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  • Four years after arriving in the United States,

    譯者: Hsuan-Yu Chen 審譯者: LoHsien Huang

  • like any typical 16-year-old,

    在我來到美國四年後,

  • I went to get my driver's permit.

    我就和其他 16 歲小孩沒差,

  • After I showed the clerk my immigration papers, my green card,

    去考學習駕照。

  • she told me it was fake.

    我給那個櫃台人員 移民證件和綠卡之後,

  • "Don't come back here again," she said.

    她跟我講這些證件都是假的。

  • That's how I found out I was in America illegally.

    她接著跟我講: 「別再出現在我的櫃台前面。」

  • And I'm still here illegally.

    這下我發現自己是一個 非法滯留在美國的人。

  • I'm a journalist and filmmaker.

    現在呢,我還是非法留在這裡。

  • I live in stories.

    我是一個新聞記者,也是個製片人。

  • And what I've learned

    我相信人們有自己的過往。

  • that what most people don't understand about immigration

    至今我發現

  • is what they don't understand about themselves:

    許多人不理解「移民」的意義,

  • their families' old migration stories and the processes they had to go through

    也導致他們不了解自己:

  • before green cards and walls even existed,

    不了解自己家族移民的歷程,

  • or what shaped their understanding of citizenship itself.

    家裡拿到綠卡前的歷程 以及面對族群之間的隔閡。

  • I was born in the Philippines.

    或者說這些人如何理解 「公民身份」這個詞。

  • When I was 12, my mother sent me to live with her parents,

    我在菲律賓出生。

  • my grandparents,

    我十二歲的時候, 我媽媽送我來和她爸媽住,

  • or, as we say in Tagalog, lolo and lola.

    也就是我外公外婆,

  • Lolo's name was Teofilo.

    或者按照他加祿語的說法 就是 lolo 和 lola。

  • When he legally emigrated to America and became a naturalized citizen,

    我外公叫 Teofilo(特奧菲洛)。

  • he changed his name from Teofilo to Ted,

    當他合法移民來美國, 並且成為美國公民時,

  • after Ted Danson from the TV show "Cheers."

    他就把名字從 Teofilo 改成 Ted ,

  • Can't get any more American than that.

    Ted 這個名字是他從 「Cheers」電視劇主角

  • Lolo's favorite song was Frank Sinatra's "My Way,"

    Ted Danson 那裡搬來的。

  • and when it came to figuring out how to get his only grandson, me,

    這個名字夠美式了。

  • to America,

    我祖父最喜歡的歌是 法蘭克·辛納屈唱的〈我的方式〉。

  • he decided to do it his way.

    當他想到如何把他唯一的孫子, 也就是我,帶到美國來,

  • According to Lolo, there was no easy and simple way to get me here,

    他便打算用自己的方式這麼做。

  • so Lolo saved up 4,500 dollars --

    根據外公所說,沒有什麼 簡單的辦法把我帶到這裡,

  • that's a lot of money for a security guard

    所以外公存了 4,500 美元,

  • who made no more than eight dollars an hour --

    用來買一張假的綠卡, 讓一位走私者把我帶到美國,

  • to pay for the fake green card

    這對一位時薪不超過 8 美元的 警衛來講是一大筆錢。

  • and for a smuggler to bring me to the US.

    這就是我來美國的經過。

  • So that's how I got here.

    我數不清多少次有人對我說

  • I can't tell you how many times people tell me that their ancestors

    他們的祖先用 「正確的方式」到達美國,

  • came to America "the right way,"

    但我也總提醒他們,

  • to which I remind them,

    美國對「正確的方式」的定義

  • America's definition of "the right way"

    自從第一艘移民船 抵達美國後就一直在改變。

  • has been changing ever since the first ship of settlers dropped anchor.

    我們知道美國不僅是一塊土地,

  • America as we know it is more than a piece of land,

    特別是因為這塊組成 美利堅合眾國的土地

  • particularly because the land that now makes up the United States of America

    曾經屬於其他國家的其他人。

  • used to belong to other people in other countries.

    我們知道美國也不僅是移民者的國度。

  • America as we know it is also more than a nation of immigrants.

    有兩類美國人並非移民者:

  • There are two groups of Americans who are not immigrants:

    美洲原住民,也就是 本來在這塊土地上居住

  • Native Americans, who were indigenous to this land

    並在種族大屠殺中被殺的人。

  • and who were killed in acts of genocide;

    還有非裔美國人,

  • and African Americans, who were kidnapped, shipped and enslaved

    也就是那些被綁架、運送、奴役 來建造這個國家的這群人。

  • to build this country.

    美國最重要的想法,

  • America is, above all, an idea,

    也就是:就算它未實現且不完美,

  • however unrealized and imperfect,

    這個想法之所以存在是因為 第一批定居者自由地來到這裡,

  • one that only exists because the first settlers came here freely

    無需擔憂是否擁有公民身份問題。

  • without worry of citizenship.

    所以,你來自哪裡?

  • So, where did you come from?

    你怎麼到這裡的?

  • How did you get here?

    誰付錢讓你來這兒的?

  • Who paid?

    在美國各地,各種各樣的觀眾面前

  • All across America, in front of diverse audiences --

    ——保守派和進步派、 高中生和老年人——

  • conservatives and progressives,

    我問過他們那些問題。

  • high school students and senior citizens --

    作為一個有色人種, 我總是被問到我來自哪裡,

  • I've asked those questions.

    但他們都是問: 「你原本是從哪裡來?」

  • As a person of color, I always get asked where I'm from,

    所以我也問白人 他們原本是從哪裡來的。

  • as in, "Where are you from from?"

    我問喬治亞大學的一名學生

  • So I've asked white people where they're from from, too.

    他來自哪裡之後,

  • After asking a student at the University of Georgia

    他說:「我是美國人。」

  • where he was from,

    我說:「我知道,但是你來自哪裡?」

  • he said, "I'm American."

    他回答:「我是白人。」

  • "I know," I said, "but where are you from?"

    我說:「但是白人不是一個國家。」

  • "I'm white," he replied.

    「你的祖先來自哪裡?」

  • "But white is not a country," I said.

    他聳了聳肩,

  • "Where are your ancestors from?"

    我說:

  • When he replied with a shrug,

    「那麼,你以前從哪裡來的?

  • I said,

    「你怎麼來的?誰付錢讓你來的?」

  • "Well, where did you come from?

    他無法回答。

  • How did you get here? Who paid?"

    我認為大家在認真談論美國時,

  • He couldn't answer.

    無法避開那三個核心問題。

  • I don't think you can talk about America as America

    移民是美國的生命線,

  • without answering those three core questions.

    幾個世紀以來, 這個國家一直在壯大,

  • Immigration is America's lifeline,

    從最初 13 個殖民地的 移民和革命者

  • how this country has replenished itself for centuries,

    到數百萬主要來自歐洲的移民者,

  • from the settlers and the revolutionaries who populated the original 13 colonies

    持續殖民這片土地。

  • to the millions of immigrants, predominantly from Europe,

    儘管美國原住民已經在這裡,

  • who relentlessly colonized this land.

    並有自己的部落身份 和公民身份的概念,

  • Even though Native Americans were already here

    但直到 1924 年「印地安人公民法案」 他們才被認為是美國公民。

  • and had their own tribal identities and ideas about citizenship,

    美國黑人為之奮鬥、具有里程碑 意義的 1964 年「民權法案」

  • they were not considered US citizens until the 1924 Indian Citizenship Act.

    激發了 1965 年 「移民和國籍法」的誕生。

  • The landmark 1964 Civil Rights Act that Black Americans fought for

    該法案結束了美國長達 40 年

  • inspired the 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act,

    以種族排斥為基礎的制度。

  • which ended America's race-based exclusionary system

    這些例子舉不完。

  • that had lasted for 40 years.

    但我的觀點,更重要的觀點是:

  • I could go on and on here,

    我們之中的任何人,

  • but my point, my larger point, is this:

    不管是過去還是現在的移民

  • How much do any of us,

    對美國歷史的這些關鍵部分了解多少?

  • whether immigrants of the past or the present,

    美國公民公民測驗試題中 有多少這段歷史相關的試題?

  • know of these crucial parts of American history?

    你看過嗎?

  • How much of this history makes up the actual US citizenship test?

    這基本上是一個口試,

  • Have you ever seen it?

    政府官員會從 100 個問題中 最多選擇 10 個來提問。

  • It's a mostly oral test,

    要通過考試,申請者必須 至少要答對 6 題。

  • and government officers ask applicants up to 10 of the 100 questions.

    最近我看了試卷,

  • To pass, applicants must get at least six answers right.

    我對所提的問題感到驚訝,

  • I looked at the test recently,

    也被這些明顯有遺漏的 正確答案所震驚。

  • and I was aghast at the questions posed

    有一個關於自由女神像 和它的地理位置的問題。

  • and what constitutes acceptable answers to the glaring omissions.

    沒有問題是關於埃利斯島, (註:曾為移民管理局的所在地)

  • There's a question about the Statue of Liberty and where it is.

    或關於美國作為一個移民國家

  • There's no question about Ellis Island,

    以及通過的無數反移民法律。

  • about the United States as an immigrant nation

    沒有關於美國原住民歷史的問題。

  • and the countless anti-immigrant laws that were passed.

    有一個問題是關於 馬丁·路德·金恩做了什麼,

  • There's nothing about Native American history.

    但在很大程度上, 關於非裔美國人的背景問題

  • There's a question about what Martin Luther King, Jr. did,

    是不充分且不負責任的。

  • but largely, there's inadequate and irresponsible contexts

    舉個例子。

  • about African Americans.

    美國歷史部分的第 74 題,

  • Here's an example.

    要求申請者「說出一個 導致美國內戰的問題。」

  • Question number 74 under the American history section

    有三個可接受的答案:

  • asks applicants to "name one problem that led to the Civil War."

    奴隸制,

  • There are three acceptable answers:

    國家的權利,

  • slavery,

    經濟原因。

  • states' rights,

    我外公外婆知道這個問題要問什麼嗎?

  • economic reasons.

    如果他們知道,

  • Did my Lola and Lolo get that question?

    他們了解這背後的歷史嗎?

  • If they did get the question,

    那我的叔叔、阿姨、堂兄弟姊妹

  • do they even understand the history behind it?

    以及其他數百萬 不得不參加這項考試

  • How about my uncles and aunties and cousins

    才能成為美國人的移民呢?

  • and millions of other immigrants who had to take that test

    在我們來到美國之前, 移民們對美國了解多少?

  • to become Americans?

    我們要申請的公民身份 真正的含意是什麼?

  • What do immigrants know about America before we get here?

    這和我們想要的 公民身份是一樣的嗎?

  • What kind of citizenship are we applying for?

    想想看——這個我想了很多——

  • And is that the same kind of citizenship we actually want to be a part of?

    有尊嚴的公民是什麼樣子?

  • Come to think of it -- I've been thinking a lot about this --

    我該如何要求這樣的公民身份呢?

  • what does dignified citizenship look like?

    我 26 年前剛來到這裡,

  • How can I ask for it when I just arrived here 26 years ago,

    但黑人和原住民

  • when Black and Native people

    早在美國住了數百年

  • who have been here in America for hundreds of years

    卻仍在等待有尊嚴的公民身份。

  • are still waiting for theirs?

    我最喜歡的作家之一是托妮·莫里森。

  • One of my favorite writers is Toni Morrison.

    1996 年,也就是我發現自己 非法入境的前一年,

  • In 1996, a year before I found out I was in the country illegally,

    八年級時,我們要讀《最藍的眼睛》 (The Bluest Eye)

  • my eighth-grade class was assigned to read "The Bluest Eye,"

    那是莫里森的第一本書。

  • Morrison's first book.

    突然間,這本書挑戰我 去問一些棘手的問題。

  • Instantly, the book challenged me to ask hard questions.

    為什麼皮科拉·布里德洛瓦

  • Why does Pecola Breedlove,

    這個書中的年輕黑人女孩,

  • this young Black girl at the center of the book,

    為什麼她想要藍色的眼睛?

  • why did she want blue eyes?

    誰讓她想要這個?

  • Who told her to want it?

    為什麼她相信他們?

  • Why did she believe them?

    莫里森說,她寫這本書是為了說明

  • Morrison said she wrote the book to illustrate what happens

    當一個人屈服於她所說的 「主軸敘事」時會發生什麼。

  • when a person surrenders to what she called "the master narrative."

    莫里森說:「定義屬於定義者, 而不是被定義者。」

  • "Definitions," Morrison said, "belong to the definers, not the defined."

    當我意識到我在這裡是非法的,

  • Once I realized that I was here illegally,

    我說服自己,如果我從出生 或法律上都不是合法公民,

  • I convinced myself that if I was not a legal citizen by birth or by law,

    另一種公民身份是可能的。

  • another kind of citizenship was possible.

    以參與行動來定義公民身份:

  • Citizenship as participation:

    我有參與。

  • I engage.

    我和各種美國人打交道,甚至包括 那些不希望我在這裡的美國人。

  • I engage with all kinds of Americans, even Americans who don't want me here.

    以貢獻來定義公民身份:

  • Citizenship as contribution:

    我盡我所能回饋社會。

  • I give back to my community in whatever ways I can.

    我作為一位無合法身份的企業家, 是的,有這樣一件事 :

  • As an undocumented entrepreneur -- and yes, there is such a thing --

    我已經僱用了許多美國公民。

  • I've employed many US citizens.

    以教育來定義公民身份:

  • Citizenship as education:

    我們不能等著別人 來教我們過去的事情

  • We can't wait for others to educate us about the past

    以及我們是如何走到今天的,

  • and how we got to this present.

    我們必須教育自己和我們的圈子。

  • We have to educate ourselves and our circles.

    以超越自身的角度來定義公民身份:

  • Citizenship as something greater than myself:

    我認為無論是個人還是集體,

  • We are, I think, individually and collectively,

    都在改寫美國的主軸敘事。

  • rewriting the master narrative of America.

    曾經被定義的人 正在重新定義公民身份。

  • The people who were once defined are now doing the defining.

    他們在提出需要問的問題。

  • They're asking the questions that need to be asked.

    重新定義的核心部分是