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  • ( applause )

    (掌聲)

  • My students often ask me,

    我的學生經常問我。

  • "What is sociology?" and I tell them it's the study of the way

    我告訴他們這是對社會學的研究

  • in which human beings are shaped by things that they don't see.

    中,人類被他們看不到的東西所塑造。

  • And they say "So, how can I be a sociologist?"

    他們會說"那麼,我怎麼能成為一個社會學家呢&quot。

  • "How can I understand those invisible forces?"

    "我怎麼能理解那些無形的力量呢&quot。

  • and I say, "Empathy."

    我說,"同理心&quot。

  • Start with empathy.

    從同理心開始。

  • It all begins with empathy. Take yourself out of your shoes and put yourself

    這一切都始於同理心。把自己從你的鞋子裡拿出來,把自己

  • into the shoes of another person.

    進入他人的鞋子。

  • Here, I'll give you an example.

    在這裡,我'給大家舉個例子。

  • So I imagine my life if a hundred years ago, China had been

    所以我想象著我的生活,如果在一百年前,中國已經是

  • the most powerful nation in the world,

    世界上最強大的國家。

  • and they came to the United States in search of coal.

    他們來到美國尋找煤炭。

  • And they found it, and in fact they found lots of it right here.

    他們找到了,事實上他們在這裡就找到了很多。

  • And pretty soon they began shipping that coal ton by ton,

    很快他們就開始一噸一噸地運煤。

  • rail car by rail car, boat load by boat load back to China

    軌交車,船裝車,船裝車回國。

  • and elsewhere around the world.

    和世界各地的其他地方。

  • And they got fabulously weatlthy in doing so.

    而且他們在這樣做的過程中得到了很好的鍛鍊。

  • They built beautiful cities all powered on that coal.

    他們建立了美麗的城市,所有的動力都來自於這些煤炭。

  • And back here in the United States we saw economic despair, depravation.

    而在美國,我們看到的是經濟上的絕望,墮落。

  • This is what I saw. I saw people struggling to get by,

    這就是我看到的。我看到人們在掙扎著過日子。

  • not knowing what was what and what was next.

    不知道什麼是什麼,下一步是什麼。

  • And I asked myself a question.

    我問了自己一個問題。

  • I say, "How is it possible that we can be so poor in the United States,

    我說,"我們美國怎麼可能這麼窮。

  • because the coal is such a wealthy resource. It's so much money?"

    因為煤炭是如此豐富的資源。它'這麼多錢嗎&quot。

  • And I realize because the Chinese ingratiated themselves

    我意識到因為中國人的討好

  • with a small ruling class here in the United States

    在美國的少數統治階級的支持下

  • who stole all of that money and all of that wealth for themselves.

    誰偷走了所有的錢和所有的財富為自己所用。

  • And the rest of us, the vast majority of us struggle to get by.

    而我們剩下的人,絕大部分人都在苦苦掙扎。

  • And the Chinese gave this small ruling elite loads

    而中國人給了這個小的統治精英們很多東西

  • of military weapons and sophisticated technology in order to insure

    軍事武器和尖端技術,以確保其安全。

  • that people like me would not speak out against this relationship.

    像我這樣的人是不會反對這種關係的。

  • Does this sound familiar?

    這聽起來很熟悉嗎?

  • And they did things like train Americans to help protect the coal.

    他們還做了一些事情,比如訓練美國人幫助保護煤炭。

  • And everywhere were symbols of the Chinese.

    而且到處都是中國人的符號。

  • Everywhere a constant reminder.

    處處都在提醒著我們。

  • And back in China? What do they say in China? Nothing.

    那回中國呢?在中國他們怎麼說?什麼都不說

  • They don't talk about us. They don't talk about the coal.

    他們不談論我們。他們不'談煤。

  • If you ask them they'll say, "Well, you know, the coal?

    如果你問他們,他們'會說,"嗯,你知道,煤?

  • We need the coal. I mean, come on."

    我們需要煤。我的意思是,來吧。 &quot。

  • "I'm not going to turn down my thermostat. You can't expect that."

    "我'不會調低我的恆溫器。你不能期望這樣.&quot。

  • And so I get angry and I get pissed,

    所以我很生氣,我很生氣。

  • as do lots of average people, and we fight back.

    和很多普通人一樣,我們也要反擊。

  • And it gets really ugly and the Chinese respond in a very ugly way.

    而這一切變得非常醜陋,中國人的反應也非常醜陋。

  • And before we know it they've sent in the tanks

    在我們意識到之前,他們已經派來了坦克。

  • and they've sent in the troops and lots of people are dying.

    和他們'已經發送的軍隊 和很多人都死了。

  • And it's a very, very difficult situation.

    而這是一個非常非常困難的情況。

  • So, can you feel me? Can you imagine what you would feel

    那麼,你能感覺到我嗎?你能想象你會有什麼感覺嗎?

  • if you were in my shoes?

    如果你是我的鞋子?

  • Can you imagine walking out of this building and seeing a tank

    你能想象走出這棟樓,看到一輛坦克嗎?

  • sitting out there or a truck full of soldiers.

    坐在那裡或滿載阿兵哥的卡車。

  • Just imagine what you would feel because you know why they're here

    想象一下你會有什麼感覺,因為你知道他們為什麼在這裡。

  • and you know what they're doing here, and you just feel the anger

    你知道他們在這裡做什麼, 你只是覺得憤怒

  • and you feel the fear. Okay? If you can, that's empathy.

    你就會感到恐懼好嗎? - 如果可以,那就是同理心。如果你能,這就是同理心。

  • That's empathy. You've left your shoes and stood in mine.

    這就是同理心。你已經離開了你的鞋子,站在我的鞋子裡。

  • And you gotta feel that. Okay, so that's the warmup. That's the warmup.

    你要感受到這一點。好了,所以這就是熱身。這就是熱身。

  • Now we're going to have the real radical experiment.

    現在我們'要進行真正的激進實驗。

  • And so for the remainder of my talk what I want you to do

    所以在我剩下的演講中,我想讓你們做的是:

  • is put yourselves in the shoes of an ordinary Arab Muslim

    是把自己放在一個普通的阿拉伯穆斯林的立場上。

  • living in the Middle East, in particular in Iraq.

    生活在中東,特別是伊拉克的人。

  • And so to help you--

    所以為了幫助你...

  • perhaps you're a member of this middle class family in Baghdad.

    也許你'是巴格達這個中產階級家庭的成員。

  • And what you want is the best for your kids.

    而你想要的是對你的孩子最好的。

  • You want your kids to have a better life.

    你希望你的孩子有更好的生活。

  • And you watch the news. You pay attention. You read the newspaper.

    而你看新聞。你關注。你看報紙。

  • You go down to the coffee shop with your friends.

    你和你的朋友們一起去了咖啡店。

  • And you read the newspapers from around the world,

    而你讀的是世界各地的報紙。

  • and sometimes you even watch satellite CNN from the United States

    有時你甚至可以從美國看衛星CNN。

  • so you have a sense of what the Americans are thinking.

    這樣你就知道美國人在想什麼了。

  • But really you just want a better life for yourself.

    但其實你只是想讓自己過上更好的生活。

  • That's what you want. You're Arab Muslim living in Iraq.

    這就是你想要的。你是生活在伊拉克的阿拉伯穆斯林。

  • You want a better life for yourself. So here, let me help you.

    你想讓自己過上更好的生活。所以,在這裡,讓我來幫助你。

  • Let me help you with some things that you might be thinking.

    讓我幫你解決一些你可能會想到的問題。

  • Number one, this incursion into your land these past twenty years and before?

    第一,這次入侵你的地盤這二十年來和之前?

  • The reason anyone's interested in your land in particular the United States?

    有人對你的土地特別是美國感興趣的原因是什麼?

  • It's oil.

    這是石油。

  • But it's all about oil. You know that. Everybody knows that.

    但這都是為了石油。你知道的每個人都知道。

  • People here back in the United States know it's about oil.

    回到美國這裡的人都知道是關於石油的。

  • It's because somebody else has a design for your resource.

    這'是因為別人對你的資源有設計。

  • It's your resource. It's not somebody else's, right? It's your land.

    這是你的資源。這不是別人的,對嗎?這是你的土地。

  • It's your resource. Somebody else has a design for it.

    這是你的資源。別人有一個設計。

  • And you know why they have a design? You know why they have their eyes set on it?

    你知道他們為什麼會有設計嗎?你知道他們為什麼會盯上它嗎?

  • Because they have an entire economic system that's dependent on that oil.

    因為他們有一個完整的經濟體系,'的依賴石油。

  • Foreign oil. Oil from other parts of the world that they don't own.

    外國石油。來自世界其他地方的石油,他們並不擁有。

  • And what else do you think about these people?

    那你對這些人還有什麼看法?

  • Well, the Americans, they're rich! Come on, they live in big houses, they have big cars,

    好吧,美國人,他們很有錢!來吧,他們住在大房子裡,他們有大車。

  • they have blonde hair, blue eyes. They're happy. You think that.

    他們有金色的頭髮,藍色的眼睛。他們很快樂你認為。

  • It's not true, of course, but that's the media impression. That's like what you get?

    當然,這不是真的,但這是媒體的印象。這'就像你得到的?

  • And they have big cities and the cities are all dependent on oil.

    而且他們有大城市,城市都是依靠石油。

  • And back home what do you see?

    回到家裡,你看到了什麼?

  • Poverty, despair, struggle. Look, you don't live in a wealthy country.

    貧窮、絕望、掙扎。你看,你不生活在一個富裕的國家。

  • I mean this is Iraq.

    我是說這是伊拉克。

  • This is what you see -- you see people struggling to get by.

    這就是你所看到的 -- 你看到的是人們為了生存而掙扎。

  • I mean it's not easy. You see a lot of poverty and you feel something about this.

    我的意思是它'不容易。你看到很多貧困,你對這個有感覺。

  • These people have designs for your resource, and this is what you see?

    這些人對你的資源有設計,這就是你看到的?

  • It doesn't feel good. But here, a couple other things?

    這感覺並不好。但在這裡,還有幾件事?

  • Something else you see that you talk about.

    你看到的其他東西,你說的。

  • Americans don't talk about this, but you do.

    美國人不說這個,但你說了。

  • There's this thing this militarization of the world, and it's centered right in the United States.

    有這個東西... ...這個世界的軍事化, 它的中心就在美國。

  • And the United States is responsible for almost one half of the world's military spending.

    而美國的軍費開支幾乎佔到了世界的一半'。

  • Four per cent of the world's population and you feel it, you see it every day.

    佔世界人口的4%,你感覺到了,你每天都能看到它。

  • It's part of your life and you talk about it with your friends.

    它'是你生活的一部分,你和你的朋友談論它。

  • You read about it. And back when Sadaam Hussein was in power?

    你讀過了在薩達姆-侯賽因當權的時候呢?

  • The Americans didn't care about his crimes.

    美國人並不關心他的罪行。

  • When he was gassing the Kurds and gassing Iran they didn't care about it.

    當他在毒殺庫爾德人和毒殺伊朗時,他們沒有'關心它。

  • When oil was at stake, somehow suddenly things mattered.

    當石油岌岌可危的時候,不知為何突然間事情變得重要起來。

  • And what you see? Something else?

    那你看到了什麼?還有別的東西嗎?

  • The United States, the hub of democracy around the world?

    美國,是全世界民主的中心?

  • They don't seem to really be supporting democratic countries all around the world.

    他們似乎並沒有真正支持全世界的民主國家。

  • There are a lot of countries, oil-producing countries, that aren't very democratic

    有很多國家,產油國,不是很民主的國家

  • but supported by the United States.

    但得到美國的支持。

  • That's odd.

    這就奇怪了。

  • Oh, these incursions. Here, let me help you.

    哦,這些入侵。在這裡,讓我來幫你。

  • These incursions? These two years wars? The ten years of sanctions?

    這些入侵?這兩年的戰爭?這十年的制裁?

  • The eight years of occupation?

    佔領的八年?

  • The insurgency that's been unleashed on your people?

    叛亂已經在你的人民身上發動了?

  • The tens of thousand, the hundreds of thousands of civilian deaths

    幾萬、幾十萬平民的死亡。

  • all because of oil.

    都是因為石油。

  • You can't help but think that. You talk about it.

    你不能不這麼想。你說說看。

  • It's in the forefront of your mind always.

    它'在你的腦海中始終是最重要的。

  • You say, "How is that possible? Come on."

    你說,"這怎麼可能?來吧!&quot。

  • And this man?

    這個人呢?

  • He's every man. Your grandfather, your uncle your father,

    他是每個人。你的祖父,你的叔叔,你的父親。

  • your son, your neighbor, your professor, your student --

    你的兒子,你的鄰居,你的教授,你的學生 --

  • wants a life of happiness and joy and suddenly pain and sorrow.

    想要幸福快樂的生活,又突然痛苦悲傷。

  • Everyone in your country has been touched by the violence,

    貴國的每個人都受到了暴力的影響。

  • the bloodshed, the pain, the horror. Everybody.

    血腥,痛苦,恐怖。所有人

  • Not a single person in your country has not been touched.

    貴國沒有一個人沒有接觸過。

  • So here, but there's something else.

    所以在這裡,但還有一些其他的東西。

  • There's something else about these people, these Americans who are there.

    有'的東西,這些人,這些美國人誰在那裡。

  • There's something else about them that you see. They don't see themselves.

    有'別的東西關於他們,你看。他們沒有看到自己。

  • And what do you see? They're Christians.

    你看到了什麼?他們是基督徒

  • They're Christians. They worship the Christian God.

    他們是基督徒。他們崇拜基督教的上帝。

  • They have crosses, they carry bibles.

    他們有十字架,他們帶著聖經。

  • Their Bibles have a little insignia that says U.S. Army on them.

    他們的聖經上有一個小徽章,上面寫著美軍。

  • And their leaders, their leaders, before they send their sons and

    而他們的上司,他們的上司,才會派他們的兒子和。

  • daughters off to war in your country, and you know the reason,

    女兒們去你的國家打仗,你知道原因。

  • before they send them off, they go to a Christian church

    在他們送走他們之前,他們去了一個基督教教堂

  • and they pray to their Christian God

    他們向基督教的上帝祈禱

  • and they ask for protection and guidance from that god.

    他們要求從那個神那裡得到保護和指導。

  • Why?

    為什麼?

  • Well, obviously so that when people die in the war they are Muslims.

    很明顯,這樣一來,當人們死於戰爭時,他們就是穆斯林。

  • They are Iraqis.

    他們是伊拉克人。

  • They're not Americans.

    他們'不是美國人。

  • You don't want Americans to die. Protect our troops.

    你不希望美國人死亡。保護我們的軍隊。

  • And you feel something about that. Of course you do?

    而你對此也有感覺你當然有感覺?

  • And they do wonderful things, beautiful humanitarian things,

    他們做的是美好的事情,美好的人道主義事情。

  • but these humanitarians, I mean because these people, they're there

    但這些人道主義者,我的意思是,因為這些人,他們有

  • you read about it, you hear about it, they're there to build schools

    你讀到它,你聽到它,他們'在那裡建立學校。

  • and help people and that's what they want to do.

    並幫助人們,這'就是他們想做的事情。

  • They do wonderful things, but they also do the bad things

    他們做著美好的事情,但也做著不好的事情。

  • and you can't tell the difference.

    而你卻無法分辨。

  • And so you don't.

    所以你不'。

  • And this guy, you got a guy like Lieutenant General William Boykin.

    而這個人,你有一個像威廉-博伊金中將這樣的人。

  • I mean, here's a guy that says that your god is a false god.

    我的意思是,這裡'的傢伙說,你的上帝是一個假神。

  • Your god is an idol. His god is the true god. The solution to the problem in the Middle East

    你的神是偶像他的神才是真正的神。解決中東問題的方法

  • according to him is to convert you all to Christianity.

    根據他的說法是讓你們都皈依基督教。

  • Just get rid of your religion.

    擺脫你的宗教信仰吧。

  • And you know that.

    你也知道的

  • Americans don't read about this guy.

    美國人不讀這傢伙。

  • They don't know anything about him, but you do.

    他們對他一無所知,但你知道。

  • You pass it around, you pass his words around.

    你傳來傳去,你傳他的話。

  • I mean this is serious. You're afraid.

    我的意思是這是嚴重的。你害怕。

  • He was one of the leading commanders in the second invasion of Iraq,

    他是第二次入侵伊拉克的主要指揮官之一。

  • and you're thinking "My god, if this guy is saying that,

    和你'在想"我的上帝,如果這個傢伙說。

  • then all the soldiers must be saying that."

    那麼所有的阿兵哥肯定都會這麼說.&quot。

  • Right?

    對吧?

  • This word here. George Bush called this war a "crusade."

    這個詞在這裡。喬治-布什稱這場戰爭為"十字軍東征&quot。

  • Man, the Americans they're just like, "Crusade, whatever, I don't know what that means."

    男人,美國人他們'就像,"十字軍,什麼的,我不'知道那是什麼意思。

  • But you know what it means. It's a Holy War against Muslims.

    但你知道這意味著什麼。這是一場針對穆斯林的聖戰。

  • Look, invade, subdue them, take their resources. If they won't submit, kill them.

    聽著,入侵,征服他們,奪取他們的資源。如果他們不服從,就殺了他們。

  • That's what this is about.

    這就是我們的目的。

  • And you're thinking "My god, these Christians are coming to kill us."

    而你'在想"我的上帝,這些基督徒是來殺我們的&quot。

  • This is frightening. You feel frightened.

    這是可怕的。你感到害怕。

  • Of course you feel frightened?

    你當然覺得害怕了?

  • Of course you feel frightened.

    你當然會感到害怕

  • Why wouldn't you feel frightened.

    為什麼你不會感到害怕呢'。

  • And this man, Terry Jones, I mean here's a guy wants to burn Korans, right?

    而這個人,特里-瓊斯,我的意思是這裡有一個人想燒掉古蘭經,對嗎?

  • And the Americans, "Oh what, he's a knucklehead, he's a former hotel manager,

    而美國人,"哦,什麼,他&39;是個笨蛋,他&39;是個前酒店經理。

  • he's got three dozen members of his church",

    他'的教會有三打成員"。

  • they laugh him off. You don't laugh him off.

    他們嘲笑他。你不嘲笑他。

  • Because in the context of everything else, all the pieces fit.

    因為在其他一切的背景下,所有的碎片都是合適的。

  • I mean of course this is how the Americans think,

    我是說美國人當然是這麼想的。

  • and so people all over the Middle East, not just in your country are protesting.

    所以整個中東地區的人們,不只是在你的國家都在抗議。

  • He wants to burn Korans, our holy book.

    他想燒掉可蘭經,我們的聖書。

  • These Christians, Who are these Christians? They're so evil, they're so mean.

    這些基督徒,這些基督徒是誰?他們是如此邪惡,他們是如此卑鄙。

  • I mean this is what they're about?

    我的意思是,這就是他們'的目的?

  • This is what you're thinking as an Arab Muslim, as an Iraqi.

    這是你作為一個阿拉伯穆斯林,作為一個伊拉克人的想法。

  • Of course you're going to think this. How can you not think this?

    你當然會這麼想。你怎麼能不這麼想呢?

  • And then your cousin says "Hey, cuz, check out this website.

    然後你的表哥說"嘿,cuz,看看這個網站。

  • You gotta see this Christian, this Bible Boot Camp.

    你得看看這個基督徒,這個聖經訓練營。

  • These Christians are nuts. They're training their little kids to be soldiers for Jesus."

    這些基督徒是瘋子。他們'正在訓練他們的小孩子成為耶穌的阿兵哥。

  • And they take these little kids, and they run them through these things

    他們帶著這些小孩子,讓他們去做這些事情

  • and they teach them how to say "Sir, yes, sir!", and play games like grenade toss,

    他們教他們如何說"先生,是的,先生!",並玩擲手榴彈等遊戲。

  • and weapons care and maintenance.

    以及武器保養和維護;

  • And go to the website. It says U.S. Army right on it.

    然後去網站。上面寫著美軍。

  • I mean these Christians they're nuts!

    我的意思是,這些基督徒他們'瘋了!

  • How would they do this to their little kids?

    他們怎麼會這樣對待自己的小孩子?

  • And you're reading this website and of course Christians

    而你'閱讀這個網站,當然基督徒的。

  • back in the United States or anybody says

    在美國或任何人說

  • "Aw, this is a little tiny church in the middle of nowhere."

    "Aw,這是一個小小的教堂在中間的地方.&quot。

  • You don't know that.

    你不知道

  • For you, this is all Christians.

    對你來說,這都是基督徒。

  • It's all over the web -- Bible Boot Camp.

    它在網上到處都是--聖經訓練營。

  • And look at this. They even teach their kids.

    看看這個。他們甚至教他們的孩子。

  • They train them in the same way the U.S. Marines train.

    他們用美國海軍陸戰隊訓練的方式訓練他們。

  • Isn't that interesting?

    是不是很有意思?

  • And it scares you and it frightens you.

    它讓你害怕,讓你恐懼。

  • So these guys? You see them?

    所以這些人?你看到他們了嗎?

  • You see I, Sam Richards, I know who these guys are.

    你看我,薩姆-理查茲,我知道這些人是誰。

  • They're my students, my friends. I mean I know what they're thinking.

    他們是我的學生,我的朋友。我的意思是我知道他們在想什麼。

  • You don't know.

    你不知道

  • When you see them they're something else. They're something else.

    當你看到他們,他們'是別的東西。他們是別的東西。

  • That's what they are to you. (Christian Invaders)

    這就是他們對你的意義。(基督教侵略者)

  • We don't see it that way in the United States.

    我們不'在美國不這麼看。

  • But you see it that way?

    但你是這麼看的?

  • So here. Of course, you got it wrong.

    所以在這裡。當然,你弄錯了。

  • You're generalizing, it's wrong.

    你'以偏概全,這是錯誤的。

  • You don't understand the Americans. It's not a Christian invasion.

    你不瞭解美國人。這不是一個基督教的入侵。

  • We're not just there for oil. We're there for lots of reasons.

    我們不只是為了石油。我們在那裡有很多原因。

  • I mean, you have it wrong. You've missed it.

    我的意思是,你把它弄錯了。你已經錯過了。

  • And of course most of you don't support the insurgency,

    當然,你們大多數人都不支持叛亂。

  • you don't support killing Americans, you don't support the terrorists.

    你不支持殺美國人,你就不支持恐怖分子。

  • Of course you don't. Very few people do. But some of you do?

    你當然不會。很少有人這樣做。但你們中的一些人有嗎?

  • And this is a perspective.

    而這是一個角度。

  • Okay, so now, so here's what we're going to do.

    好了,所以現在,所以這裡'我們'要做的。

  • Step outside of your shoes that you're in right now

    跳出你現在的鞋子,你'。

  • and step back into your normal shoes, so everyone's back in the room, okay?

    並步入你的正常的鞋子,所以大家'回到房間裡,好嗎?

  • Now here comes the radical experiment.

    現在,激進的實驗來了。