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  • In the days before the 2008 presidential election, a hoax started circulating in parts of Virginia.

    在2008年總統大選前幾天,弗吉尼亞州部分地區開始流傳一個騙局。

  • It was a paper flyer that saiddue to larger than expected voter turnout,” Republicans

    那是一張紙質傳單,上面寫著 "由於投票率高於預期,共和黨人

  • should vote on election day and Democratic party supporters should vote the day after.

    應在選舉日投票,民主黨支持者應在選舉後一天投票。

  • Fast forward eight years later, and images show up on Twitter claiming to be Hillary

    快進8年後,推特上出現了自稱是希拉里的圖片。

  • Clinton ads. They told people they could vote by texting.

    克林頓的廣告。他們告訴人們,他們可以通過簡訊投票。

  • It's not a coincidence that this image features a Black woman,

    這張圖的主角是一位黑人女性,這不是巧合。

  • just like it wasn't a coincidence that the hoax flyers in 2008 weredistributed in

    就像2008年的騙局傳單 "派發 "不是巧合一樣。

  • predominantly African American areas.” Fifty-five years after the Voting Rights Act

    主要是非洲裔美國人的地區"。在《投票權法》頒佈55年後的今天

  • banned racial discrimination in elections, the Black vote is still being targeted.

    禁止選舉中的種族歧視,但黑人選票仍然是目標。

  • And now, voter suppression has gone digital.

    現在,壓制選民的行為已經數字化了。

  • Twitter now has a policy explicitly banning misleading information about voting procedures.

    推特現在有一項政策,明確禁止關於投票程序的誤導性資訊。

  • Facebook and YouTube do too. But there are other types of digital voter

    Facebook和YouTube也是如此。但還有其他類型的數字選民

  • suppression that may be harder to tackle. MItchell: people were sharing images that

    壓制,可能更難解決。MItchell:人們在分享圖片,

  • were telling people not to vote. Shireen Mitchell is tracking digital voter

    是告訴人們不要投票。希琳-米切爾正在追蹤數字選民

  • suppression ahead of the 2020 election after seeing the tactics deployed four years ago.

    在看到四年前部署的戰術後,在2020年大選前打壓。

  • This Instagram post from October 2016 encouraged people toboycottthe election. It came

    這篇2016年10月的Instagram帖子鼓勵人們 "抵制 "選舉。它是在

  • from an account called woke_blacks, and was posted with a caption that said regardless

    來自一個叫woke_blacks的賬號,並被貼上了一個標題,說無論

  • of who wins, “we are on our own.” Mitchell: So you basically are saying, you

    of who wins, "we are on our own." "我們要靠自己"米切爾 Mitchell:So you basically are saying, you

  • know, why should we bother if there's no campaign that's going to focus on our issues? And so

    如果沒有一個活動會關注我們的問題,我們為什麼要費心呢?所以...

  • that's one of the ways in which this works. And this ad on Facebook from a page called

    這就是其中的一個方法,這工作。而這個廣告在Facebook上 從一個頁面稱為

  • Blacktivist simply encouraged people to vote for the third-party candidate.

    Blacktivist只是鼓勵人們為第三方候選人投票。

  • These posts, and many others like them, were uploaded by Russian operatives as part of

    這些帖子和許多其他類似的帖子是由俄羅斯特工上傳的,作為以下活動的一部分。

  • a multi-year strategy to promote discord in the US and help elect Donald Trump.

    一個多年的戰略,以促進美國的不和,幫助唐納德-特朗普當選。

  • That effort involved more than 60,000 Facebook posts, 116,000 Instagram posts and 10 million

    這項工作涉及到6萬多條Facebook帖子、11.6萬條Instagram帖子和1千萬條Facebook帖子。

  • tweets from Russian accounts impersonating Americans.

    從俄羅斯賬戶冒充美國人的推特。

  • Deen Freelon: There were those who posed as sort of white conservatives. And these were

    Deen Freelon:有那些誰冒充為白人保守派的人而這些人

  • kind of Trump-supporting individuals. Then you had what I call a nonblack leftists. And

    那種支持特朗普的人。然後,你有我所謂的非黑人左派。然後

  • the third category was sort of Black protesters, Black left wing protesters.

    第三類算是黑人抗議者,黑人左翼抗議者。

  • In a study of the Russian Twitter activity, Freelon found that there were fewer Black-presenting

    在對俄羅斯推特活動的研究中,Freelon發現,在俄羅斯的推特上,出現了較少的黑人。

  • accounts than right-wing accounts, but on a per-tweet basis, they received higher

    賬戶比右翼賬戶,但在每條推特上,他們收到了更高的。

  • engagement in the form of likes, retweets, and replies.

    以點贊、轉發和回覆的形式參與。

  • Those tweets coincided with the rise of the Black Lives Matter protests following the

    這些推文恰逢黑人生命至上的抗議活動興起後。

  • killings of Michael Brown and Eric Garner. Freelon: And so you have this convergence

    殺死邁克爾-布朗和埃裡克-加納。Freelon所以你有這種融合

  • of the Black Lives Matter and pro-black politics with Russian attempts to interfere in American

    黑人生命運動和親黑人政治與俄羅斯干涉美國的企圖的關係

  • politics and specifically in American elections. According to the Senate Intelligence Committee,

    政治,特別是在美國選舉中。據參議院情報委員會。

  • no single group was targeted by the Russian operatives more than African-Americans.

    沒有任何一個群體比非裔美國人更容易成為俄羅斯特工的目標。

  • The accounts built an audience by publishing content celebrating Black excellence and by

    這些賬戶通過發佈頌揚黑人優秀的內容,並通過以下方式建立閱聽人。

  • decrying police brutality. And then around the election, they told their

    譴責警察的暴行。然後在選舉前後, 他們告訴他們

  • followers not to vote and celebrated non-participation. We don't know the ultimate effects of those

    的追隨者不投票,並慶祝不參與。我們不知道這些行為的最終效果。

  • posts, but they give us a sense of the tactics we might see again from both Russia and from

    的帖子,但他們給我們一個感覺,我們可能會看到的策略,從俄羅斯和來自

  • domestic actors in 2020. Mitchell: I've seen campaigns pick up the

    在2020年,國內演員。米切爾我已經看到競選活動開始了

  • same tactics for 2016 that Russia was using for themselves in their own campaigns. We're

    2016年的相同策略,俄羅斯在自己的競選活動中也在為自己使用。我們是

  • seeing domestic actors pick up the same exact tactics.

    看到國內的演員也採取了同樣的手段。

  • Black voters participate in elections at higher rates than Asian and Hispanic Americans.

    黑人選民參與選舉的比例高於亞裔和西班牙裔美國人。

  • And for the past 16 years, the Republican party has only been able to attract single

    而在過去的16年裡,共和黨只能吸引單

  • digit support from Black voters in presidential elections.

    在總統選舉中,黑人選民的支持率達到了個位數。

  • That's less than any other racial, gender, age, or income demographic. And it puts them

    這比任何其他種族、性別、年齡或收入的人口都要少。而且它把他們

  • at high risk for voter suppression by those who may conclude they have little

    處於被那些可能認為他們幾乎沒有選票的人壓制選民的高風險中。

  • to lose by reducing the Black vote. Residential and economic segregation have

    減少黑人的選票而失去。住宅和經濟隔離

  • provided ways to target vote suppression. “A federal appeals court struck down a North

    提供了針對壓制投票的方法。"聯邦上訴法院駁回了北區的一項

  • Carolina voter ID law, saying its provisions deliberately target African-Americans with

    卡羅來納州的選民身份證法,稱其條款故意針對非裔美國人,與

  • almost surgical precision.”

    幾乎是外科手術般的精準。"

  • “A racially-charged robocall is making its way through Detroit tonight.” “The call

    "一個充滿種族歧視的搶劫電話今晚在底特律出現""這個電話

  • falsely claiming that mail-in voters will have their personal information shared with

    訛稱郵寄選民的個人資料會被分享給政府部門。

  • law enforcement.” And social media platforms enable targeted

    執法"。而社交媒體平臺能夠有針對性地

  • messages too. When this Russian account bought a Facebook

    消息了。當這個俄羅斯賬號購買了Facebook

  • ad promoting Jill Stein, they used targeting categories that Facebook offered, including

    廣告推廣吉爾-斯坦,他們使用了Facebook提供的目標類別,包括

  • people with an interest inpan-Africanism, African-American civil rights, and African-American

    對 "泛非主義、非裔美國人的民權和非裔美國人 "有興趣的人。

  • history.” And even in non-paid posts, replies and mentions

    的歷史。"而即使是在非付費帖子中,回覆和提

  • allow anyone to try to insert themselves into the in-group discussions of specific communities

    允許任何人嘗試插入到特定社區的群內討論中去

  • online. This year Facebook prohibited paid ads that

    在線。今年,Facebook禁止付費廣告

  • tell people not to vote. Twitter has banned political ads altogether. And since 2016,

    告訴人們不要投票。推特已經完全禁止了政治廣告。而自2016年以來。

  • they've both caught and removed several networks of inauthentic accounts.

    他們既抓到並刪除了幾個網絡的不真實賬戶。

  • Mitchell: You've seen Facebook and Twitter say they've removed x y z accounts. And I'm

    米切爾。你已經看到Facebook和Twitter說他們已經刪除了x y z賬戶。而我

  • guessing this is daunting for them. But the problem is that it's not going to stop.

    估計這讓他們望而生畏。但問題是,它不會停止。

  • 2020 is already bringing an environment ripe for misinformation and confusion. States are

    2020年已經為錯誤信息和混亂帶來了一個成熟的環境。各國正在

  • changing their procedures due to the coronavirus pandemic, and voters may feel less safe gathering

    由於冠狀病毒大流行,他們改變了程序,選民們可能會感到不那麼安全的集會。

  • at polling places. Meanwhile, President Trump has baselessly

    在投票站。與此同時,特朗普總統毫無根據地

  • claimed that voting by mail leads to massive fraud, a form of indirect vote suppression

    聲稱郵寄投票會導致大規模的舞弊,這是一種間接壓制選票的形式。

  • that Facebook and Twitter have handled inconsistently. It's more important than ever for voters

    臉書和推特的處理方式不一致。對選民來說,這比以往任何時候都重要。

  • to distinguish good information about voting from suppressive and unreliable sources, which

    區分關於投票的良好資訊與壓制性和不可靠的資訊來源,這些資訊;

  • unfortunately, this year includes the President of the United States.

    不幸的是,今年包括美國總統。

In the days before the 2008 presidential election, a hoax started circulating in parts of Virginia.

在2008年總統大選前幾天,弗吉尼亞州部分地區開始流傳一個騙局。

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網上的壓制選民是什麼樣子 (What voter suppression looks like online)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 10 月 08 日
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