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  • Arriving home after a long day, you settle in for a quiet evening alone.

    過完漫長的一天回到家,你安頓下來準備獨自渡過安靜的夜晚。

  • But instead of the sound of silence, you hear a constant ringingeven though there's nothing making any noise.

    但你聽到的不是一片寂靜,而是不停的鳴響 — 即使沒有東西製造任何噪音。

  • What you're experiencing is called tinnitus, the perception of a noise like ringing, buzzing, hissing or clicking that occurs without any external source of sound.

    你所感受到的就是所謂的耳鳴,察覺到像鳴響聲、嘈雜聲、嘶嘶聲,或卡嗒聲之類的噪音,卻不是來自任何外部的聲源。

  • Tinnitus has been bothering humanity since Ancient Babylon, plaguing everyone from Leonardo da Vinci to Charles Darwin.

    打從古巴比倫時代開始,耳鳴就開始煩擾人類了,從達文西到達爾文都是受害者。

  • Today, roughly one in seven people worldwide experiences this auditory sensation.

    現今,全世界約七人之中就有一人正在經歷這種聽覺感知。

  • So where does this persistent sound come from?

    所以,這種持續的聲音來自何方?

  • When you normally hear something, sound waves hit various areas of your ear, creating vibrations that displace fluid inside the cochlea.

    你通常會聽到聲音是因為聲波擊中你耳內的各個區域,造成震動,使耳蝸中的液體移動。

  • If the vibrations are large enough, they elicit a chemical response that transforms them into bioelectrical signals.

    如果震動夠大,便會引發化學反應,將震動轉變成為生物電訊號。

  • These nerve impulses are then relayed through the hearing pathway to the brain, where they result in the sounds we perceive.

    接著這些神經衝動 (脈衝) 會透過聽覺路徑傳遞到腦部,在腦部就會產生我們察覺到的聲音。

  • However, in the vast majority of tinnitus cases, the nerve signals that produce these mysterious sounds don't travel through your ear at all.

    然而,在大部分的耳鳴案例中,產生這些神秘聲音的神經訊號完全不會經過你的耳朵。

  • Instead, they're generated internally, by your own central nervous system.

    反之,它們是由你自己體內的中樞神經系統生成的。

  • Under usual circumstances, these self-produced signals are an essential part of hearing.

    在一般的情況下,這些自行產生的訊號是聽力很重要的一部分。

  • All mammals demonstrate on-going neural activity throughout their hearing pathways.

    所有哺乳類動物的聽覺路徑上都會持續有神經波動。

  • When there are no sounds present, this activity is at a baseline that establishes your neural code for silence.

    當沒有聲音出現時,這種波動就處於基線,而這代表寂靜的神經編碼。

  • When a sound does appear, this activity changes, allowing the brain to distinguish between silence and sound.

    一旦出現聲音,這種波動就會改變,讓腦部可以區別出寂靜和聲音的差別。

  • But the auditory system's health can affect this background signal.

    但聽覺系統的健康有可能會影響到這種背景訊號。

  • Loud noises, diseases, toxins, and even natural aging can damage your cochlear cells.

    巨大的聲音、疾病、毒素,甚至自然老化,都有可能損害你的耳蝸細胞。

  • Some of these may heal in a matter of hours.

    有些細胞在幾個小時內就會癒合。

  • However, if enough cells die, either over time or all at once, the auditory system becomes less sensitive.

    但是,如果太多細胞死亡,不論是逐漸死亡,或是一次同時死亡,聽覺系統都會變得比較不敏感。

  • With fewer cochlear cells relaying information, incoming sounds generate weaker nerve signals.

    當傳遞資訊的耳蝸細胞減少,進來的聲音所產生的神經訊號就會比較弱。

  • And many environmental sounds can be lost completely.

    此外,許多環境聲音還會完全消失。

  • To compensate, your brain devotes more energy to monitoring the hearing pathway.

    為了補償這部分,你的腦部就會用更多能量來監視聽覺路徑。

  • Just like you might adjust the knobs of a radio, the brain modifies neural activity while also tweaking the tuning knob to get a clearer signal.

    就像你有可能會去調整收音機的旋鈕,腦部也會修改神經活動,同時微調旋鈕,以取得更清楚的訊號。

  • Increasing this background neural activity is intended to help you process weak auditory inputs.

    增加這種背景神經活動的目的是要協助你處理較弱的聽覺輸入。

  • But it can also modify your baseline for silencesuch that a lack of sound no longer sounds silent at all.

    但這麼做也有可能會修改你的寂靜基線 — 導致「沒有聲音」聽起來完全不像是寂靜的狀態。

  • This is called subjective tinnitus, and it accounts for the vast majority of tinnitus cases.

    這就是所謂的「自覺性耳鳴」,而大部分的耳鳴案例都屬於這一種。

  • Subjective tinnitus is a symptom associated with practically every known ear disorder, but it isn't necessarily a bad thing.

    幾乎所有已知的耳朵相關疾病都會有自覺性耳鳴的症狀,但那不見得不好。

  • While its appearance can be surprising, subjective tinnitus has no inherently negative consequences.

    雖然自覺性耳鳴的出現會讓人感到出人意料,但它本身並沒有負面的影響。

  • But for some, tinnitus episodes can trigger traumatic memories or otherwise distressing feelings, which increase the sound's intrusiveness.

    但對某些人來說,耳鳴發作會觸發創傷性的記憶或讓人苦惱的感受,因而增加聲音的煩擾程度。

  • This psychological loop often leads to what's known as "bothersome tinnitus," a condition that can exacerbate the symptoms of PTSD, insomnia, anxiety, and depression.

    這種心理迴圈會導致一般所知的「困擾性耳鳴」,這種病症會讓創傷後壓力症候群、失眠、焦慮,及憂鬱的症狀加劇。

  • There's no known cure for subjective tinnitus.

    自覺性耳鳴目前沒有已知的療法。

  • So the most important thing doctors can do is help people understand this auditory event, and develop neutral associations with these often-distressing sounds.

    所以,醫生能做的最重要的事,就是協助患者了解這種聽覺狀況,並針對這些讓人煩擾的聲音發展出有中和作用的關聯性。

  • For example, sound therapy uses noises like rain, birdsong, or music to mask tinnitus and reduce stress.

    比如,聲音治療會使用聲音,如雨聲、鳥鳴、音樂,來遮蔽耳鳴並減少壓力。

  • One form, called informational masking, uses soothing, complex auditory signals that distract the brain from the tinnitus sound.

    有一種形式叫做「資訊遮蔽」,用讓人寬心、複雜的聲音訊號來讓腦部分心,不去注意耳鳴聲。

  • Another, called energetic masking, uses sounds with the same frequency as the patient's tinnitus to occupy the neurons that would otherwise deliver the tinnitus signal.

    還有一種形式叫作「能量遮蔽」,採用和患者耳鳴同頻率的聲音,來佔據本來會傳遞耳鳴訊號的神經元。

  • Practiced alongside counseling, these interventions allow people to re-evaluate their relationship with tinnitus.

    這些介入治療方式再搭配諮詢,能讓患者重新評估他們和耳鳴的關係。

  • Losing the sound of silence can be troubling to say the least.

    再怎麼說,失去寂靜的感覺都會讓人感到煩擾。

  • Tinnitus reveals that your brain is constantly analyzing the world around you, even as it fails to filter its own internal noise.

    有耳鳴就表示,即使你的腦部無法過濾掉它自己的內部噪音時,也仍然不斷地分析你周遭的世界。

  • In a sense, experiencing tinnitus is like eavesdropping on your brain talking to itselfthough it may not be a conversation you want to hear.

    在某種層面上,聽到耳鳴就像是偷聽到你的腦部在跟它自己說話 - 不過那可能不是你想要聽見的對話。

  • As mentioned in this video, tinnitus can be particularly difficult for those struggling with PTSD, but what exactly is this disorder?

    在這支影片有提到,耳鳴對於那些患有創傷後壓力症候群的人特別困擾,但是這種疾病到底是什麼呢?

  • And what steps can be taken to help those suffering from it?

    然而,可以採取什麼步驟來幫助那些受苦的人?

  • Learn more with this video, or check out this video for advice on coping with insomnia.

    觀看這部影片了解更多,或是觀看右方的影片得知有關解決失眠的建議。

Arriving home after a long day, you settle in for a quiet evening alone.

過完漫長的一天回到家,你安頓下來準備獨自渡過安靜的夜晚。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 訊號 聽覺 聲音 腦部 神經

【TED-Ed】為什麼總是聽到嗡嗡聲? (What’s that ringing in your ears? - Marc Fagelson)

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    Celine Chien 發佈於 2020 年 10 月 20 日
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