字幕列表 影片播放 由 AI 自動生成 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 In 1987, Donald Trump, who was then a flamboyant millionaire ran full-page ads 1987年，當時還是花花公子的唐納德-特朗普打出了整版廣告 in the New York Times, the Washington Post, and the Boston Globe criticizing Japan 在《紐約時報》、《華盛頓郵報》和《波士頓環球報》上發表責備日本的文章。 for its trade imbalance with the United States. 因其與美國的貿易不平衡。 Japan's economy was then the envy of other nations, 當時日本的經濟讓其他國家羨慕不已。 rising from the ruins of World War II to become the world's second-largest economy. 從二戰的廢墟中崛起，成為世界第二大經濟體。 Many Japanese seem to be so busy from Monday to Saturday making electronic goods, 很多日本人從週一到週六似乎都在忙著做電子產品。 there's only one day left on which they can actually go out and buy them. 只有一天的時間，他們可以真正出去買。 All that came to a halt in the 1990s when it started experiencing a prolonged recession 所有這一切都在1990年代停止了，因為它開始經歷了長期的經濟衰退 which economists have dubbed The Lost Decade. 被經濟學家稱為 "失去的十年"。 In the years since, Japan has experienced sluggish growth under a "revolving door" of prime ministers. 此後幾年，日本在首相的 "旋轉門 "下，增長乏力。 Despite attempts by Shinzo Abe, who was Japan's longest-serving Prime Minister, 儘管作為日本任職時間最長的首相的安倍晉三試圖。 to revive the country's economy, poverty is on the rise. 振興國家經濟，但貧困人口卻在增加。 So, can Japan escape its prolonged economic slump? 那麼，日本能否擺脫長期的經濟低迷呢？ After about two decades of economic stagnation, Abe's second term as prime minister 在經歷了約20年的經濟停滯後，安倍的第二個首相任期。 brought hope that he could steer the country, out of recession. 帶來了希望，他可以引導國家，走出衰退。 By then, China had overtaken Japan to become the world's second-largest economy. 當時，中國已經超過日本，成為世界第二大經濟體。 To tackle the stubborn economic stagnation and low inflation, Abe introduced his 為了解決經濟停滯和低通脹的頑疾，安倍推出了他的。 signature economic policies known as “Abenomics.” 被稱為 "阿本經濟 "的標誌性經濟政策。 These came in the form of monetary easing, fiscal spending and structural reforms 這些措施以貨幣寬鬆、財政支出和結構改革的形式出現。 of Japan's labor force, which was shrinking and aging. 的日本勞動力，正在萎縮和老化。 Japan has been facing a population decline since 2011 because of a low birth rate. 由於出生率低，日本自2011年以來一直面臨人口下降的問題。 In 2019, there were around 500,000 more deaths than births, as the number of babies born fell by 5.9% . 2019年，死亡人數比出生人數多出約50萬，因為出生的嬰兒數量下降了5.9% 。 With an aging population and a shrinking workforce, unemployment levels have been low. 隨著人口老齡化和勞動力萎縮，失業率一直處於低水平。 Despite a tight labor market, the earning power of Japanese workers has remained stagnant. 儘管勞動力市場緊張，但日本工人的收入能力卻一直停滯不前。 In fact, the average wages in Japan has remained below $40,000 since 1991 事實上，自1991年以來，日本的平均工資一直低於4萬美元。 unlike other developed countries such as the United States and South Korea. 不像美國、韓國等其他發達國家。 This has its roots in Japan's peculiar employment system, 這根源於日本特有的僱傭制度。 which is built on a set of principles to promote loyalty between employers and employees. 它建立在一套促進僱主和僱員之間忠誠度的原則之上。 Employees sign long term contracts with companies and are motivated 員工與企業簽訂長期合同，積極性高。 to remain because of a wage structure that prioritizes seniority over merit. 由於資歷優先於業績的工資結構而保留。 This practice, known in Japanese as Shushin Koyo, dates back 這種做法，在日語中被稱為 "書信小夜"，可以追溯到現在。 to World War II and has become ingrained in the Japanese culture, especially in larger companies. 到二戰，並在日本文化中根深蒂固，特別是在大公司。 While this scheme made sense in the post-war period, 雖然這個計劃在戰後有意義。 when there was a shortage of skilled labor, 熟練勞動力短缺時。 this relatively stable but rigid employment system led to 這種相對穩定但僵化的就業制度導致了。 an emphasis on job security, rather than productivity and performance. 強調工作保障，而不是生產力和業績； As a result, Japanese firms were reluctant to increase 是以，日本企業不願意增加。 employees' salaries, especially during economic downturns, 僱員的工資，特別是在經濟衰退期間。 because they were expected to retain their employees for a long period. 因為他們有望長期留住員工。 Japan's aging population also meant that senior 日本的人口老齡化也意味著老 executives were unlikely to move anytime soon, 高管們不太可能在短期內動。 providing little to no career progression and wage increases for younger employees. 為年輕員工提供幾乎沒有職業發展和工資增長的機會； To address these labor woes, Abe tried to reform the 為了解決這些勞動力的困境，安倍試圖改革。 country's labor system, such as relaxing immigration laws, 國家的勞動制度，如放寬移民法。 easing Japan's brutal work culture and encouraging more women to join the workforce. 緩解日本殘酷的工作文化，鼓勵更多的婦女加入勞動大軍； While Abe managed to increase female participation in the workforce 雖然安倍成功地提高了女性在勞動力中的參與度。 to an all-time high many were on low-paying odd jobs. 到歷史最高點，很多人都在做低薪的零工。 Among senior and leadership positions, only 15% were held by women, 在高級和上司職位中，只有15%由婦女擔任。 while Japanese women earned about half of what men got on average. 而日本女性的收入大約是男性平均收入的一半。 Besides deeper cultural issues in a patriarchal society, 除了父權社會中更深層次的文化問題。 the lifetime employment scheme also discouraged firms from 終身僱傭計劃也阻止了企業的發展。 hiring women into the workforce full time to avoid commitment costs such as pension funds. 僱用婦女全職工作，以避免養恤基金等承諾成本； To maintain their competitive edge, some Japanese companies started 為了保持自己的競爭優勢，一些日本企業開始了。 converting their full-time employees to part-time workers. 將其全職僱員轉為兼職僱員； In 2019, the number of non-regular workers rose by 2.1%, 2019年，非正式職工人數增長2.1%。 outpacing the 0.5% growth among regular employees. 超過正式員工0.5%的增長。 Despite record employment under Abenomics, Japan's poverty rate 儘管在Abenomics下就業率創下新高，但日本的貧困率仍然很高 is the second highest among the Group of Seven nations at 15.7%, and above the OECD average. 是七國集團中第二高的國家，為15.7%，高於經合組織的平均水平。 While large Japanese firms have benefitted under Abenomics, 雖然大型日本企業在阿扁經濟下受益。 buoyed by a weak yen and a booming stock market, 受日元疲軟和股市繁榮的提振。 these corporate profits did not trickle down to households. 這些企業利潤並沒有流向家庭。 Abe's best efforts to reverse the tepid economic growth, including 安倍為扭轉經濟增長乏力的局面所做的努力，包括。 pressuring the country's central bank to adopt unconventional measures 迫使該國中央銀行採取非常規措施。 in the form of asset purchases and yield curve control, have produced mixed results. 以購買資產和控制收益率曲線的形式，產生了不同的結果。 With the Covid-19 pandemic crippling its economy further, 隨著科維德-19大流行進一步削弱其經濟。 Japan is quickly running out of options to boost its economy. 日本很快就沒有了提振經濟的選擇。 In the second quarter of 2020, its GDP shrank by 28.1%. 2020年第二季度，其GDP萎縮了28.1%。 The country's next prime minister, Yoshihide Suga, is likely to carry on where Abe left off. 該國下一任首相菅義偉很可能會繼承安倍的遺志。 Abe may be gone, but Abenomics appears here to stay. 安倍可能已經離去，但阿扁經濟學似乎還在這裡。 Whether it will lift Japan out of its decades-long doldrums 是否能讓日本走出幾十年的谷底？ and reverse the poverty trap remains to be seen. 和扭轉貧困陷阱，還有待觀察。 Thank you so much for watching our video! 非常感謝您觀看我們的視頻! What do you think about Abenomics? Comment below and don't forget to subscribe! 對於阿扁經濟學，你怎麼看？請在下方評論，別忘了訂閱!