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  • The question, "'is water wet?" may seem like it has an obvious answer, but the science

    "'水是溼的嗎?"這個問題看似有一個顯而易見的答案,但科學上的

  • of it isn't that simple.

    的不是那麼簡單。

  • Water is actually really weirdlike, way weirder than you probably realizeand our

    水其實真的很奇怪,比你可能意識到的還要奇怪,而我們的水也是如此。

  • understanding of it may only just be coming to a boil.

    對它的理解可能才剛剛沸騰。

  • Water... may not actually be just water at all.

    水... 其實可能不僅僅是水。

  • It has at least sixty-six properties that make it really different from most other liquids.

    它至少有六十六種特性,使它與其他大多數液體真的不同。

  • Like, water has a higher surface tension than almost any other liquid.

    像,水的表面張力幾乎比其他任何液體都高。

  • More solids dissolve in water than any other substance.

    溶解在水中的固體比任何其他物質都多。

  • And water is almost the only liquid in the universe where the solid form is less dense

    而水幾乎是宇宙中唯一一種固體形態密度較小的液體

  • that the liquid form; that's why ice floats.

    那是液體的形態,所以冰才會浮起來。

  • All of water's weirdness has made life on Earth possible, and its extraordinary characteristics

    水的所有怪異之處使地球上的生命成為可能,它的非凡特性也是如此

  • come down to one simple bond:

    歸結為一個簡單的紐帶。

  • the hydrogen bond.

    氫鍵。

  • We all know water consists of one oxygen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms.

    我們都知道水是由一個氧原子與兩個氫原子結合而成的。

  • Because of the way the shared electrons side with the larger, more electronegative

    由於共享電子與較大的、電負性更強的電子相鄰的方式,是以,我們可以通過以下方式來實現

  • oxygen atomwater becomes a polar moleculethe oxygen end is negative, while the hydrogen

    氧原子,水就成了一個極性分子--氧端是負的,而氫端是負的。

  • end is positive.

    端是正。

  • And this is essential.

    而這是必不可少的。

  • Water's polarity dictates how it interacts with absolutely everything, including all of the

    水的極性決定了它與一切事物的相互作用,包括所有的水。

  • cellular machinery that drives life.

    驅動生命的細胞機器。

  • But perhaps most importantly, also determines how water interacts with itself.

    但也許最重要的是,也決定了水與自身的相互作用。

  • See, when you have two water molecules next to each other, their opposite ends attract,

    你看,當你有兩個水分子挨在一起時,它們的相反端就會相互吸引。

  • just like magnets.

    就像磁鐵一樣

  • The bond that forms between water molecules is called a hydrogen bond, and it's relatively

    水分子之間形成的鍵叫氫鍵,它是相對的。

  • weak, but it's what keeps water water.

    弱,但它是保持水的原因。

  • At ambient conditions on Earth's surface, water should actually be a gas.

    在地球表面的環境條件下,水實際上應該是一種氣體。

  • Instead, the hydrogen bonds between the molecules make water sticky, keeping it in liquid form.

    相反,分子之間的氫鍵使水變得粘稠,使其保持液態。

  • And something super wild happens when you take water down to really low temperatures.

    而當你把水降到非常低的溫度時,會發生一些超級瘋狂的事情。

  • If it's pure water, there won't be anything to seed ice crystals, so it won't actually

    如果是純水,就不會有任何東西來播種冰晶,所以實際上不會有

  • freeze into a solid.

    凍成固體。

  • Instead it becomes supercooled water.

    而是變成了過冷水。

  • At a certain point in supercooling, research has let us see water as two different kinds of

    在超冷的某一階段,研究讓我們把水看成是兩種不同的東西。

  • liquids.

    液體:

  • This is experimental evidence of something called the "two-state model" of liquid water.

    這就是所謂液態水 "兩態模型 "的實驗證據。

  • This is mind-blowing, I know, but try to picture all of those polar molecules in a glass of

    我知道這很驚人 但試著想象一下所有這些極性分子在玻璃杯裡的樣子

  • water.

    水,

  • Their hydrogen bonds orient them toward each other in a specific way.

    它們的氫鍵以特定的方式相互定位。

  • But some molecules will get left out of those more orderly, lower density groups and are

    但有些分子會被排除在那些更有序的、密度更低的基團之外,並被。

  • forced to just cram together in a way that messes with their hydrogen bonds

    被迫擠在一起的方式,搞亂了他們的氫鍵。

  • in higher density groups.

    在密度較高的群體中。

  • A researcher in the field has a great way of describing this when he says:

    該領域的一位研究者對此有一個很好的描述方式,他說。

  • water is not a complicated

    "水並不複雜

  • liquid, but two simple liquids with a complicated relationship."

    液體,但兩種簡單的液體,關係卻很複雜。"

  • The two-state model of liquid water is something we've been able to model with computers

    液態水的兩態模型是我們已經能用計算機建模的東西了

  • for decades, but it was extraordinarily difficult to observe until Anders Nilsson and his team

    幾十年來,但它是異常困難的觀察,直到安德斯-尼爾森和他的團隊。

  • were able to get a closer look in 2017.

    能夠在2017年近距離觀察。

  • The team injected micrometer-scale water droplets into a vacuum to get them super cold super

    團隊將微米級的水滴注入真空中,讓它們超冷超。

  • fast, and then used an x-ray laser pulse to probe the water's molecular structure.

    快,然後用X射線脈衝光脈衝探測水的分子結構。

  • The laser pulses were only quadrillionths of a second long, so the team could capture

    脈衝光脈衝只有四萬億分之一秒的長度,所以研究小組可以捕捉到。

  • multiple frames, so to speak, and see how the structure between molecules changed over

    可以這麼說,多個框架,看看分子之間的結構是如何改變的。

  • time.

    時候。

  • Like, you know, over the course of a microsecond.Their groundbreaking results provided evidence for

    就像,你知道,在一個微秒的過程中。 他們的突破性結果提供了證據,證明

  • the point at which water starts to behave more like one form than the other, called

    當水開始表現出一種形態而不是另一種形態的時候,叫做

  • the "Widom line."

    "維多姆線"。

  • This doesn't mean water acts like this all the time, but this experimental observation

    這並不意味著水的行為一直如此,但這個實驗觀察到

  • of these two phases of water at super cooling may provide explanations for many of water's

    水在超冷狀態下的這兩個階段的變化可能為水的許多特性提供瞭解釋。

  • quirks, and could help us better understand important phenomena like the melting of sea

    怪癖,可以幫助我們更好地理解一些重要的現象,比如海洋的融化。

  • ice, or how to best desalinate water.

    冰,或如何最好地淡化水。

  • And it's important to remember that the two-state model of liquid water is still not widely

    而重要的是要記住,液態水的兩態模型仍然沒有得到廣泛的應用

  • accepted; some in the field are skeptical about these observations and say that for

    接受;一些業內人士對這些觀察結果持懷疑態度,並稱對於

  • many reasons it just doesn't make sense.

    很多原因,它只是沒有意義。

  • But Nilsson and his team are continuing to explore the behavior of water at even lower

    但Nilsson和他的團隊還在繼續探索水在更低溫度下的行為。

  • temperatures with even more exciting lasers, because while water still may be the most

    因為雖然水仍然可能是世界上最先進的激光器,但它的溫度會更高。

  • abundant liquid on Earth, it's definitely the most bizarre.

    地球上豐富的液體,絕對是最奇特的。

  • If you want more on wild states of matter, check out this video over here, and make sure

    如果你想了解更多關於物質的野生狀態,請看這裡的視頻,並確保

  • you keep coming back to Seeker to learn all kinds of surprising things you never knew

    你不斷地回到Seeker來學習各種你不知道的令人驚訝的事情。

  • about the world around us.

    關於我們周圍的世界。

  • If you want more on the latest breaking ice research, let us know down in the comments

    如果你想了解更多關於最新的破冰研究,請在評論中告訴我們。

  • down below and as always, thanks so much for watching.

    下面,一如既往,非常感謝您的觀看。

  • I'll see you next time.

    下次見。

The question, "'is water wet?" may seem like it has an obvious answer, but the science

"'水是溼的嗎?"這個問題看似有一個顯而易見的答案,但科學上的

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B1 中級 中文 液體 分子 液態 固體 密度 溫度

我們還是不明白水是什麼,原因就在這裡。 (We Still Don’t Understand What Water Is, Here’s Why)

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    Summer 發佈於 2020 年 09 月 08 日
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