字幕列表 影片播放 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 In the last episode of Down the Rabbit Hole, we discussed what would happen if we had no 在上一集〈掉進無底洞〉，我們討論如果沒有情緒會發生什麼事。 emotions. 在本集，讓我們一看關於情緒如何產生的驚人事實。 In this episode, I'd like to talk about the surprising truth about how emotions are 目前有很多解釋情緒如何生成的理論，但這裡我只集中討論其中一個： made. 由麗莎・費德曼·巴瑞特博士提出的情緒建構論。 There are many theories of emotion, but I'm just going to be discussing one: the theory 我想你會覺得這個理論很有趣、反直覺，且很重要， of constructed emotion which was coined by Dr. Lisa Feldman Barrett. 你將再也不會用相同方式去看待情緒。 I think you'll find that this theory is interesting, unintuitive, and important; you'll 或許，開啟這個話題最好的方式是從大腦說起。 never look at emotion the same way again. 大腦演化來為身體服務 Without further hesitation, let's just keep on jumping into it. 你的身體裡充滿許多需要被平衡和保持在健康範圍內的資源。 Perhaps, the best place to start is with the brain. 巴瑞特博士創造了一個貼切的字詞來表示：「身體預算」 The brain evolved to serve the body. 你的身體需要為前述資源維持健康的預算，你才能生存 You body is full of resources that need to be balanced and kept in a healthy range. 與茁壯。 Dr. Barrett coins a useful term here: body-budget. 任何在你身體預算裡的改變，都會喚起你的一些基本感覺 Your body needs to maintain a healthy budget of these resources, so you can survive and 叫做「情感」 thrive. 情感與情緒不同 Anytime there is change in your body budget, some basic feelings will arise within you 情感只有兩個面向，效價和喚起程度。 called affect. 你可以感受愉快或不愉快； Affect is different from emotion. 高喚起或低喚起，換句話說，平靜或激動。 It only has two-dimensions: valence and arousal. 正向影響你身體預算的事物會讓你感受良好。 You can feel pleasant or unpleasant. 負面影響你身體預算的事物則讓你感到不快。 Aroused or unaroused; in other words, calm or agitated. 再說一次，這是「情感」而非情緒。 Things that impact your body budget in a positive way make you feel good. 情感是意識的一部份，而我們為什麼會感受到情感仍然是個科學謎題。 Things that impact your body budget in a negative way make you feel bad. 你不是生下來就知道如何控制自己的身體預算。 Again, this is affect and not emotion. 而是從身為嬰兒時，開始學習控制 Affect is a part of being conscious, and the reason we feel it is still a scientific mystery. 我們的大腦建構關於世界的模型，是立基於我們過去的經驗， You're not born with the knowledge of how to control your body budget. 那些幫助我們調節自我的經驗 You begin learning this as a baby. 這是一個重點：我們建構的世界模型是預測的， Our brains construct models of the world, based on our past experiences, that help us 而非反應的。 regulate ourselves. 你的大腦的運作方式是「預測→修正」，而非「刺激→反應」。 Now, here's a very important point: our models of the world are predictive — not 根據巴瑞特博士和其他科學家，預測比反應更加有效率、可適應。 reactive. 你的大腦不只預測外部世界發生的事， Your brain is governed by prediction -> correction, not stimulus -> response. 它也預測在你裡面發生的事。 According to Barrett and other scientists, prediction is a lot more efficient and adaptive 大腦要在你完全脫水前讓你感到口渴， than reaction. 它要讓你在懸崖邊時感到恐懼，而非等到你已經墜落的時候(才感受恐懼)。 Your brain doesn't just predict what's happening in the external world — it also 你過去的經驗會構成你的模型。 predicts what's going on inside of you. 你的模型是為了調節你的身體預算而造。 A brain should make you feel thirsty before you're completely dehydrated; it should 你的模型在每分每秒預測這世上什麼事正要發生 make you feel afraid at the ledge of the cliff, and not when you've already fallen off. 理想上，如果預測出錯，你的大腦會更新自己的模型 Your past experiences make up your model. 根據它的預測，它會調整你的身體預算並讓你感受到一些情感。 Your model is made to regulate your body budget. 而這跟情緒有什麼關係？ Your model predicts what's going to happen in the world at every moment. 你關於世界的模型是由概念或種類組成。 Ideally, if the prediction is wrong, then your brain will update its model. 概念模型的靈活性非常驚人。 Based on its prediction, it will modify your body budget and make you feel some affect. 你可以合併舊有概念來組成新概念。 Where does emotion come into this? 雖然我沒見過任何一個，但我能組合一個鱷魚、一條蛇、一隻巨大的鳥，和火 Your model of the world is made up of concepts or categories. 來想像出一個新的生物：龍 This conceptual model is incredibly flexible. 概念如何組合是根據我們的個人目標 You can combine old concepts to make new concepts. 而非固定不變的 Even though I've never seen one, I can combine an alligator, with a snake, with a large bird, 舉例來說，假設我的目標是壓住紙堆。 with fire to imagine a new creature: a dragon. 現在我要尋找的是能當紙鎮的東西。 Concepts come together based on our goals as individuals. 從字面上來看，任何有足夠重量的東西都能當紙鎮：一個石頭， They are not static things. 一個花瓶，一個電腦，一個人，以此類推。 For example, let's say that my goal was to hold down a stack of papers. 巴瑞特博士說，情緒是我們依據過往經驗建構的目標本位概念。 Now, I have to look for things that can be a paperweight. 假設有人超你的車， Literally anything with a sufficient amount of weight can serve as a paperweight: a rock, 你建構出什麼情緒，是根據你大腦預測在你之外、在你裡面有什麼事情正在發生， a vase, a computer, a person, so on and so forth. 和你的目標是什麼。 Dr. Barrett says that emotions are goal-based concepts that we construct based on our past 如果你預測那個人試圖傷害你或不把你當一回事， experiences. 你的身體預算會改變，你將會感受到激動的情感，並因想要表達「我很重要」的目標 Let's say that someone cuts you off in traffic. 而按下喇叭。 The emotion you construct will depend on what your brain predicts is happening outside of 你建構了生氣的情緒。 you, inside of you, and what your goal is. 然而，如果你預測那個人在趕去醫院的路上，你的身體預算會改變， If you predict that someone tried to hurt you or didn't value your life, your body 你會保持平靜，且你會因著希望那個人順利通過的目標而慢下來 budget will change, you'll feel an agitated affect, and you will honk the horn with the 你建構了同理或同情的情緒。 goal of saying, “I MATTER!”. 用巴特瑞博士的話來說，「情緒是行動的處方籤」 You've constructed the emotion of anger. 情緒是我們應如何行動以達成目標的預測。 However, if you predict that the person is on their way to the hospital, your body budget 這些預測建立在過去的經驗，是我們建構的概念。 will change, you'll stay calm, and you'll slow down with the goal of letting the person 情緒有很多不同類型是我們可以感受和如何被表達的。 who cut you off travel effectively. 最終，這代表我們要對我們如何建構自己關於世界的概念模型負責。 You've constructed the emotion of sympathy or empathy. 因為這些概念模型會控制我們的預測。 In Dr. Barrett's words, “[emotions] are a prescription for action”. 我們將會在之後的影片討論這個主題。 Emotions are predictions about how we should act in order to achieve a goal. 你可能會覺得這個想法在一開始很難掌握。 These predictions are based on past experiences, and they are concepts that we construct. 畢竟它很新且反直覺。 There is a lot of variation in the types of emotions we can feel and how they are expressed. 但，這個科學理論有很多證據支持。 Ultimately, this means that we are responsible for how we construct our conceptual model 而這個理論對社會帶來很多重要的意義。 of the world because this will control our predictions. 如果你想了解更確切及詳細的理論內容，我強力推薦你閱讀巴瑞特博士的書： We'll talk about this in a future video. 《情緒跟你以為的不一樣》 You might find this idea hard to grasp at first. 我會在說明中放上連結。（台灣有出中文版） It's pretty new and unintuitive. 謝謝觀看，我們下次再見！ But, this is a scientific theory with a lot of evidence to support it. It also has important implications for society. If you really want a more accurate and detailed understanding of the theory, I highly recommend reading Dr. Barrett's book on the topic: How Emotions Are Made. I've put a link in the description. As always, thanks for watching, and I'll see you next time!