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  • History's first empire rose out of a hot, dry landscape,

    歷史上第一個帝國從炎熱乾燥的環境中崛起。

  • without rainfall to nourish crops, without trees or stones for building.

    沒有雨水滋潤莊稼,沒有樹木和石頭來建造。

  • In spite of all this, its inhabitants built the world's first cities,

    儘管如此,這裡的居民還是建立了世界上最早的城市。

  • with monumental architecture and large populations

    紀念碑式的建築和大量的人口--。

  • and they built them entirely out of mud.

    他們完全是用泥巴建造的。

  • Sumer occupied the southern part of modern Iraq

    蘇美爾

  • in the region called Mesopotamia.

    在被稱為美索不達米亞的地區。

  • Mesopotamia meansbetween two rivers”—

    美索不達米亞的意思是 "在兩條河流之間"。

  • the Tigris and the Euphrates.

    底格里斯河和幼發拉底河。

  • Around 5000 BCE, early Sumerians used irrigation channels, dams, and reservoirs

    公元前5000年左右,早期的蘇美爾人就使用了灌溉渠道、水壩和水庫。

  • to redirect river water and farm large areas of previously bone-dry land.

    來改用河水,並在以前骨幹的土地上大面積耕種。

  • Agricultural communities like this were slowly springing up around the world.

    像這樣的農業社區在世界各地慢慢興起。

  • But Sumerians were the first to take the next step.

    但蘇美爾人是第一個邁出下一步的人。

  • Using clay bricks made from river mud,

    用河泥製作的粘土磚。

  • they began to build multi-storied homes and temples.

    他們開始建造多層住宅和寺廟。

  • They invented the wheel

    他們發明了輪子

  • a potter's wheel, for turning mud into household goods and tools.

    一個陶輪,用於將泥巴變成生活用品和工具。

  • Those clay bricks gave rise to the world's first cities,

    這些粘土磚造就了世界上第一座城市。

  • probably around 4500 BCE.

    大概在公元前4500年左右。

  • At the top of the city's social ladder were priests and priestesses,

    在城市社會階梯的頂端是牧師和女祭司。

  • who were considered nobility,

    被視為貴族的人。

  • then merchants, craftspeople, farmers, and enslaved people.

    然後是商人、手工業者、農民和被奴役的人。

  • The Sumerian empire consisted of distinct city-states

    蘇美爾帝國由不同的城邦組成。

  • that operated like small nations.

    像小國一樣運作的。

  • They were loosely linked by language and spiritual belief

    他們通過語言和精神信仰鬆散地聯繫在一起。

  • but lacked centralized control.

    但缺乏集中控制。

  • The earliest cities were Uruk, Ur, and Eridu,

    最早的城市是烏魯克、烏爾和埃裡杜。

  • and eventually there were a dozen cities.

    並最終有十幾個城市。

  • Each had a king who served a role somewhere between a priest and a ruler.

    每個人都有一個國王,他的角色介於祭司和統治者之間。

  • Sometimes they fought against each other to conquer new territories.

    有時他們為了征服新的領地而互相爭鬥。

  • Each city was dedicated to a patron deity, considered the city's founder.

    每座城市都供奉著一位守護神,被認為是城市的創始人。

  • The largest and most important building in the city was this patron god's home:

    城中最大最重要的建築就是這位守護神的家。

  • the ziggurat, a temple designed as a stepped pyramid.

    齊古拉特,一座設計成階梯式金字塔的神廟。

  • Around 3200 BCE, Sumerians began to expand their reach.

    公元前3200年左右,蘇美爾人開始擴大自己的影響力。

  • The potter's wheel found a new home on chariots and wagons.

    陶器的輪子在戰車和馬車上找到了新家。

  • They built boats out of reeds and date palm leaves,

    他們用蘆葦和棗樹葉子造船。

  • with linen sails that carried them vast distances by river and sea.

    用亞麻布帆帶著他們在河上和海上遠行。

  • To supplement scarce resources, they built a trade network

    為了補充稀缺的資源,他們建立了一個貿易網絡。

  • with the rising kingdoms in Egypt, Anatolia, and Ethiopia,

    隨著埃及、安納托利亞、衣索匹亞等國的崛起。

  • importing gold, silver, lapis lazuli, and cedar wood.

    進口黃金、白銀、青金石、杉木。

  • Trade was the unlikely impetus

    貿易是不可能的推動力

  • for the invention of the world's first writing system.

    為發明世界上第一個書寫系統。

  • It started as a system of accounting for Sumerian merchants

    它最初是蘇美爾商人的會計制度。

  • conducting business with traders abroad.

    與國外貿易商開展業務;

  • After a few hundred years, the early pictogram system

    經過幾百年的發展,早期的象形文字系統。

  • called cuneiform turned into a script.

    叫楔形文字變成了文字。

  • The Sumerians drafted up the first written laws

    蘇美爾人起草了第一部成文法。

  • and created the first school system, designed to teach the craft of writing

    並創建了第一個學校系統,旨在教授寫作的工藝--。

  • and pioneered some less exciting innovations, like bureaucracy and taxes.

    並開創了一些不那麼令人興奮的創新,比如官僚主義和稅收。

  • In the schools, scribes studying from dawn to dusk,

    在學校裡,文士們從黎明到黃昏的學習。

  • from childhood well into adulthood.

    從童年一直到成年。

  • They learned accounting, mathematics, and copied works of literature

    他們學會了會計、數學,還抄寫了文學作品--。

  • hymns, myths, proverbs, animal fables, magic spells,

    讚美詩、神話、諺語、動物寓言、魔法咒語。

  • and the first epics on clay tablets.

    和泥板上的第一部史詩。

  • Some of those tablets told the story of Gilgamesh,

    其中一些石板講述了吉爾伽美什的故事。

  • a king of the city of Uruk who was also the subject of mythical tales.

    烏魯克城的國王,他也是神話故事的主題。

  • But by the third millennium BCE, Sumer was no longer the only empire around,

    但到了公元前三千年,蘇美爾不再是唯一的帝國了。

  • or even in Mesopotamia.

    甚至在美索不達米亞。

  • Waves of nomadic tribes poured into the region from the north and east.

    遊牧部落的浪潮從北部和東部湧入該地區。

  • Some newcomers looked up to the Sumerians, adopting their way of life

    一些新來的人向蘇美爾人看齊,採用他們的生活方式。

  • and using the cuneiform script to express their own languages.

    並用楔形文字來表達自己的語言。

  • In 2300 BCE, the Akkadian king Sargon conquered the Sumerian city-states.

    公元前2300年,阿卡德王薩爾貢征服了蘇美爾城邦。

  • But Sargon respected Sumerian culture,

    但薩爾貢尊重蘇美爾文化。

  • and Akkadians and Sumerians existed side-by-side for centuries.

    和阿卡德人與蘇美爾人並存了幾個世紀。

  • Other invading groups focused only on looting and destruction.

    其他入侵集團只注重掠奪和破壞。

  • Even as Sumerian culture spread,

    即使隨著蘇美爾文化的傳播。

  • a steady onslaught of invasions killed off the Sumerian people by 1750 BCE.

    公元前1750年,蘇美爾人被不斷的入侵所殺。

  • Afterward, Sumer disappeared back into the desert dirt,

    之後,蘇默又消失在沙漠的泥土中。

  • not to be rediscovered until the 19th century.

    直到19世紀才被重新發現。

  • But Sumerian culture lived on for thousands of years

    但蘇美爾文化卻延續了幾千年----------------------------。

  • first through the Akkadians, then the Assyrians, then the Babylonians.

    首先通過阿卡德人,然後是亞述人,然後是巴比倫人。

  • The Babylonians passed Sumerian inventions and traditions through

    巴比倫人將蘇美爾人的發明和傳統通過

  • along Hebrew, Greek, and Roman cultures.

    沿著希伯來、希臘和羅馬文化。

  • Some persist today.

    有些人至今仍在堅持。

History's first empire rose out of a hot, dry landscape,

歷史上第一個帝國從炎熱乾燥的環境中崛起。

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B2 中高級 中文 美索不達米亞 城市 文字 會計 帝國 發明

歷史上第一個帝國的興衰--索拉亞-菲爾德-菲奧里奧。 (The rise and fall of history’s first empire - Soraya Field Fiorio)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 10 月 23 日
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