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  • ( music playing )

    (音樂播放)

  • - Uh-oh. - Ow, ow, ow, ow.

    - 嗯,哦。- 嗷,嗷,嗷,嗷,嗷。

  • The pain. Ready? Ah!

    痛苦。準備好了嗎?啊!

  • We're in the middle

    我們在中間

  • of an ancient lake basin,

    的古湖盆地。

  • that scientists think

    科學家認為

  • is one of the most Martian places on Earth.

    是地球上最火星的地方之一。

  • And we're stuck.

    而我們被卡住了。

  • We're stuck here because I had a question.

    我們被困在這裡,因為我有一個問題。

  • NASA says the first humans

    美國宇航局說,第一批人類

  • will set foot on Mars in the mid-2030s.

    將在2030年代中期踏上火星。

  • It will be the most dangerous mission

    這將是最危險的任務

  • any human has ever taken.

    任何人類曾經採取。

  • My question is, what comes after that?

    我的問題是,之後呢?

  • Mars!

    火星!

  • Not how do we get there,

    而不是我們如何去那裡。

  • but how do we survive, once we do?

    但我們一旦生存下來,又該如何生存呢?

  • ( music playing )

    (音樂播放)

  • Okay, here we go.

    好了,我們開始吧。

  • We've been dreaming about Mars for hundreds of years.

    幾百年來,我們一直夢想著火星。

  • In the 1870s,

    在19世紀70年代。

  • Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli

    斯基亞帕雷利

  • mapped channels he saw on Mars.

    繪製了他在火星上看到的頻道。

  • In Italian, channels are "canale."

    在意大利語中,頻道是 "canale"。

  • The word was mistranslated into English as "canals,"

    這個詞被錯誤地翻譯成英語 "canals"。

  • implying deliberate construction and flowing water.

    意味著刻意的建設和流水。

  • Other scientists published their own maps,

    其他科學家也發表了自己的地圖。

  • feeding this obsession with the idea

    哺育這種痴迷的想法

  • that Mars could be a lot like Earth.

    火星可能很像地球。

  • People were skeptical, but they sort of wanted it to be true.

    人們都持懷疑態度,但他們有點希望這是真的。

  • It became a public obsession.

    這成了公眾的困擾。

  • The L.A. Times ran this piece in 1907.

    洛杉磯時報》在1907年刊登了這篇報道。

  • And I just love this headline in the New York Times.

    我很喜歡《紐約時報》的這個標題。

  • They're just reporting on this stuff

    他們只是在報道這些東西

  • as though there are Martians.

    彷彿有火星人一樣。

  • This article includes a bit of reasoning.

    這篇文章包括了一點道理。

  • People just want to believe.

    人們只是想相信。

  • The movies they made in the early 1900s

    他們在20世紀初拍攝的電影

  • depict a Mars that's not just habitable,

    描繪了一個不僅適合居住的火星。

  • but inviting.

    但誘人。

  • 1918-- this is a silent film.

    1918年--這是一部無聲電影。

  • A couple of guys get to Mars and, oh, surprise--

    一對夫婦到了火星,哦,驚喜的是...

  • they find a ton of beautiful women.

    他們找到一噸的美女。

  • They don't hate it.

    他們不恨它。

  • - 1930. - So this is Mars!

    - 1930. - 原來這就是火星!

  • We got a spot like this three miles from my hometown.

    我們在離我家鄉三英里的地方找到了這樣一個地方。

  • 1952.

    1952.

  • Look at the canals.

    看看運河。

  • This isn't so different than sci-fi today.

    這和今天的科幻並沒有太大的區別。

  • But without any real pictures of Mars,

    但沒有任何火星的真實照片。

  • there was still this sense of possibility.

    還有這種可能性的感覺。

  • Maybe, just maybe,

    也許,只是也許。

  • Mars would be something like home.

    火星會是像家一樣的東西。

  • And then this happens.

    然後就發生了這樣的事情。

  • In 1965, and then again in 1969,

    1965年,又在1969年。

  • NASA sent spacecraft to fly by Mars

    美國宇航局派航天器飛過火星

  • and send back scientific measurements

    並傳回科學測量結果

  • and close-up photographs.

    和特寫照片。

  • But the pictures of Mars

    但火星的照片

  • showed a world of total desolation.

    顯示了一個完全荒涼的世界。

  • There were no canals,

    當時沒有運河。

  • no cities, no areas of cultivation.

    沒有城市,沒有種植區。

  • No possibility of life.

    沒有生命的可能。

  • I can't imagine how devastating

    我無法想象有多大的破壞力

  • that must have been.

    那一定是。

  • I've only ever lived in a time

    我只在一個時代生活過

  • when we had pictures of Mars.

    當我們有火星的照片。

  • Those images were concrete proof

    這些影像是具體的證據

  • that Mars wasn't going to be the second home

    火星不會成為第二個家的

  • that some kind of still hoped for.

    那某種還希望。

  • But we never stopped obsessing about life on Mars.

    但我們從未停止過對火星生命的痴迷。

  • Is there life on Mars? ♪

    * 火星上有生命嗎? *

  • That YouTube clip, David Bowie's music video for "Life On Mars,"

    那段YouTube視頻,大衛-鮑伊的 "火星上的生活 "音樂視頻,

  • had its highest view-day

    的最高瀏覽日

  • when Mars was visible in the night sky

    火星出現時

  • in January 2019.

    在2019年1月。

  • We're still looking up at the Red Planet

    我們還在仰望紅色星球。

  • and wondering about life surviving there.

    並想知道在那裡生存的生命。

  • So let me show you what we actually now know about Mars.

    所以,讓我來告訴你,我們現在對火星的實際瞭解。

  • ( music playing )

    (音樂播放)

  • We're about to head out into that desert,

    我們就要進入沙漠了。

  • because we're accompanying astrobiologist Kennda Lynch

    因為我們要陪同天體生物學家Kennda Lynch

  • as she does research into extremophiles,

    因為她對極端愛好者進行研究。

  • which are microbial life that live in, well,

    這是微生物生命,生活在,嗯。

  • extreme environments like this one.

    像這樣的極端環境。

  • And we're going to ride those ATVs,

    我們要去騎那些ATV。

  • and I've never ridden one before.

    而我從來沒有騎過。

  • - Uh-oh. - Yeah, we're going to have to stop.

    - 嗯,哦。- 是的,我們將不得不停止。

  • - Nah, he's stuck. Yep. - We'll get out.

    - 不,他被卡住了 - 是的我們會出去的

  • Cleo: Since we're stuck, I'm going to tell you

    克萊奧既然我們卡住了,我要告訴你

  • a little bit about where we are.

    一點點關於我們在哪裡。

  • This place is one of the closest analogs that we have

    這個地方是我們擁有的最接近的類似物之一。

  • to the type of environment that Mars used to have.

    到火星過去的那種環境。

  • Mars was once a wet planet.

    火星曾經是一顆溼潤的星球。

  • It had liquid water on its surface.

    它的表面有液態水。

  • When all that water went away,

    當所有的水都消失了。

  • Mars still had an abundance of groundwater that stayed liquid,

    火星上還有豐富的地下水,保持著流動性。

  • and we still think it might be there

    我們仍然認為它可能在那裡

  • in the deep subsurface today-- very, very deep.

    在今天的深層地下,非常,非常深。

  • So this is a good model for us to understand

    所以,這是一個很好的模式,我們可以理解為

  • how life would've survived in this kind of environment on Mars.

    生命是如何在火星上的這種環境中生存的。

  • - Cleo: It certainly looks Martian. - Yeah.

    - 克萊奧 它當然看起來火星人。- 是啊 Yeah.

  • Hey, Camille, you want to get some gloves on?

    嘿,卡米爾,你要不要戴上手套?

  • - We're going to do some science here. - All right.

    - 我們要在這裡做一些科學。- 好吧,我知道了

  • So we're just going to go ahead and take a nice surface core

    所以,我們要繼續前進,並採取一個漂亮的表面核心。

  • so we can actually do some really heavy DNA extraction

    是以,我們實際上可以做一些真正的重DNA提取。

  • and look at who's living in these sediments and what they're eating.

    看看誰生活在這些沉積物中 它們在吃什麼?

  • And what is it about the microbes that are living in these sediments

    那生活在這些沉積物中的微生物又是什麼呢?

  • and what they're eating that makes it useful for,

    以及他們所吃的東西,使得它的作用。

  • potentially, humans to survive on a place like Mars?

    潛在的,人類在火星這樣的地方生存?

  • Well, if we can understand how life survives on Mars,

    好吧,如果我們能瞭解生命是如何在火星上生存的。

  • then we can understand how better to survive ourself.

    那麼我們就可以明白如何更好的生存自己。

  • We're trying to study these microbes called perchlorate reducers.

    我們試圖研究這些被稱為高氯酸鹽還原劑的微生物。

  • On this perchlorate, it's a chlorine molecule

    在這個高氯酸鹽上,它是一個氯分子

  • surrounded by four oxygen molecules.

    由四個氧分子包圍。

  • It's toxic to humans, and Mars has a lot of perchlorate.

    它對人類是有毒的,火星上有很多高氯酸鹽。

  • The number one thing we want to use on Mars is water on Mars,

    我們想在火星上使用的第一件事就是火星上的水。

  • and perchlorate likes to go wherever there's water.

    而高氯酸鹽喜歡到有水的地方去。

  • So we're going to have to figure out how to get the perchlorate

    所以我們要想辦法把高氯酸鹽弄到手。

  • out of the water if we want to use that water.

    出的水,如果我們想使用這些水。

  • It would help us to learn how microbes can kind of mitigate

    這將有助於我們瞭解微生物如何能種緩解

  • things like perchlorate, and maybe we can use that knowledge to help us

    像高氯酸鹽,也許我們可以利用這些知識來幫助我們。

  • detox the resources that we want

    排除我們想要的資源

  • to pull out and use from the Mars environment.

    以從火星環境中提取和使用。

  • We want to live within the environment of Mars.

    我們要在火星的環境中生活。

  • We want to utilize resources on Mars to help us live,

    我們要利用火星上的資源來幫助我們生活。

  • because we can't take everything we need with us.

    因為我們不能把所有需要的東西都帶走。

  • Okay, so Kennda's research will help us

    好吧 肯達的研究可以幫助我們...

  • use Martian materials to survive on Mars.

    利用火星材料在火星上生存。

  • But the soil isn't the first thing

    但土壤不是第一件事

  • that would kill us when we get there.

    等我們到了那裡會死的。

  • Hey.

    嘿嘿

  • Ooh.

    哦。

  • This is Mars today.

    這就是今天的火星。

  • It's about half the size of Earth.

    它的大小約為地球的一半。

  • But it has all of the basics

    但它有所有的基礎知識

  • that we think are necessary to support life.

    我們認為是維持生命所必需的。

  • It has an energy source from sunlight, water,

    它的能量來源是陽光、水。

  • it has ice on the poles.

    它的極點上有冰。

  • And it has a few key elements--

    而且它有幾個關鍵的元素 --

  • carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen.

    碳、氮、氫、氧。

  • But for us, there's a slightly crucial piece that's missing.

    但對我們來說,還缺少一個稍微關鍵的環節。

  • Mars' atmosphere is about one percent as dense as Earth's,

    火星的大氣層密度約為地球的百分之一。

  • meaning that if you stood on the surface of Mars,

    意思是說,如果你站在火星表面。

  • the pressure exerted on you by the atmosphere would be very low.

    大氣層對你施加的壓力會很低。

  • Now, that might not sound so bad, but it's a big problem.

    現在,這可能聽起來不那麼糟糕,但這是一個大問題。

  • This is the boiling point of water

    這是水的沸點

  • as a function of atmospheric pressure.

    作為大氣壓力的函數。

  • Okay, so the more pressure,

    好吧,所以壓力越大。

  • - the higher the boiling point. - Exactly.

    - 沸點越高。- 正是如此。

  • Earth is here.

    地球在這裡。

  • - Joss: Water boils at 212 degrees Fahrenheit. - Correct.

    - 喬絲水在華氏212度時沸騰。- 正確

  • - And that's at sea level. - At sea level.

    - 這是在海平面上。- 在海平面上。

  • That works out great for us

    這對我們來說很好

  • because our resting body temperature

    因為我們的靜止體溫

  • is about 98.6 degrees

    約為98.6度

  • - Joss: I know that from a gum commercial. - ( Cleo laughs )

    - 喬絲我知道,從口香糖廣告。- (Cleo笑)

  • This gap keeps us alive.

    這個缺口讓我們活了下來。

  • - Mars is here. - Whoa!

    - 火星來了- 哇!

  • What this is telling us is that because the temperature

    這告訴我們的是,因為溫度的原因

  • at which water boils on Mars

    火星上的水沸點

  • is significantly lower than our average body temperature,

    比我們的平均體溫低很多。

  • if you stood on Mars, the water inside of your body

    如若你站在火星上,你身體裡的水就會變成水

  • would just start to spontaneously boil inside of you.

    就會開始自發地在你體內沸騰。

  • - Oh, no! - Which sounds like a really painful way to die.

    - 這聽起來是很痛苦的死法

  • That's why you need a suit, right?

    這就是為什麼你需要一套西裝,對吧?

  • That's why you need a suit.

    這就是為什麼你需要一套西裝。

  • The next thing that's going to kill you is the air itself,

    下一個要命的就是空氣本身。

  • because there's not enough oxygen for you to breathe.

    因為沒有足夠的氧氣讓你呼吸。

  • And if you didn't suffocate, you'd freeze.

    如果你沒有窒息,你會被凍死。

  • Mars is really cold.

    火星真的很冷。

  • The average temperature on Mars

    火星上的平均溫度

  • is -81 degrees Fahrenheit.

    是零下81華氏度。

  • Oh, jeez.

    哦,天啊

  • So you're freezing, but your blood's boiling

    所以,你凍僵了,但你的血液在沸騰。

  • and you can't breathe.

    你不能呼吸。

  • - Yes. Exactly. - Cool.

    - 是的,就是這樣。沒錯,就是這樣- 涼爽。

  • - Cool. - Let's do it.

    - 很好,就這麼辦吧- 我們開始吧

  • Short-term survival in these conditions

    在這些條件下的短期生存

  • is a tough engineering problem,

    是一個艱難的工程問題。

  • but NASA's pretty convinced that we can do it.

    但美國宇航局非常相信我們可以做到這一點。

  • Basically, they say that we can protect ourselves

    基本上,他們說,我們可以保護自己

  • as long as we live in enclosed environments

    只要我們生活在封閉的環境中

  • and only go outside in space suits,

    而且只能穿著太空服到外面去。

  • kind of like in the movie "The Martian."

    就像在電影 "火星人 "中一樣。

  • You gotta science the ( bleep ) out of it.

    你得把它科學化。

  • There's a lot of radiation on Mars,

    火星上有很多輻射。

  • and one of the theories is that we could protect ourselves

    其中一個理論是,我們可以保護自己

  • - by living underground. - Does radiation go through the domes?

    - 由生活在地下。- 輻射會穿過穹頂嗎?

  • - Ideally, not. - Okay.

    - 理想情況下,不是。- 好吧,我知道了

  • I asked NASA scientist Chris McKay

    我問過美國宇航局的科學家Chris McKay

  • about our chances for short-term survival.

    關於我們短期生存的機會。

  • Really nice to meet you. Thanks for taking the time.

    很高興認識你謝謝你抽出時間。

  • - I'll just dive right in. - Yeah, please.

    - 我就直奔主題了- 是啊,請。

  • How do we know that we can do the short-term survival on Mars?

    我們怎麼知道我們可以在火星上進行短期生存?

  • We've done experiments on space station

    我們在空間站做過實驗

  • where we've put astronauts in space for a year,

    在那裡,我們已經把太空人在空間一年。

  • which is roughly the time it takes to get to Mars.

    這大約是到達火星所需的時間。

  • So, we're not at the hundred percent confidence level,

    所以,我們還沒有達到百分之百的信心水準。

  • but we're pretty sure that we could tough it out,

    但我們很確定我們能堅持下來。

  • send a crew to Mars.

    派遣船員前往火星。

  • They could survive the long trip.

    他們可以在長途旅行中生存下來。

  • They'd be functional on the surface for some period of time.

    它們在表面上會有一段時間的功能。

  • It wouldn't necessarily be easy, but it would be doable.

    雖然不一定容易,但也是可以做到的。

  • We think all the pieces as we understand are in place.

    我們認為,我們所理解的所有環節都已經到位。

  • It turns out the thornier question isn't what happens

    原來更棘手的問題並不是發生了什麼事

  • after we land and plant the flag,

    在我們降落並插上國旗之後。

  • but how we as humans would consider

    但我們人類如何看待

  • long-term survival on a planet like Mars.

    在火星這樣的星球上長期生存。

  • And a few scientists have a pretty out-there idea

    而一些科學家也有一個很出格的想法。

  • about how to do that.

    關於如何做到這一點。

  • There's too little oxygen, no liquid water,

    氧氣太少,沒有液態水。

  • and too much ultraviolet light.

    和過多的紫外線。

  • But all that could be solved

    但這一切都可以解決

  • if we could make more air.

    如果我們能製造更多的空氣。

  • Transforming the Martian environment itself,

    改變火星環境本身。

  • terraforming Mars.

    在火星上進行地面改造。

  • Eventually, you could transform Mars.

    最終,你可以改造火星。

  • into an Earth-like planet.

    變成一個類似地球的星球。

  • - Just warm it up. - With a blanket or with what?

    - 暖暖身子吧- 用毯子還是用什麼?

  • There's the fast way and the slow way.

    有快的方法,也有慢的方法。

  • Carl Sagan, Robert Zubrin, and Elon Musk

    卡爾-薩根、羅伯特-祖布林和埃隆-馬斯克

  • are the three most prominent figures

    三巨頭

  • who think we can survive on a barren planet like Mars

    誰認為我們能在火星這樣一個貧瘠的星球上生存呢?

  • by changing it into something more like Earth-- terraforming it.

    把它變成更像地球的東西... ... 形成地球。

  • Proponents of this idea say it's a three-step process.

    支持這一觀點的人說,這是一個三步走的過程。

  • Step one, create the magnetosphere.

    第一步,建立磁層。

  • Every day, we should all thank the huge magnetic fields that surround Earth.

    每天,我們都應該感謝環繞地球的巨大磁場。

  • They make up the Earth's magnetosphere,

    它們構成了地球的磁層。

  • which is what stops deadly particle blasts from the sun,

    這就是阻止來自太陽的致命粒子爆炸的原因。

  • innocuously called solar winds,

    無辜地稱為太陽風。

  • from ripping away our atmosphere.

    從撕開我們的大氣層。

  • Mars doesn't have a magnetosphere,

    火星沒有磁層。

  • which is one reason why its atmosphere is so thin.

    這也是其大氣層如此稀薄的原因之一。

  • But scientists at NASA

    但美國宇航局的科學家

  • think there might be a way to create one.

    我想也許有辦法創造一個。

  • You could put a satellite that produces

    你可以放一顆衛星,產生

  • a very strong magnetic field between Mars and the sun

    強磁場

  • so it protects the Martian atmosphere behind it.

    所以它保護了後面的火星大氣層。

  • Step two, build the atmosphere.

    第二步,營造氛圍。

  • By adding carbon dioxide into the atmosphere,

    通過在大氣中加入二氧化碳。

  • you could warm up the planet by trapping infrared light,

    你可以通過捕捉紅外光使地球變暖。

  • just like carbon dioxide is doing in our atmosphere here on Earth.

    就像二氧化碳在地球大氣中的作用一樣。

  • The question is where those extra greenhouse gases would come from.

    問題是這些額外的溫室氣體將從哪裡來。

  • Well, there's some carbon dioxide

    嗯,有一些二氧化碳

  • trapped in the ground and the polar ice caps on Mars.

    困在地面和火星上的極地冰蓋。

  • What Elon Musk means by "the fast way"

    埃隆-馬斯克所說的 "快車道 "是什麼意思?

  • is to drop nuclear weapons just above the pole on Mars.

    是在火星上的極點上方投放核武器。