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  • [Whistles] Wow, what a good book.

  • I should buy another one of these.

  • What?

  • Oh, hi. James from engVid.

  • I was just looking at my book, here, and it seems E has a question.

  • Let's go take a look.

  • So, what's that, E?

  • "I won the race?", "I one the race?" - you don't know the difference?

  • Do you know the difference?

  • Today we're going to work on homophones.

  • I'm going to explain what they are and give you some very common examples that you've

  • probably made mistakes with, but I'm going to help you today to clear them up.

  • You ready?

  • Let's go to the board.

  • Oh, I said "homophones", and I know there are some of you out there that are grammar

  • nerds, and you're going to say: "Oh, homophones, homograms, dah, dah."

  • I'm going to break it down and say: When we talk about "homo" it means the same; the same.

  • And in this case, a "homograph" is something that is written graphic.

  • It is written like a picture.

  • And when we say "homophone", I'm sure you have a cellphone, like, you know, cellphone.

  • We call it a "phone" because it's the sound.

  • With a cellphone, we deal with sounds; and with homographs we deal with what is written.

  • Today I really want to concentrate more on homophones, which are words that are going

  • to sound the same...

  • So, let's take a look: Homophones are words that sound the same, but they are different.

  • I forgot a period, here.

  • And an example would be "bare" and "bear".

  • Okay?

  • Or: "whether" and "weather".

  • And I've had many students ask me: What's the difference.

  • They go: "How do you pronounce it?

  • I...

  • I know it looks the same or almost the same."

  • And I say: "It sounds the same."

  • They go: "Why?

  • They mean vastly or very different things."

  • I go: "Yes, you're right, and I'm going to help you see the difference."

  • Now, the problem with a homophone, of course, is when you say it, you don't know how it's

  • spelt, and we use the spelling to tell us that it's a different meaning.

  • The secret to that is context, and I'll go through a couple of examples a little later

  • on and show what I mean by: If you listen to the context, you will have an idea of what

  • they mean.

  • As I said: homographs are words that are written the same, but have different meanings.

  • But because I'm not going to go into homographs right now, I'm not going to give you the examples.

  • I'm going to give you the examples for the homophones, here.

  • And if you notice, I have something that looks like a calculator or, you know, some buttons

  • you can press on a dial for a phone.

  • And I did that because, in some of these, we can use the homophones to show or illustrate

  • the difference.

  • So, let's do the first one, here.

  • "One" and "won".

  • If you noticed, E had a problem with: "I won the race?", "I one the race?"

  • To be honest, once again, it's a homophone; the sound is exactly the same, but the context

  • will tell us what the difference is.

  • "One" is clearly number one.

  • I have one friend - a number.

  • But when I won a race, because it's a competition, I can go: "Oh, it's 'won'."

  • That's our first homophone.

  • We did number one; let's look at number two.

  • Because I'm smart like that, I did "two" and "to".

  • In this case, "two", the number two - you know it?

  • Right?

  • One, two, three.

  • We have another "to", this one, here, which can be used both in an infinitive form and

  • a preposition.

  • Examples.

  • "I want to buy" is an infinitive form.

  • "We're going to the store".

  • Right?

  • We can use that as a preposition "to"...

  • "To" or "from", when we're using it like that.

  • And this one I like as well: "too", "t-o-o".

  • I say this is what we call there's too many o's or it's excessive in English.

  • Meaning that it's more than you want.

  • An example is: "It's too...

  • My coffee is too hot; I cannot drink it."

  • Cool?

  • All right.

  • That's the number "two".

  • Notice the homophone?

  • They all sound the same.

  • So, if you're going: "Well, why is he teaching us?"

  • It's just so you know, when you see these words, do not change how you say them; the

  • pronunciation is the same, but know when you're writing them or in the sentence you're saying

  • them...

  • Well, when you're writing it down, because that's what we're really looking at - it should

  • be written differently for different instances.

  • This is for the number, this is for the preposition or infinitive, and this is for excessive - when

  • something's too much.

  • "This costs too much money; more than I want to pay."

  • Cool?

  • Now let's go to number three: "your" and "you're".

  • These are different.

  • I know a lot of students have a problem; they go: "Teacher, it's the same."

  • Well, this is possessive.

  • This is a possessive pronoun: "Your car".

  • All right?

  • "Your house".

  • Well, when we're looking at this, this is a contraction for "you are".

  • "You're looking good today.

  • You're a nice guy."

  • Okay?

  • So, we've got a possessive and a contraction, here.

  • Different.

  • In this case: "brake" and "break".

  • Some of you may not know what this means, so I'll explain it.

  • "Brake".

  • In your car, you have a brake, which is you press the gas - you're driving; and to slow

  • the car down, you put your foot on the other one - the other pedal, which is a brake.

  • So, if you have a pedal...

  • I don't know if you can see my foot.

  • I'm pushing...

  • Pushing the brake.

  • Think Flintstones.

  • You're running your car, and then you need to stop - you put your foot down.

  • "Ennh!"

  • You put on the brakes.

  • That means to stop.

  • While this one, "to break" is like: I broke it.

  • You can break an arm, break a glass, break a leg - if you're in the movie industry.

  • Okay?

  • So, they sound the same, once again, but they're written different...

  • Differently, so you have to listen to the context.

  • "Did you break the glass?", "Put on the brakes.

  • We're driving too fast."

  • Number three.

  • Oh, sorry, that was number six.

  • I'm jumping around, because I'm all over the board.

  • But let's go to number four: "bear" and "bare".

  • "The bear is in the woods today - doo-doo-doo-doo-doo.

  • Arrr!

  • Bear."

  • If you speak English and you're wondering about this lesson - I know, but hopefully

  • that makes you smile because that's, like, an old-time memory of yours.

  • All right?

  • Okay.

  • So, "bear".

  • Bear is in the woods; it's an animal.

  • Now, "bare", like my arms.

  • "Ooo.

  • Rown, rown", means nothing is there; nothing is on it.

  • An example: If you go to the refrigerator and there is no food in your refrigerator,

  • your refrigerator is bare; it's empty - nothing is there.

  • When I go in the shower, I go bare naked; I have no clothes on.

  • Don't even think about it.

  • Stop thinking about me naked.

  • Actually, that might make you sick.

  • You should stop immediately.

  • But that's "bear" and "bare" sound exactly the same, but context makes them different.

  • Okay?

  • Now, let's go over here, I'll go to five.

  • Finally, number five: "weather" and "whether".

  • "Weather", is it sunny?

  • Is it raining?

  • "Whether": Whether you like it or not.

  • Think of "if".

  • That's not the best example, I'm not going to go into a long explanation for "whether",

  • here, but you can liken it...

  • Or, sorry.

  • You can think it's similar to the word "if".

  • "If you like it or not.

  • Whether you like it or not, we're going..."

  • Sorry.

  • "Whether you like it or not, we're going to go."

  • All right?

  • "Whether I speak too quickly or not, you still have to learn this lesson."

  • That's why I said sorry; I was going too fast.

  • But in this case, as I said, context will help you.

  • It doesn't matter if you say: "The weather is nice" or "Whether he helped you or not"