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  • The Industrial Revolution changed  England and the world forever.

    工業革命徹底改變了英國和世界。

  • It took place between about 1700 and 1900, and  - so the simple explanation goes - it  

    它發生在1700年至1900年之間,而且--簡單的解釋是--它

  • turned Britain into a tooled-upfactory-powered 'workshop of the world'.

    把英國變成了一個工具化、工廠化的 "世界工場"。

  • But there was plenty more to the Industrial Revolution than  

    但工業革命的意義遠不止於此。

  • just factories and machines. It certainly didn't happen overnight,  

    只是工廠和機器。 這當然不是一朝一夕的事。

  • and its roots go even further back than 1700. 

    而其根源甚至可以追溯到1700年前。

  • In fact, many historians reckon the Industrial  Revolution was not just one revolution,  

    其實,很多歷史學家估計,工業革命不只是一場革命。

  • but a series of revolutions. A bit  like a complicated machine: it had lots  

    但一連串的旋轉。有點像一臺複雜的機器:它有很多的。

  • of different moving parts, and each of  these parts was like its own revolution.

    的不同運動部件,而這些部件中的每一個都像是自己的革命。

  • New revolutionary technologies and  inventions meant that products could  

    革命性的新技術和發明意味著產品可以被用於生產。

  • be made by machines rather than by hand.

    由機器而不是手工製作。

  • Eventually, steam engines powered these machines  with coal instead of natural resources  

    最終,蒸汽機用煤炭代替自然資源為這些機器提供動力。

  • like wind, water and animals – a kind of energy revolution.

    如風、水和動物--一種能源革命。

  • Transport was revolutionised  too - first with canals and  

    運輸業也發生了革命性的變化--首先是運河和...。

  • improved roads, and later with  steam-powered trains and ships.

    改進了道路,後來又有了蒸汽動力的火車和輪船。

  • There was a consumer revolution, as  people in England and elsewhere started  

    有一場消費革命,因為英國和其他地方的人開始。

  • to replace durable, homemade goods with  cheaper, mass produced alternatives.

    用廉價的大規模生產的替代品取代耐用的自制產品;

  • Britain's population grew from 6.5 million in 1750,  

    英國的人口從1750年的650萬增長。

  • to 10.5 million by 1800. By 1850, it had doubled to 20.8 million,  

    到1800年達到1050萬。到1850年,翻了一番,達到2080萬。

  • and more than half of those people were living in cities.

    而其中一半以上的人都生活在城市裡。

  • These people needed feeding, and more food was  produced thanks to the improved  

    這些人需要食物,而由於改進了食物,生產了更多的食物。

  • farming techniques of the 18th century agricultural revolution.

    18世紀農業革命的耕作技術。

  • There was also a commercial revolution, as Britain exported  

    也有一場商業革命,因為英國出口了

  • and imported more goods, and more  food to feed the growing cities.

    並進口了更多的商品,更多的糧食來養活不斷髮展的城市。

  • And, thanks to long-term changes in land ownership and the law,  

    而且,由於土地所有權和法律的長期變化。

  • landowners were now able to mortgage their land to raise  

    地主們現在可以抵押他們的土地來籌集資金。

  • money to invest in new ventures – a kind of financial revolution.

    錢來投資新的企業----一種金融革命。

  • The slave trade and the expansion of Britain's colonies in the Americas  

    奴隸貿易和英國在美洲殖民地的擴張。

  • also played a part in the Industrial Revolution

    在工業革命中也起到了一定的作用。

  • British traders sold manufactured goods in  West Africa, in return for enslaved Africans.

    英國商人在西非出售製成品,以換取非洲人的奴役。

  • They were transported across the Atlantic to work on plantations  

    他們被運送到大西洋彼岸的種植園工作。

  • that grew sugar and tobacco, and  these were exported back to Britain.

    種植蔗糖和菸草,這些都出口到英國。

  • This 'triangular trade' fuelled manufacturing in Britain

    這種 "三角貿易 "推動了英國製造業的發展。

  • and created enormous profits for wealthy Brits, with some of that money  

    併為富有的英國人創造了巨大的利潤,其中一部分錢財

  • helping to fund new inventions, new infrastructure and new country houses.

    幫助資助新的發明、新的基礎設施和新的鄉村住宅;

  • But it's important to remember that some  of the money invested in industry came  

    但要記住,投資實業的部分資金來自於

  • directly from a system that destroyed  the lives of millions of African people,  

    直接來自一個摧毀了數百萬非洲人民生活的制度。

  • and impoverished Africa for generations to come.

    和貧困的非洲的後代。

  • Britain did abolish slavery in its own colonies in 1834,  

    1834年,英國確實在自己的殖民地廢除了奴隸制。

  • but even by 1860, England's massive cotton textile industry was entirely  

    但即使到了1860年,英國龐大的棉紡織業也已經完全是

  • reliant on cotton produced by 3 million enslaved Africans in the American South.

    依賴於美洲南部300萬非洲奴隸生產的棉花。

  • Huge fortunes were made in the Industrial Revolution,  

    在工業革命中創造了巨大的財富。

  • and many people experienced a higher quality of life than ever before.

    而且很多人的生活品質比以前有所提高。

  • But the gap between the rich and the  poor widened, and quality of life didn't improve for everyone.

    但貧富差距拉大了,大家的生活品質並沒有提高。

  • Many skilled workers lost their jobs to machines,  

    許多技術工人因機器而失去了工作。

  • and factory workers endured dangerous  conditions, six-day weeks, and 12 to 14-hour shifts.

    和工廠工人忍受著危險的條件、每週六天的工作和12至14小時的輪班。

  • In industrial areas in the early 19th century, the average  

    在19世紀初的工業地區,平均每個人都有自己的生活方式。

  • age for children starting work was just  eight and a half. It wasn't until later  

    兒童開始工作的年齡只有八歲半。直到後來

  • in the century that children under 10  were banned from working in factories.

    世紀,禁止10歲以下兒童在工廠工作。

  • Towns and cities were breeding grounds for diseases

    城鎮和城市是疾病的溫床。

  • Life expectancy was around 30 to  33 in urban areas until 1850,  

    1850年以前,城市地區的預期壽命約為30至33歲。

  • but 10 years more in the countryside.   

    但在農村多呆10年。

  • Poor nutrition meant that the average height of British workers actually fell in the first half of the 19th century.

    營養不良意味著英國工人的平均身高在19世紀上半葉實際上有所下降。

  • Campaigners tried to improve  the lot of the working classes,  

    運動者試圖改善工人階級的命運。

  • eventually securing advances like free  education, restrictions on child labour,  

    最終獲得免費教育、限制童工等進步。

  • improved sanitation and better working  conditions. Some industrialists made  

    改善衛生條件和工作條件。一些工業家提出

  • large donations to charities, or  built new, modern towns for their workers.

    大筆捐款給慈善機構,或為其工人建造新的現代化城鎮。

  • But despite protests, many working people were denied the right to vote

    但儘管有人抗議,許多勞動人民還是被剝奪了投票權。

  • throughout this period, and reforms were almost always hard-won.  

    在這一時期,改革幾乎都是來之不易的。

  • Ultimately, the Industrial Revolution was a time of great upheaval

    最終,工業革命是一個大動盪的時代。

  • By the early 20th century, it had changed the  people, the landscape and the politics  

    到了20世紀初,它已經改變了人,改變了風景,改變了政治。

  • of England beyond all recognition. In  so many ways, it made the modern world.

    英格蘭的一切都得到了認可。在很多方面,它造就了現代世界。

The Industrial Revolution changed  England and the world forever.

工業革命徹底改變了英國和世界。

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