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  • In 1987, Donald Trumpwho was then  a flamboyant millionaire ran full-page ads

    1987年,當時還是花花公子的唐納德-特朗普打出了整版廣告

  • in the New York Times, the Washington Postand the Boston Globe criticizing Japan

    在《紐約時報》、《華盛頓郵報》和《波士頓環球報》上發表責備日本的文章。

  • for its trade imbalance  with the United States.

    因其與美國的貿易不平衡。

  • Japan's economy was then the envy of other nations,

    當時日本的經濟讓其他國家羨慕不已。

  • rising from the ruins of World War II to   become the world's second-largest economy.

    從二戰的廢墟中崛起,成為世界第二大經濟體。

  • Many Japanese seem to be so busy from Monday to Saturday making electronic goods,

    很多日本人從週一到週六似乎都在忙著做電子產品。

  • there's only one day left on which they can actually go out and buy them.

    只有一天的時間,他們可以真正出去買。

  • All that came to a halt in the 1990s  when it started experiencing a prolonged recession

    所有這一切都在1990年代停止了,因為它開始經歷了長期的經濟衰退

  • which economists have dubbed The Lost Decade.

    被經濟學家稱為 "失去的十年"。

  • In the years sinceJapan has experienced sluggish growth under a "revolving doorof prime ministers.

    此後幾年,日本在首相的 "旋轉門 "下,增長乏力。

  • Despite attempts by Shinzo Abewho was Japan's longest-serving Prime Minister,

    儘管作為日本任職時間最長的首相的安倍晉三試圖。

  • to revive the country's economy, poverty is on the rise.

    振興國家經濟,但貧困人口卻在增加。

  • So, can Japan escape   its prolonged economic slump?

    那麼,日本能否擺脫長期的經濟低迷呢?

  • After about two decades of economic stagnation,   Abe's second term as  prime minister

    在經歷了約20年的經濟停滯後,安倍的第二個首相任期。

  • brought hope that he could steer the country, out of recession.

    帶來了希望,他可以引導國家,走出衰退。

  • By then, China had overtaken Japan to  become the world's second-largest economy.

    當時,中國已經超過日本,成為世界第二大經濟體。

  • To tackle the stubborn economic stagnation and low inflationAbe introduced his

    為了解決經濟停滯和低通脹的頑疾,安倍推出了他的。

  • signature economic policies  known as “Abenomics.”

    被稱為 "阿本經濟 "的標誌性經濟政策。

  • These came in the form of monetary easing,   fiscal spending and structural reforms

    這些措施以貨幣寬鬆、財政支出和結構改革的形式出現。

  • of Japan's labor force,   which was shrinking and aging.

    的日本勞動力,正在萎縮和老化。

  • Japan has been facing a population decline  since 2011 because of a low birth rate.

    由於出生率低,日本自2011年以來一直面臨人口下降的問題。

  • In 2019, there were around  500,000 more deaths than births,  as the number of babies born fell by 5.9% .

    2019年,死亡人數比出生人數多出約50萬,因為出生的嬰兒數量下降了5.9% 。

  • With an aging population and a shrinking workforce, unemployment levels have been low.

    隨著人口老齡化和勞動力萎縮,失業率一直處於低水平。

  • Despite a tight labor market, the earning power of Japanese workers has remained stagnant.

    儘管勞動力市場緊張,但日本工人的收入能力卻一直停滯不前。

  • In fact, the average wages in Japan has remained  below $40,000 since 1991

    事實上,自1991年以來,日本的平均工資一直低於4萬美元。

  • unlike other developed countries   such as the United States and South Korea.

    不像美國、韓國等其他發達國家。

  • This has its roots in  Japan's  peculiar employment system,

    這根源於日本特有的僱傭制度。

  • which is built on a set of principles to promote loyalty between employers and employees.

    它建立在一套促進僱主和僱員之間忠誠度的原則之上。

  • Employees sign long term contracts  with companies and are motivated

    員工與企業簽訂長期合同,積極性高。

  • to remain because of a wage structure  that prioritizes seniority over merit.

    由於資歷優先於業績的工資結構而保留。

  • This practice, known in Japanese  as Shushin Koyo, dates back

    這種做法,在日語中被稱為 "書信小夜",可以追溯到現在。

  • to World War II and has become ingrained in the Japanese culture, especially in larger companies.

    到二戰,並在日本文化中根深蒂固,特別是在大公司。

  • While this scheme made  sense in the post-war period,

    雖然這個計劃在戰後有意義。

  • when there was a shortage of skilled labor,

    熟練勞動力短缺時。

  • this relatively stable but rigid employment system led to

    這種相對穩定但僵化的就業制度導致了。

  • an emphasis on job securityrather than productivity and performance.

    強調工作保障,而不是生產力和業績;

  • As a result, Japanese firms   were reluctant to increase

    是以,日本企業不願意增加。

  • employees' salaries,  especially during economic downturns,

    僱員的工資,特別是在經濟衰退期間。

  • because they were expected  to retain their employees for a long period.

    因為他們有望長期留住員工。

  • Japan's aging population  also meant that senior

    日本的人口老齡化也意味著老

  • executives were unlikely   to move anytime soon,

    高管們不太可能在短期內動。

  • providing little to no career progression and wage increases for younger employees.

    為年輕員工提供幾乎沒有職業發展和工資增長的機會;

  • To address these labor woesAbe tried to reform the

    為了解決這些勞動力的困境,安倍試圖改革。

  • country's labor systemsuch as relaxing immigration laws,

    國家的勞動制度,如放寬移民法。

  • easing Japan's brutal work culture and encouraging more women to join the workforce.

    緩解日本殘酷的工作文化,鼓勵更多的婦女加入勞動大軍;

  • While Abe managed to increase female participation in the workforce

    雖然安倍成功地提高了女性在勞動力中的參與度。

  • to an all-time high  many were on low-paying odd jobs.

    到歷史最高點,很多人都在做低薪的零工。

  • Among senior and leadership positionsonly 15% were held by women,

    在高級和上司職位中,只有15%由婦女擔任。

  • while Japanese women earned about half of what men got on average.

    而日本女性的收入大約是男性平均收入的一半。

  • Besides deeper cultural issues  in a patriarchal society,

    除了父權社會中更深層次的文化問題。

  • the lifetime employment scheme   also discouraged firms from

    終身僱傭計劃也阻止了企業的發展。

  • hiring women into the workforce full time to avoid commitment costs such as pension funds.

    僱用婦女全職工作,以避免養恤基金等承諾成本;

  • To maintain their competitive edge, some Japanese companies started

    為了保持自己的競爭優勢,一些日本企業開始了。

  • converting their full-time employees  to part-time workers.

    將其全職僱員轉為兼職僱員;

  • In 2019, the number of non-regular  workers rose by 2.1%,

    2019年,非正式職工人數增長2.1%。

  • outpacing the 0.5% growth  among regular employees.

    超過正式員工0.5%的增長。

  • Despite record employment   under Abenomics, Japan's poverty rate

    儘管在Abenomics下就業率創下新高,但日本的貧困率仍然很高

  • is the second highest among the Group of Seven nations at 15.7%, and above the OECD average.

    是七國集團中第二高的國家,為15.7%,高於經合組織的平均水平。

  • While large Japanese firms have benefitted under Abenomics,

    雖然大型日本企業在阿扁經濟下受益。

  • buoyed by a weak yen andbooming stock market,

    受日元疲軟和股市繁榮的提振。

  • these corporate profits did not trickle down to households.

    這些企業利潤並沒有流向家庭。

  • Abe's best efforts to reverse the tepid economic growthincluding

    安倍為扭轉經濟增長乏力的局面所做的努力,包括。

  • pressuring the country's central bank  to adopt unconventional measures

    迫使該國中央銀行採取非常規措施。

  • in the form of asset purchases  and yield curve control, have produced mixed results.

    以購買資產和控制收益率曲線的形式,產生了不同的結果。

  • With the Covid-19 pandemic  crippling its economy further,

    隨著科維德-19大流行進一步削弱其經濟。

  • Japan is quickly running  out of options to boost its economy.

    日本很快就沒有了提振經濟的選擇。

  • In the second quarter of 2020,   its GDP shrank by 28.1%.

    2020年第二季度,其GDP萎縮了28.1%。

  • The country's next prime ministerYoshihide Suga, is likely to carry on where Abe left off.

    該國下一任首相菅義偉很可能會繼承安倍的遺志。

  • Abe may be gone, but Abenomics appears here to stay.

    安倍可能已經離去,但阿扁經濟學似乎還在這裡。

  • Whether it will lift Japan  out of its decades-long doldrums

    是否能讓日本走出幾十年的谷底?

  • and reverse the poverty trap  remains to be seen.

    和扭轉貧困陷阱,還有待觀察。

  • Thank you so much for watching our video!

    非常感謝您觀看我們的視頻!

  • What do you think about Abenomics? Comment below and don't forget to subscribe!

    對於阿扁經濟學,你怎麼看?請在下方評論,別忘了訂閱!

In 1987, Donald Trumpwho was then  a flamboyant millionaire ran full-page ads

1987年,當時還是花花公子的唐納德-特朗普打出了整版廣告

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為什麼日本的貧困率在上升?| CNBC解讀 (Why is poverty rising in Japan? | CNBC Explains)

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    Summer 發佈於 2020 年 10 月 08 日
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