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It is believed that the scene of this tale, and most of the information necessary to
understand its allusions, are rendered sufficiently obvious to the reader in the
text itself, or in the accompanying notes.
Still there is so much obscurity in the Indian traditions, and so much confusion in
the Indian names, as to render some explanation useful.
Few men exhibit greater diversity, or, if we may so express it, greater antithesis of
character, than the native warrior of North America.
In war, he is daring, boastful, cunning, ruthless, self-denying, and self-devoted;
in peace, just, generous, hospitable, revengeful, superstitious, modest, and
These are qualities, it is true, which do not distinguish all alike; but they are so
far the predominating traits of these remarkable people as to be characteristic.
It is generally believed that the Aborigines of the American continent have
an Asiatic origin.
There are many physical as well as moral facts which corroborate this opinion, and
some few that would seem to weigh against it.
The color of the Indian, the writer believes, is peculiar to himself, and while
his cheek-bones have a very striking indication of a Tartar origin, his eyes
Climate may have had great influence on the former, but it is difficult to see how it
can have produced the substantial difference which exists in the latter.
The imagery of the Indian, both in his poetry and in his oratory, is oriental;
chastened, and perhaps improved, by the limited range of his practical knowledge.
He draws his metaphors from the clouds, the seasons, the birds, the beasts, and the
In this, perhaps, he does no more than any other energetic and imaginative race would
do, being compelled to set bounds to fancy by experience; but the North American
Indian clothes his ideas in a dress which
is different from that of the African, and is oriental in itself.
His language has the richness and sententious fullness of the Chinese.
He will express a phrase in a word, and he will qualify the meaning of an entire
sentence by a syllable; he will even convey different significations by the simplest
inflections of the voice.
Philologists have said that there are but two or three languages, properly speaking,
among all the numerous tribes which formerly occupied the country that now
composes the United States.
They ascribe the known difficulty one people have to understand another to
corruptions and dialects.
The writer remembers to have been present at an interview between two chiefs of the
Great Prairies west of the Mississippi, and when an interpreter was in attendance who
spoke both their languages.
The warriors appeared to be on the most friendly terms, and seemingly conversed
much together; yet, according to the account of the interpreter, each was
absolutely ignorant of what the other said.
They were of hostile tribes, brought together by the influence of the American
government; and it is worthy of remark, that a common policy led them both to adopt
the same subject.
They mutually exhorted each other to be of use in the event of the chances of war
throwing either of the parties into the hands of his enemies.
Whatever may be the truth, as respects the root and the genius of the Indian tongues,
it is quite certain they are now so distinct in their words as to possess most
of the disadvantages of strange languages;
hence much of the embarrassment that has arisen in learning their histories, and
most of the uncertainty which exists in their traditions.
Like nations of higher pretensions, the American Indian gives a very different
account of his own tribe or race from that which is given by other people.
He is much addicted to overestimating his own perfections, and to undervaluing those
of his rival or his enemy; a trait which may possibly be thought corroborative of
the Mosaic account of the creation.
The whites have assisted greatly in rendering the traditions of the Aborigines
more obscure by their own manner of corrupting names.
Thus, the term used in the title of this book has undergone the changes of
Mahicanni, Mohicans, and Mohegans; the latter being the word commonly used by the
When it is remembered that the Dutch (who first settled New York), the English, and
the French, all gave appellations to the tribes that dwelt within the country which
is the scene of this story, and that the
Indians not only gave different names to their enemies, but frequently to
themselves, the cause of the confusion will be understood.
In these pages, Lenni-Lenape, Lenope, Delawares, Wapanachki, and Mohicans, all
mean the same people, or tribes of the same stock.
The Mengwe, the Maquas, the Mingoes, and the Iroquois, though not all strictly the
same, are identified frequently by the speakers, being politically confederated
and opposed to those just named.
Mingo was a term of peculiar reproach, as were Mengwe and Maqua in a less degree.
The Mohicans were the possessors of the country first occupied by the Europeans in
this portion of the continent.
They were, consequently, the first dispossessed; and the seemingly inevitable
fate of all these people, who disappear before the advances, or it might be termed
the inroads, of civilization, as the
verdure of their native forests falls before the nipping frosts, is represented
as having already befallen them.
There is sufficient historical truth in the picture to justify the use that has been
made of it.
In point of fact, the country which is the scene of the following tale has undergone
as little change, since the historical events alluded to had place, as almost any
other district of equal extent within the whole limits of the United States.
There are fashionable and well-attended watering-places at and near the spring
where Hawkeye halted to drink, and roads traverse the forests where he and his
friends were compelled to journey without even a path.
Glen's has a large village; and while William Henry, and even a fortress of later
date, are only to be traced as ruins, there is another village on the shores of the
But, beyond this, the enterprise and energy of a people who have done so much in other
places have done little here.
The whole of that wilderness, in which the latter incidents of the legend occurred, is
nearly a wilderness still, though the red man has entirely deserted this part of the
Of all the tribes named in these pages, there exist only a few half-civilized
beings of the Oneidas, on the reservations of their people in New York.
The rest have disappeared, either from the regions in which their fathers dwelt, or
altogether from the earth. There is one point on which we would wish
to say a word before closing this preface.
Hawkeye calls the Lac du Saint Sacrement, the "Horican."
As we believe this to be an appropriation of the name that has its origin with
ourselves, the time has arrived, perhaps, when the fact should be frankly admitted.
While writing this book, fully a quarter of a century since, it occurred to us that the
French name of this lake was too complicated, the American too commonplace,
and the Indian too unpronounceable, for
either to be used familiarly in a work of fiction.
Looking over an ancient map, it was ascertained that a tribe of Indians, called
"Les Horicans" by the French, existed in the neighborhood of this beautiful sheet of
As every word uttered by Natty Bumppo was not to be received as rigid truth, we took
the liberty of putting the "Horican" into his mouth, as the substitute for "Lake
The name has appeared to find favor, and all things considered, it may possibly be
quite as well to let it stand, instead of going back to the House of Hanover for the
appellation of our finest sheet of water.
We relieve our conscience by the confession, at all events leaving it to
exercise its authority as it may see fit.
"Mine ear is open, and my heart prepared: The worst is wordly loss thou canst
unfold:-- Say, is my kingdom lost?"-- Shakespeare
It was a feature peculiar to the colonial wars of North America, that the toils and
dangers of the wilderness were to be encountered before the adverse hosts could
A wide and apparently an impervious boundary of forests severed the possessions
of the hostile provinces of France and England.
The hardy colonist, and the trained European who fought at his side, frequently
expended months in struggling against the rapids of the streams, or in effecting the
rugged passes of the mountains, in quest of
an opportunity to exhibit their courage in a more martial conflict.
But, emulating the patience and self-denial of the practiced native warriors, they
learned to overcome every difficulty; and it would seem that, in time, there was no
recess of the woods so dark, nor any secret
place so lovely, that it might claim exemption from the inroads of those who had
pledged their blood to satiate their vengeance, or to uphold the cold and
selfish policy of the distant monarchs of Europe.
Perhaps no district throughout the wide extent of the intermediate frontiers can
furnish a livelier picture of the cruelty and fierceness of the savage warfare of
those periods than the country which lies
between the head waters of the Hudson and the adjacent lakes.
The facilities which nature had there offered to the march of the combatants were
too obvious to be neglected.
The lengthened sheet of the Champlain stretched from the frontiers of Canada,
deep within the borders of the neighboring province of New York, forming a natural
passage across half the distance that the
French were compelled to master in order to strike their enemies.
Near its southern termination, it received the contributions of another lake, whose
waters were so limpid as to have been exclusively selected by the Jesuit
missionaries to perform the typical
purification of baptism, and to obtain for it the title of lake "du Saint Sacrement."
The less zealous English thought they conferred a sufficient honor on its
unsullied fountains, when they bestowed the name of their reigning prince, the second
of the house of Hanover.
The two united to rob the untutored possessors of its wooded scenery of their
native right to perpetuate its original appellation of "Horican."
(FOOTNOTE: As each nation of the Indians had its language or its dialect, they
usually gave different names to the same places, though nearly all of their
appellations were descriptive of the object.
Thus a literal translation of the name of this beautiful sheet of water, used by the
tribe that dwelt on its banks, would be "The Tail of the Lake."
Lake George, as it is vulgarly, and now, indeed, legally, called, forms a sort of
tail to Lake Champlain, when viewed on the map.
Hence, the name.)
Winding its way among countless islands, and imbedded in mountains, the "holy lake"
extended a dozen leagues still further to the south.
With the high plain that there interposed itself to the further passage of the water,
commenced a portage of as many miles, which conducted the adventurer to the banks of
the Hudson, at a point where, with the
usual obstructions of the rapids, or rifts, as they were then termed in the language of
the country, the river became navigable to the tide.
While, in the pursuit of their daring plans of annoyance, the restless enterprise of
the French even attempted the distant and difficult gorges of the Alleghany, it may
easily be imagined that their proverbial
acuteness would not overlook the natural advantages of the district we have just
It became, emphatically, the bloody arena, in which most of the battles for the
mastery of the colonies were contested.
Forts were erected at the different points that commanded the facilities of the route,
and were taken and retaken, razed and rebuilt, as victory alighted on the hostile
While the husbandman shrank back from the dangerous passes, within the safer
boundaries of the more ancient settlements, armies larger than those that had often
disposed of the scepters of the mother
countries, were seen to bury themselves in these forests, whence they rarely returned
but in skeleton bands, that were haggard with care or dejected by defeat.
Though the arts of peace were unknown to this fatal region, its forests were alive
with men; its shades and glens rang with the sounds of martial music, and the echoes
of its mountains threw back the laugh, or
repeated the wanton cry, of many a gallant and reckless youth, as he hurried by them,
in the noontide of his spirits, to slumber in a long night of forgetfulness.
It was in this scene of strife and bloodshed that the incidents we shall
attempt to relate occurred, during the third year of the war which England and
France last waged for the possession of a
country that neither was destined to retain.
The imbecility of her military leaders abroad, and the fatal want of energy in her
councils at home, had lowered the character of Great Britain from the proud elevation
on which it had been placed by the talents
and enterprise of her former warriors and statesmen.
No longer dreaded by her enemies, her servants were fast losing the confidence of
In this mortifying abasement, the colonists, though innocent of her
imbecility, and too humble to be the agents of her blunders, were but the natural
They had recently seen a chosen army from that country, which, reverencing as a
mother, they had blindly believed invincible--an army led by a chief who had
been selected from a crowd of trained
warriors, for his rare military endowments, disgracefully routed by a handful of French
and Indians, and only saved from annihilation by the coolness and spirit of
a Virginian boy, whose riper fame has since
diffused itself, with the steady influence of moral truth, to the uttermost confines
(FOOTNOTE: Washington, who, after uselessly admonishing the European general of the
danger into which he was heedlessly running, saved the remnants of the British
army, on this occasion, by his decision and courage.
The reputation earned by Washington in this battle was the principal cause of his being
selected to command the American armies at a later day.
It is a circumstance worthy of observation, that while all America rang with his well-
merited reputation, his name does not occur in any European account of the battle; at
least the author has searched for it without success.
In this manner does the mother country absorb even the fame, under that system of
A wide frontier had been laid naked by this unexpected disaster, and more substantial
evils were preceded by a thousand fanciful and imaginary dangers.
The alarmed colonists believed that the yells of the savages mingled with every
fitful gust of wind that issued from the interminable forests of the west.
The terrific character of their merciless enemies increased immeasurably the natural
horrors of warfare.
Numberless recent massacres were still vivid in their recollections; nor was there
any ear in the provinces so deaf as not to have drunk in with avidity the narrative of
some fearful tale of midnight murder, in
which the natives of the forests were the principal and barbarous actors.
As the credulous and excited traveler related the hazardous chances of the
wilderness, the blood of the timid curdled with terror, and mothers cast anxious
glances even at those children which
slumbered within the security of the largest towns.
In short, the magnifying influence of fear began to set at naught the calculations of
reason, and to render those who should have remembered their manhood, the slaves of the
Even the most confident and the stoutest hearts began to think the issue of the
contest was becoming doubtful; and that abject class was hourly increasing in
numbers, who thought they foresaw all the
possessions of the English crown in America subdued by their Christian foes, or laid
waste by the inroads of their relentless allies.
When, therefore, intelligence was received at the fort which covered the southern
termination of the portage between the Hudson and the lakes, that Montcalm had
been seen moving up the Champlain, with an
army "numerous as the leaves on the trees," its truth was admitted with more of the
craven reluctance of fear than with the stern joy that a warrior should feel, in
finding an enemy within reach of his blow.
The news had been brought, toward the decline of a day in midsummer, by an Indian
runner, who also bore an urgent request from Munro, the commander of a work on the
shore of the "holy lake," for a speedy and powerful reinforcement.
It has already been mentioned that the distance between these two posts was less
than five leagues.
The rude path, which originally formed their line of communication, had been
widened for the passage of wagons; so that the distance which had been traveled by the
son of the forest in two hours, might
easily be effected by a detachment of troops, with their necessary baggage,
between the rising and setting of a summer sun.
The loyal servants of the British crown had given to one of these forest-fastnesses the
name of William Henry, and to the other that of Fort Edward, calling each after a
favorite prince of the reigning family.
The veteran Scotchman just named held the first, with a regiment of regulars and a
few provincials; a force really by far too small to make head against the formidable
power that Montcalm was leading to the foot of his earthen mounds.
At the latter, however, lay General Webb, who commanded the armies of the king in the
northern provinces, with a body of more than five thousand men.
By uniting the several detachments of his command, this officer might have arrayed
nearly double that number of combatants against the enterprising Frenchman, who had
ventured so far from his reinforcements,
with an army but little superior in numbers.
But under the influence of their degraded fortunes, both officers and men appeared
better disposed to await the approach of their formidable antagonists, within their
works, than to resist the progress of their
march, by emulating the successful example of the French at Fort du Quesne, and
striking a blow on their advance.
After the first surprise of the intelligence had a little abated, a rumor
was spread through the entrenched camp, which stretched along the margin of the
Hudson, forming a chain of outworks to the
body of the fort itself, that a chosen detachment of fifteen hundred men was to
depart, with the dawn, for William Henry, the post at the northern extremity of the
That which at first was only rumor, soon became certainty, as orders passed from the
quarters of the commander-in-chief to the several corps he had selected for this
service, to prepare for their speedy departure.
All doubts as to the intention of Webb now vanished, and an hour or two of hurried
footsteps and anxious faces succeeded.
The novice in the military art flew from point to point, retarding his own
preparations by the excess of his violent and somewhat distempered zeal; while the
more practiced veteran made his
arrangements with a deliberation that scorned every appearance of haste; though
his sober lineaments and anxious eye sufficiently betrayed that he had no very
strong professional relish for the, as yet,
untried and dreaded warfare of the wilderness.
At length the sun set in a flood of glory, behind the distant western hills, and as
darkness drew its veil around the secluded spot the sounds of preparation diminished;
the last light finally disappeared from the
log cabin of some officer; the trees cast their deeper shadows over the mounds and
the rippling stream, and a silence soon pervaded the camp, as deep as that which
reigned in the vast forest by which it was environed.
According to the orders of the preceding night, the heavy sleep of the army was
broken by the rolling of the warning drums, whose rattling echoes were heard issuing,
on the damp morning air, out of every vista
of the woods, just as day began to draw the shaggy outlines of some tall pines of the
vicinity, on the opening brightness of a soft and cloudless eastern sky.
In an instant the whole camp was in motion; the meanest soldier arousing from his lair
to witness the departure of his comrades, and to share in the excitement and
incidents of the hour.
The simple array of the chosen band was soon completed.
While the regular and trained hirelings of the king marched with haughtiness to the
right of the line, the less pretending colonists took their humbler position on
its left, with a docility that long practice had rendered easy.
The scouts departed; strong guards preceded and followed the lumbering vehicles that
bore the baggage; and before the gray light of the morning was mellowed by the rays of
the sun, the main body of the combatants
wheeled into column, and left the encampment with a show of high military
bearing, that served to drown the slumbering apprehensions of many a novice,
who was now about to make his first essay in arms.
While in view of their admiring comrades, the same proud front and ordered array was
observed, until the notes of their fifes growing fainter in distance, the forest at
length appeared to swallow up the living mass which had slowly entered its bosom.
The deepest sounds of the retiring and invisible column had ceased to be borne on
the breeze to the listeners, and the latest straggler had already disappeared in
pursuit; but there still remained the signs
of another departure, before a log cabin of unusual size and accommodations, in front
of which those sentinels paced their rounds, who were known to guard the person
of the English general.
At this spot were gathered some half dozen horses, caparisoned in a manner which
showed that two, at least, were destined to bear the persons of females, of a rank that
it was not usual to meet so far in the wilds of the country.
A third wore trappings and arms of an officer of the staff; while the rest, from
the plainness of the housings, and the traveling mails with which they were
encumbered, were evidently fitted for the
reception of as many menials, who were, seemingly, already waiting the pleasure of
those they served.
At a respectful distance from this unusual show, were gathered divers groups of
curious idlers; some admiring the blood and bone of the high-mettled military charger,
and others gazing at the preparations, with the dull wonder of vulgar curiosity.
There was one man, however, who, by his countenance and actions, formed a marked
exception to those who composed the latter class of spectators, being neither idle,
nor seemingly very ignorant.
The person of this individual was to the last degree ungainly, without being in any
particular manner deformed. He had all the bones and joints of other
men, without any of their proportions.
Erect, his stature surpassed that of his fellows; though seated, he appeared reduced
within the ordinary limits of the race. The same contrariety in his members seemed
to exist throughout the whole man.
His head was large; his shoulders narrow; his arms long and dangling; while his hands
were small, if not delicate.
His legs and thighs were thin, nearly to emaciation, but of extraordinary length;
and his knees would have been considered tremendous, had they not been outdone by
the broader foundations on which this false
superstructure of blended human orders was so profanely reared.
The ill-assorted and injudicious attire of the individual only served to render his
awkwardness more conspicuous.
A sky-blue coat, with short and broad skirts and low cape, exposed a long, thin
neck, and longer and thinner legs, to the worst animadversions of the evil-disposed.
His nether garment was a yellow nankeen, closely fitted to the shape, and tied at
his bunches of knees by large knots of white ribbon, a good deal sullied by use.
Clouded cotton stockings, and shoes, on one of the latter of which was a plated spur,
completed the costume of the lower extremity of this figure, no curve or angle
of which was concealed, but, on the other
hand, studiously exhibited, through the vanity or simplicity of its owner.
From beneath the flap of an enormous pocket of a soiled vest of embossed silk, heavily
ornamented with tarnished silver lace, projected an instrument, which, from being
seen in such martial company, might have
been easily mistaken for some mischievous and unknown implement of war.
Small as it was, this uncommon engine had excited the curiosity of most of the
Europeans in the camp, though several of the provincials were seen to handle it, not
only without fear, but with the utmost familiarity.
A large, civil cocked hat, like those worn by clergymen within the last thirty years,
surmounted the whole, furnishing dignity to a good-natured and somewhat vacant
countenance, that apparently needed such
artificial aid, to support the gravity of some high and extraordinary trust.
While the common herd stood aloof, in deference to the quarters of Webb, the
figure we have described stalked into the center of the domestics, freely expressing
his censures or commendations on the merits
of the horses, as by chance they displeased or satisfied his judgment.
"This beast, I rather conclude, friend, is not of home raising, but is from foreign
lands, or perhaps from the little island itself over the blue water?" he said, in a
voice as remarkable for the softness and
sweetness of its tones, as was his person for its rare proportions; "I may speak of
these things, and be no braggart; for I have been down at both havens; that which
is situate at the mouth of Thames, and is
named after the capital of Old England, and that which is called 'Haven', with the
addition of the word 'New'; and have seen the scows and brigantines collecting their
droves, like the gathering to the ark,
being outward bound to the Island of Jamaica, for the purpose of barter and
traffic in four-footed animals; but never before have I beheld a beast which verified
the true scripture war-horse like this: 'He
paweth in the valley, and rejoiceth in his strength; he goeth on to meet the armed
He saith among the trumpets, Ha, ha; and he smelleth the battle afar off, the thunder
of the captains, and the shouting' It would seem that the stock of the horse of Israel
had descended to our own time; would it not, friend?"
Receiving no reply to this extraordinary appeal, which in truth, as it was delivered
with the vigor of full and sonorous tones, merited some sort of notice, he who had
thus sung forth the language of the holy
book turned to the silent figure to whom he had unwittingly addressed himself, and
found a new and more powerful subject of admiration in the object that encountered
His eyes fell on the still, upright, and rigid form of the "Indian runner," who had
borne to the camp the unwelcome tidings of the preceding evening.
Although in a state of perfect repose, and apparently disregarding, with
characteristic stoicism, the excitement and bustle around him, there was a sullen
fierceness mingled with the quiet of the
savage, that was likely to arrest the attention of much more experienced eyes
than those which now scanned him, in unconcealed amazement.
The native bore both the tomahawk and knife of his tribe; and yet his appearance was
not altogether that of a warrior.
On the contrary, there was an air of neglect about his person, like that which
might have proceeded from great and recent exertion, which he had not yet found
leisure to repair.
The colors of the war-paint had blended in dark confusion about his fierce
countenance, and rendered his swarthy lineaments still more savage and repulsive
than if art had attempted an effect which had been thus produced by chance.
His eye, alone, which glistened like a fiery star amid lowering clouds, was to be
seen in its state of native wildness.
For a single instant his searching and yet wary glance met the wondering look of the
other, and then changing its direction, partly in cunning, and partly in disdain,
it remained fixed, as if penetrating the distant air.
It is impossible to say what unlooked-for remark this short and silent communication,
between two such singular men, might have elicited from the white man, had not his
active curiosity been again drawn to other objects.
A general movement among the domestics, and a low sound of gentle voices, announced the
approach of those whose presence alone was wanted to enable the cavalcade to move.
The simple admirer of the war-horse instantly fell back to a low, gaunt,
switch-tailed mare, that was unconsciously gleaning the faded herbage of the camp nigh
by; where, leaning with one elbow on the
blanket that concealed an apology for a saddle, he became a spectator of the
departure, while a foal was quietly making its morning repast, on the opposite side of
the same animal.
A young man, in the dress of an officer, conducted to their steeds two females, who,
as it was apparent by their dresses, were prepared to encounter the fatigues of a
journey in the woods.
One, and she was the more juvenile in her appearance, though both were young,
permitted glimpses of her dazzling complexion, fair golden hair, and bright
blue eyes, to be caught, as she artlessly
suffered the morning air to blow aside the green veil which descended low from her
The flush which still lingered above the pines in the western sky was not more
bright nor delicate than the bloom on her cheek; nor was the opening day more
cheering than the animated smile which she
bestowed on the youth, as he assisted her into the saddle.
The other, who appeared to share equally in the attention of the young officer,
concealed her charms from the gaze of the soldiery with a care that seemed better
fitted to the experience of four or five additional years.
It could be seen, however, that her person, though molded with the same exquisite
proportions, of which none of the graces were lost by the traveling dress she wore,
was rather fuller and more mature than that of her companion.
No sooner were these females seated, than their attendant sprang lightly into the
saddle of the war-horse, when the whole three bowed to Webb, who in courtesy,
awaited their parting on the threshold of
his cabin and turning their horses' heads, they proceeded at a slow amble, followed by
their train, toward the northern entrance of the encampment.
As they traversed that short distance, not a voice was heard among them; but a slight
exclamation proceeded from the younger of the females, as the Indian runner glided by
her, unexpectedly, and led the way along the military road in her front.
Though this sudden and startling movement of the Indian produced no sound from the
other, in the surprise her veil also was allowed to open its folds, and betrayed an
indescribable look of pity, admiration, and
horror, as her dark eye followed the easy motions of the savage.
The tresses of this lady were shining and black, like the plumage of the raven.
Her complexion was not brown, but it rather appeared charged with the color of the rich
blood, that seemed ready to burst its bounds.
And yet there was neither coarseness nor want of shadowing in a countenance that was
exquisitely regular, and dignified and surpassingly beautiful.
She smiled, as if in pity at her own momentary forgetfulness, discovering by the
act a row of teeth that would have shamed the purest ivory; when, replacing the veil,
she bowed her face, and rode in silence,
like one whose thoughts were abstracted from the scene around her.
"Sola, sola, wo ha, ho, sola!" --Shakespeare
While one of the lovely beings we have so cursorily presented to the reader was thus
lost in thought, the other quickly recovered from the alarm which induced the
exclamation, and, laughing at her own
weakness, she inquired of the youth who rode by her side:
"Are such specters frequent in the woods, Heyward, or is this sight an especial
entertainment ordered on our behalf?
If the latter, gratitude must close our mouths; but if the former, both Cora and I
shall have need to draw largely on that stock of hereditary courage which we boast,
even before we are made to encounter the redoubtable Montcalm."
"Yon Indian is a 'runner' of the army; and, after the fashion of his people, he may be
accounted a hero," returned the officer.
"He has volunteered to guide us to the lake, by a path but little known, sooner
than if we followed the tardy movements of the column; and, by consequence, more
"I like him not," said the lady, shuddering, partly in assumed, yet more in
real terror. "You know him, Duncan, or you would not
trust yourself so freely to his keeping?"
"Say, rather, Alice, that I would not trust you.
I do know him, or he would not have my confidence, and least of all at this
He is said to be a Canadian too; and yet he served with our friends the Mohawks, who,
as you know, are one of the six allied nations.
He was brought among us, as I have heard, by some strange accident in which your
father was interested, and in which the savage was rigidly dealt by; but I forget
the idle tale, it is enough, that he is now our friend."
"If he has been my father's enemy, I like him still less!" exclaimed the now really
"Will you not speak to him, Major Heyward, that I may hear his tones?
Foolish though it may be, you have often heard me avow my faith in the tones of the
"It would be in vain; and answered, most probably, by an ejaculation.
Though he may understand it, he affects, like most of his people, to be ignorant of
the English; and least of all will he condescend to speak it, now that the war
demands the utmost exercise of his dignity.
But he stops; the private path by which we are to journey is, doubtless, at hand."
The conjecture of Major Heyward was true.
When they reached the spot where the Indian stood, pointing into the thicket that
fringed the military road; a narrow and blind path, which might, with some little
inconvenience, receive one person at a time, became visible.
"Here, then, lies our way," said the young man, in a low voice.
"Manifest no distrust, or you may invite the danger you appear to apprehend."
"Cora, what think you?" asked the reluctant fair one.
"If we journey with the troops, though we may find their presence irksome, shall we
not feel better assurance of our safety?"
"Being little accustomed to the practices of the savages, Alice, you mistake the
place of real danger," said Heyward.
"If enemies have reached the portage at all, a thing by no means probable, as our
scouts are abroad, they will surely be found skirting the column, where scalps
abound the most.
The route of the detachment is known, while ours, having been determined within the
hour, must still be secret."
"Should we distrust the man because his manners are not our manners, and that his
skin is dark?" coldly asked Cora.
Alice hesitated no longer; but giving her Narrangansett (FOOTNOTE: In the state of
Rhode Island there is a bay called Narragansett, so named after a powerful
tribe of Indians, which formerly dwelt on its banks.
Accident, or one of those unaccountable freaks which nature sometimes plays in the
animal world, gave rise to a breed of horses which were once well known in
America, and distinguished by their habit of pacing.
Horses of this race were, and are still, in much request as saddle horses, on account
of their hardiness and the ease of their movements.
As they were also sure of foot, the Narragansetts were greatly sought for by
females who were obliged to travel over the roots and holes in the "new countries.")
-a smart cut of the whip, she was the first to dash aside the slight branches of the
bushes, and to follow the runner along the dark and tangled pathway.
The young man regarded the last speaker in open admiration, and even permitted her
fairer, though certainly not more beautiful companion, to proceed unattended, while he
sedulously opened the way himself for the passage of her who has been called Cora.
It would seem that the domestics had been previously instructed; for, instead of
penetrating the thicket, they followed the route of the column; a measure which
Heyward stated had been dictated by the
sagacity of their guide, in order to diminish the marks of their trail, if,
haply, the Canadian savages should be lurking so far in advance of their army.
For many minutes the intricacy of the route admitted of no further dialogue; after
which they emerged from the broad border of underbrush which grew along the line of the
highway, and entered under the high but dark arches of the forest.
Here their progress was less interrupted; and the instant the guide perceived that
the females could command their steeds, he moved on, at a pace between a trot and a
walk, and at a rate which kept the sure-
footed and peculiar animals they rode at a fast yet easy amble.
The youth had turned to speak to the dark- eyed Cora, when the distant sound of horses
hoofs, clattering over the roots of the broken way in his rear, caused him to check
his charger; and, as his companions drew
their reins at the same instant, the whole party came to a halt, in order to obtain an
explanation of the unlooked-for interruption.
In a few moments a colt was seen gliding, like a fallow deer, among the straight
trunks of the pines; and, in another instant, the person of the ungainly man,
described in the preceding chapter, came
into view, with as much rapidity as he could excite his meager beast to endure
without coming to an open rupture. Until now this personage had escaped the
observation of the travelers.
If he possessed the power to arrest any wandering eye when exhibiting the glories
of his altitude on foot, his equestrian graces were still more likely to attract
Notwithstanding a constant application of his one armed heel to the flanks of the
mare, the most confirmed gait that he could establish was a Canterbury gallop with the
hind legs, in which those more forward
assisted for doubtful moments, though generally content to maintain a loping
Perhaps the rapidity of the changes from one of these paces to the other created an
optical illusion, which might thus magnify the powers of the beast; for it is certain
that Heyward, who possessed a true eye for
the merits of a horse, was unable, with his utmost ingenuity, to decide by what sort of
movement his pursuer worked his sinuous way on his footsteps with such persevering
The industry and movements of the rider were not less remarkable than those of the
At each change in the evolutions of the latter, the former raised his tall person
in the stirrups; producing, in this manner, by the undue elongation of his legs, such
sudden growths and diminishings of the
stature, as baffled every conjecture that might be made as to his dimensions.
If to this be added the fact that, in consequence of the ex parte application of
the spur, one side of the mare appeared to journey faster than the other; and that the
aggrieved flank was resolutely indicated by
unremitted flourishes of a bushy tail, we finish the picture of both horse and man.
The frown which had gathered around the handsome, open, and manly brow of Heyward,
gradually relaxed, and his lips curled into a slight smile, as he regarded the
Alice made no very powerful effort to control her merriment; and even the dark,
thoughtful eye of Cora lighted with a humor that it would seem, the habit, rather than
the nature, of its mistress repressed.
"Seek you any here?" demanded Heyward, when the other had arrived sufficiently nigh to
abate his speed; "I trust you are no messenger of evil tidings?"
"Even so," replied the stranger, making diligent use of his triangular castor, to
produce a circulation in the close air of the woods, and leaving his hearers in doubt
to which of the young man's questions he
responded; when, however, he had cooled his face, and recovered his breath, he
continued, "I hear you are riding to William Henry; as I am journeying
thitherward myself, I concluded good
company would seem consistent to the wishes of both parties."
"You appear to possess the privilege of a casting vote," returned Heyward; "we are
three, while you have consulted no one but yourself."
The first point to be obtained is to know one's own mind.
Once sure of that, and where women are concerned it is not easy, the next is, to
act up to the decision.
I have endeavored to do both, and here I am."
"If you journey to the lake, you have mistaken your route," said Heyward,
haughtily; "the highway thither is at least half a mile behind you."
"Even so," returned the stranger, nothing daunted by this cold reception; "I have
tarried at 'Edward' a week, and I should be dumb not to have inquired the road I was to
journey; and if dumb there would be an end to my calling."
After simpering in a small way, like one whose modesty prohibited a more open
expression of his admiration of a witticism that was perfectly unintelligible to his
hearers, he continued, "It is not prudent
for any one of my profession to be too familiar with those he has to instruct; for
which reason I follow not the line of the army; besides which, I conclude that a
gentleman of your character has the best
judgment in matters of wayfaring; I have, therefore, decided to join company, in
order that the ride may be made agreeable, and partake of social communion."
"A most arbitrary, if not a hasty decision!" exclaimed Heyward, undecided
whether to give vent to his growing anger, or to laugh in the other's face.
"But you speak of instruction, and of a profession; are you an adjunct to the
provincial corps, as a master of the noble science of defense and offense; or,
perhaps, you are one who draws lines and
angles, under the pretense of expounding the mathematics?"
The stranger regarded his interrogator a moment in wonder; and then, losing every
mark of self-satisfaction in an expression of solemn humility, he answered:
"Of offense, I hope there is none, to either party: of defense, I make none--by
God's good mercy, having committed no palpable sin since last entreating his
I understand not your allusions about lines and angles; and I leave expounding to those
who have been called and set apart for that holy office.
I lay claim to no higher gift than a small insight into the glorious art of
petitioning and thanksgiving, as practiced in psalmody."
"The man is, most manifestly, a disciple of Apollo," cried the amused Alice, "and I
take him under my own especial protection.
Nay, throw aside that frown, Heyward, and in pity to my longing ears, suffer him to
journey in our train.
Besides," she added, in a low and hurried voice, casting a glance at the distant
Cora, who slowly followed the footsteps of their silent, but sullen guide, "it may be
a friend added to our strength, in time of need."
"Think you, Alice, that I would trust those I love by this secret path, did I imagine
such need could happen?"
"Nay, nay, I think not of it now; but this strange man amuses me; and if he 'hath
music in his soul', let us not churlishly reject his company."
She pointed persuasively along the path with her riding whip, while their eyes met
in a look which the young man lingered a moment to prolong; then, yielding to her
gentle influence, he clapped his spurs into
his charger, and in a few bounds was again at the side of Cora.
"I am glad to encounter thee, friend," continued the maiden, waving her hand to
the stranger to proceed, as she urged her Narragansett to renew its amble.
"Partial relatives have almost persuaded me that I am not entirely worthless in a duet
myself; and we may enliven our wayfaring by indulging in our favorite pursuit.
It might be of signal advantage to one, ignorant as I, to hear the opinions and
experience of a master in the art."
"It is refreshing both to the spirits and to the body to indulge in psalmody, in
befitting seasons," returned the master of song, unhesitatingly complying with her
intimation to follow; "and nothing would
relieve the mind more than such a consoling communion.
But four parts are altogether necessary to the perfection of melody.
You have all the manifestations of a soft and rich treble; I can, by especial aid,
carry a full tenor to the highest letter; but we lack counter and bass!
Yon officer of the king, who hesitated to admit me to his company, might fill the
latter, if one may judge from the intonations of his voice in common
"Judge not too rashly from hasty and deceptive appearances," said the lady,
smiling; "though Major Heyward can assume such deep notes on occasion, believe me,
his natural tones are better fitted for a mellow tenor than the bass you heard."
"Is he, then, much practiced in the art of psalmody?" demanded her simple companion.
Alice felt disposed to laugh, though she succeeded in suppressing her merriment, ere
she answered: "I apprehend that he is rather addicted to
The chances of a soldier's life are but little fitted for the encouragement of more
"Man's voice is given to him, like his other talents, to be used, and not to be
abused. None can say they have ever known me to
neglect my gifts!
I am thankful that, though my boyhood may be said to have been set apart, like the
youth of the royal David, for the purposes of music, no syllable of rude verse has
ever profaned my lips."
"You have, then, limited your efforts to sacred song?"
As the psalms of David exceed all other language, so does the psalmody that has
been fitted to them by the divines and sages of the land, surpass all vain poetry.
Happily, I may say that I utter nothing but the thoughts and the wishes of the King of
Israel himself; for though the times may call for some slight changes, yet does this
version which we use in the colonies of New
England so much exceed all other versions, that, by its richness, its exactness, and
its spiritual simplicity, it approacheth, as near as may be, to the great work of the
I never abide in any place, sleeping or waking, without an example of this gifted
'Tis the six-and-twentieth edition, promulgated at Boston, Anno Domini 1744;
and is entitled, 'The Psalms, Hymns, and Spiritual Songs of the Old and New
Testaments; faithfully translated into
English Metre, for the Use, Edification, and Comfort of the Saints, in Public and
Private, especially in New England'."
During this eulogium on the rare production of his native poets, the stranger had drawn
the book from his pocket, and fitting a pair of iron-rimmed spectacles to his nose,
opened the volume with a care and veneration suited to its sacred purposes.
Then, without circumlocution or apology, first pronounced the word "Standish," and
placing the unknown engine, already described, to his mouth, from which he drew
a high, shrill sound, that was followed by
an octave below, from his own voice, he commenced singing the following words, in
full, sweet, and melodious tones, that set the music, the poetry, and even the uneasy
motion of his ill-trained beast at
defiance; "How good it is, O see, And how it pleaseth well, Together e'en in unity,
For brethren so to dwell.
It's like the choice ointment, From the head to the beard did go; Down Aaron's
head, that downward went His garment's skirts unto."
The delivery of these skillful rhymes was accompanied, on the part of the stranger,
by a regular rise and fall of his right hand, which terminated at the descent, by
suffering the fingers to dwell a moment on
the leaves of the little volume; and on the ascent, by such a flourish of the member as
none but the initiated may ever hope to imitate.
It would seem long practice had rendered this manual accompaniment necessary; for it
did not cease until the preposition which the poet had selected for the close of his
verse had been duly delivered like a word of two syllables.
Such an innovation on the silence and retirement of the forest could not fail to
enlist the ears of those who journeyed at so short a distance in advance.
The Indian muttered a few words in broken English to Heyward, who, in his turn, spoke
to the stranger; at once interrupting, and, for the time, closing his musical efforts.
"Though we are not in danger, common prudence would teach us to journey through
this wilderness in as quiet a manner as possible.
You will then, pardon me, Alice, should I diminish your enjoyments, by requesting
this gentleman to postpone his chant until a safer opportunity."
"You will diminish them, indeed," returned the arch girl; "for never did I hear a more
unworthy conjunction of execution and language than that to which I have been
listening; and I was far gone in a learned
inquiry into the causes of such an unfitness between sound and sense, when you
broke the charm of my musings by that bass of yours, Duncan!"
"I know not what you call my bass," said Heyward, piqued at her remark, "but I know
that your safety, and that of Cora, is far dearer to me than could be any orchestra of
He paused and turned his head quickly toward a thicket, and then bent his eyes
suspiciously on their guide, who continued his steady pace, in undisturbed gravity.
The young man smiled to himself, for he believed he had mistaken some shining berry
of the woods for the glistening eyeballs of a prowling savage, and he rode forward,
continuing the conversation which had been interrupted by the passing thought.
Major Heyward was mistaken only in suffering his youthful and generous pride
to suppress his active watchfulness.
The cavalcade had not long passed, before the branches of the bushes that formed the
thicket were cautiously moved asunder, and a human visage, as fiercely wild as savage
art and unbridled passions could make it,
peered out on the retiring footsteps of the travelers.
A gleam of exultation shot across the darkly-painted lineaments of the inhabitant
of the forest, as he traced the route of his intended victims, who rode
unconsciously onward, the light and
graceful forms of the females waving among the trees, in the curvatures of their path,
followed at each bend by the manly figure of Heyward, until, finally, the shapeless
person of the singing master was concealed
behind the numberless trunks of trees, that rose, in dark lines, in the intermediate
"Before these fields were shorn and till'd, Full to the brim our rivers flow'd;
The melody of waters fill'd The fresh and boundless wood;
And torrents dash'd, and rivulets play'd, And fountains spouted in the shade."
Leaving the unsuspecting Heyward and his confiding companions to penetrate still
deeper into a forest that contained such treacherous inmates, we must use an
author's privilege, and shift the scene a
few miles to the westward of the place where we have last seen them.
On that day, two men were lingering on the banks of a small but rapid stream, within
an hour's journey of the encampment of Webb, like those who awaited the appearance
of an absent person, or the approach of some expected event.
The vast canopy of woods spread itself to the margin of the river, overhanging the
water, and shadowing its dark current with a deeper hue.
The rays of the sun were beginning to grow less fierce, and the intense heat of the
day was lessened, as the cooler vapors of the springs and fountains rose above their
leafy beds, and rested in the atmosphere.
Still that breathing silence, which marks the drowsy sultriness of an American
landscape in July, pervaded the secluded spot, interrupted only by the low voices of
the men, the occasional and lazy tap of a
woodpecker, the discordant cry of some gaudy jay, or a swelling on the ear, from
the dull roar of a distant waterfall.
These feeble and broken sounds were, however, too familiar to the foresters to
draw their attention from the more interesting matter of their dialogue.
While one of these loiterers showed the red skin and wild accouterments of a native of
the woods, the other exhibited, through the mask of his rude and nearly savage
equipments, the brighter, though sun-burned
and long-faced complexion of one who might claim descent from a European parentage.
The former was seated on the end of a mossy log, in a posture that permitted him to
heighten the effect of his earnest language, by the calm but expressive
gestures of an Indian engaged in debate.
His body, which was nearly naked, presented a terrific emblem of death, drawn in
intermingled colors of white and black.
His closely-shaved head, on which no other hair than the well-known and chivalrous
scalping tuft (FOOTNOTE: The North American warrior caused the hair to be
plucked from his whole body; a small tuft
was left on the crown of his head, in order that his enemy might avail himself of it,
in wrenching off the scalp in the event of his fall.
The scalp was the only admissible trophy of victory.
Thus, it was deemed more important to obtain the scalp than to kill the man.
Some tribes lay great stress on the honor of striking a dead body.
These practices have nearly disappeared among the Indians of the Atlantic states.)
-was preserved, was without ornament of any kind, with the exception of a solitary
eagle's plume, that crossed his crown, and depended over the left shoulder.
A tomahawk and scalping knife, of English manufacture, were in his girdle; while a
short military rifle, of that sort with which the policy of the whites armed their
savage allies, lay carelessly across his bare and sinewy knee.
The expanded chest, full formed limbs, and grave countenance of this warrior, would
denote that he had reached the vigor of his days, though no symptoms of decay appeared
to have yet weakened his manhood.
The frame of the white man, judging by such parts as were not concealed by his clothes,
was like that of one who had known hardships and exertion from his earliest
His person, though muscular, was rather attenuated than full; but every nerve and
muscle appeared strung and indurated by unremitted exposure and toil.
He wore a hunting shirt of forest-green, fringed with faded yellow, (FOOTNOTE: The
hunting-shirt is a picturesque smock-frock, being shorter, and ornamented with fringes
The colors are intended to imitate the hues of the wood, with a view to concealment.
Many corps of American riflemen have been thus attired, and the dress is one of the
most striking of modern times.
The hunting-shirt is frequently white.) -and a summer cap of skins which had been
shorn of their fur.
He also bore a knife in a girdle of wampum, like that which confined the scanty
garments of the Indian, but no tomahawk.
His moccasins were ornamented after the gay fashion of the natives, while the only part
of his under dress which appeared below the hunting-frock was a pair of buckskin
leggings, that laced at the sides, and
which were gartered above the knees, with the sinews of a deer.
A pouch and horn completed his personal accouterments, though a rifle of great
length, (FOOTNOTE: The rifle of the army is short; that of the hunter is always
-which the theory of the more ingenious whites had taught them was the most
dangerous of all firearms, leaned against a neighboring sapling.
The eye of the hunter, or scout, whichever he might be, was small, quick, keen, and
restless, roving while he spoke, on every side of him, as if in quest of game, or
distrusting the sudden approach of some lurking enemy.
Notwithstanding the symptoms of habitual suspicion, his countenance was not only
without guile, but at the moment at which he is introduced, it was charged with an
expression of sturdy honesty.
"Even your traditions make the case in my favor, Chingachgook," he said, speaking in
the tongue which was known to all the natives who formerly inhabited the country
between the Hudson and the Potomac, and of
which we shall give a free translation for the benefit of the reader; endeavoring, at
the same time, to preserve some of the peculiarities, both of the individual and
of the language.
"Your fathers came from the setting sun, crossed the big river, (FOOTNOTE: The
The scout alludes to a tradition which is very popular among the tribes of the
Evidence of their Asiatic origin is deduced from the circumstances, though great
uncertainty hangs over the whole history of the Indians.)
-fought the people of the country, and took the land; and mine came from the red sky of
the morning, over the salt lake, and did their work much after the fashion that had
been set them by yours; then let God judge
the matter between us, and friends spare their words!"
"My fathers fought with the naked red man!" returned the Indian, sternly, in the same
"Is there no difference, Hawkeye, between the stone-headed arrow of the warrior, and
the leaden bullet with which you kill?"
"There is reason in an Indian, though nature has made him with a red skin!" said
the white man, shaking his head like one on whom such an appeal to his justice was not