other subjects,

    我開始嘗試其它主題,

  • among them, for example, pronunciation.

    其中包括,舉個例子,發音

  • There's one community of children in southern India

    印度南邊有一個社區,

  • whose English pronunciation is really bad,

    孩子們的英語發音真的很差,

  • and they needed good pronunciation because that would improve their jobs.

    而且他們需要好的發音 因為那可以帶來更好的工作。

  • I gave them a speech-to-text engine in a computer,

    我給他們的電腦上安裝了 一個自動語音識別的軟體,

  • and I said, "Keep talking into it until it types what you say."

    然後我說:“跟它說話直到它能把你說的打在螢幕上。”

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • They did that, and watch a little bit of this.

    他們成功了,來看一段短片,

  • Computer: Nice to meet you. Child: Nice to meet you.

    電腦:很高興認識你。孩子:很高興認識你。

  • Sugata Mitra: The reason I ended with the face

    我讓這個短片結束在這位年輕女士的臉上,

  • of this young lady over there is because I suspect many of you know her.

    是因為我懷疑你們之中的許多人認識她。

  • She has now joined a call center in Hyderabad

    她現在在海德巴拉一個呼叫中心工作

  • and may have tortured you about your credit card bills

    她可能因為你的信用卡帳單折磨過你。

  • in a very clear English accent.

    用很標準的英語。

  • So then people said, well, how far will it go?

    然後人們會說,那麼,他們的程度可以到哪?

  • Where does it stop?

    終點在哪裡?

  • I decided I would destroy my own argument

    我決定我要否定我自己的觀點,

  • by creating an absurd proposition.

    透過建立一個荒唐的理論。

  • I made a hypothesis, a ridiculous hypothesis.